10 Commandments of Logic

TLW's Logical Fallacy Lessons

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: Apr. 13, 2020. Last Update: June 12, 2022.

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For historyscoping and other purposes, you should be sure you're familiar with the main logical fallacies incl.

Affirming the consequent (converse error) (confusion of necessity and sufficiency) (if P then Q -> if Q then P),
Argumentum ad nauseam (argument by repetition) ("point refuted a thousand times"),
Argumentum ad baculum (appeal to force/the stick) (believe it or else),
Argumentum ad consequentiam (appeal to consequences) (subjective appeal),
Argumentum ad hominem (appealing to the person),
Argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to false/inappropriate authority),
Argumentum ad logicum (argument from fallacy) (argument to logic) (the fallacy or fallacist's fallacy) (bad resons fallacy),
Argumentum ad misericordiam (appeal to pity),
Argumentum ad populum (appeal to the people),
Begging the question (circular reasoning) (petitio principii),
Bulverism (assuming that the opponent is wrong without proving it),
Causal reductionism (reduction fallacy) (fallacy of the single cause),
Confirmation bias,
Conjunction fallacy (specific conditions more probable than single general one),
Conspiracist ideation,
Cum hoc ergo propter hoc (with this therefore because of this),
Denying the antecedent (inverse error) (fallacy of the inverse) (p -> Q therefore not P -> not Q),
Equivocation (using the same term in different ways),
Fallacy of composition (truth of the whole inferred from truth of a part),
Fallacy of division (truth for a whole -> truth of a part),
False dichotomy/dilemma (either/or excluding valid alternatives),
Identity fallacy (the physical or social identity is used to rule their argument out),
Ignorato elenchi (ignoring refutation) irrelevant conclusion) (missing the point),
Jingle-jangle fallacy (false identity based on same names or false dichotomy based on different names),
Masked-man (intentional) (epistemic) fallacy (confusing knowledge of an object with the object itself),
Mathematical fallacy (elaborate but spurious proofs, e.g. hiding division by zero),
Misleading/Distorted/Deceptive graph fallacy,
Non sequitur (formal or deductive fallacy),
No True Scotsman fallacy,
Petitio principii (begging the question),
Plurium interrogationum (many questions) (loaded question),
Post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this therefore because of this),
Red herring (Rubeum allec),
Reification (concretism) (hypostatization) (misplaced concreteness),
Relative privation (comparing a scenario to the best or worst case),
Slippery slope (assuming that minor action leads to major action),
Sophism (specious argument used for deception),
Straw man (argumentum ad logicam) (refuting a caricature of the argument),
Suppressing evidence (cherry picking),
Tu quoque (Lat. "you too") (appeal to hypocrisy),
Unfalsifiability (must take on faith).

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© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.