Two Scorpions in a Bottle Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming Polar Bear on Melting Ice Floe 'How to Survive the Coming Ice Age' fake Time mag. cover, 2007 Greenhouse Gas Theory Busted
John Dalton (1766-1844) Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) John Tyndall (1820-93) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906) Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928) G.S. Callendar (1898-1964) Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) Roger Revelle (1909-91)

TLW's Climatescope™ (Climate Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: May 30, 2018. Last Update: July 14, 2024.

Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) Carl Sagan (1934-96) Jim Kasting (1953-) Minik Rosing Hockey Stick Graph Michael E. Mann (1965-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-)
Lord Christopher Monckton (1952-) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-2020) Tim Ball (1938-2022) James Edward Hansen (1941-) James Hoggan (1946-) Fritz Vahrenholt (1949-) Sebastian Lüning (1970-) Steve McIntyre (1947-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)
Bill Nye (1955-) and Marc Morano (1968-) H. Jay Zwally Gregory Wrightstone William Happer (1939-) Harrison H. Schmitt (1935-) Christiana Figueres of Costa Rica (1956- Naomi Oreskes (1958-) Joe Bastardi (1955-) Anthony Watts (1958-)

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This historyscope has 5,700+ hyperlinks including 1,600+ Wikipedia links plus 1000+ YouTube links.

Quick Jump Table

-4,600,000,000 -1,000,000,000 -100,000,000 -1,000,000 -500,000 -400,000 -300,000 -4,004 1 1000 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1988 1990 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023

What Is A Historyscope?

TLW's Climate Quotes

TLW's Logical Fallacy Lessons

Global Temperatures 500 Million Years Ago
Global Temperatures 2500 B.C. to 2040 A.D.
Deep Sea Sediment Core Climate Cycles
Historical Chart of Atmospheric CO2

CO2 Over Last 800K Years
Weight of CO2 in Earth's Atmosphere
Greenland GISP2 Ice Core - Last 10,000 Years Interglacial Temperature
Climate Warm Periods

Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Earth's climate and Earth's climate history along with the history of climate change science and the great debate on anthropogenic global warming (AGW) (anthropogenic climate change) incl. radiative (climate) forcing. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

"For over 180 years scientists have been demonstrating that increased atmospheric CO2 causes global temperature increase. Among them, Joseph Fourier in 1824 and 1827; Eunice Foote in 1856; John Tyndall in 1859; Svante Arrhenius in 1896; C.J. Fox in 1909; John Henry Poynting in 1909; A. Angstron in 1918; Chamberlain and Fowle in 1916; Alexander Graham Bell in 1917; E.O. Hulburt in 1931; S.G. Callendar in 1937; Professor Gilbert Plass in 1956; Carl Sagan in 1972; Stephen Hawking in 1960; Isaac Asimov in 1968; Wally Broecker in 1975; Richard Feynman and 'The Jasons' in 1979; and over 660 science organization in 35 countries with one dissent." - David Rice. If you believe that without question I've got some swampland in Florida to sell you.

The climate change industry is currently a $22B/year to $1.5T/year enterprise, depending on whom you talk to, the higher figure amounting to $4B/day, the same spent on online retail sales. Right now the global warming scientists and climate skeptic scientists are divided into two hardened camps who don't talk to each other. At least the skeptics regularly look at the other side's publications, because they can't avoid them, but the establishment-backed-and-funded warmists have their minds locked in cages, unwilling or unable to seriously consider the skeptics' publications. Whoever you are, if you would like to know enough to decide for yourself if this expenditure is justified, this is the best historyscope on Earth's climate and climate science ever created, worthy of serious study, and really the only place to study the subject seriously with equal consideration given to both/all sides. No, it doesn't attempt to solve the science, but to chronicle the efforts to solve the science, with plenty of hyperlinks to explore the details for yourself. Yes, supergeneralist pansophist master of science & technology TLW has an opinion after all this research, his two cents worth, see the end of the file for the link.

Note to newbies: This isn't just another Internet blog article, it's a Historyscope, an intensive online course for people who want to know it all. not just bits and pieces. A production of the awesome astounding power of the Historyscoper, containing thousands of embedded hyperlinks and hundreds of YouTube links to relevant sources, requiring long hours of serious study to be absorbed fact-by-fact, turning each weakness into a strength, with the comfort that you know that when you're done you're on top of the whole subject better than even the so-called experts in the field who didn't study it. It's important to click all the hyperlinks and at least scan them to give you a 3-D vision into history. Ditto the embedded YouTube videos, try listening to them while you're reading. Caveat: It's subject to change at any time, so refresh your browser before each study session. Is this propaganda? Heck no, it's education. Since a Historyscoper takes the cool impassioned view of what events will look like 500 years from now, this Historyscope presents all sides and lets the readers decide what to get passionate about; nothing is censored. If you've already made up your mind then at least don't lock it in a cage, open the door to new information and try to keep up with my other students and don't fall behind and be called a piker. Take this journey with me and go from probably knowing next to nothing about this subject to knowing everything worth knowing, and become a Climate Historyscoper. Note: Don't take TLW's word for anything, go ahead and click the sources first. TLW's personal comments and wisecracks are set off in italics and may be ignored, although they can be quite instructive and educational. :)


The weather outside is frightful, but the fire inside is so delightful? Do You Wonder What the Mother Earth Was Like During Its Birth? Was it born from Father Sun in the Milky Way after a zillion lucky coincidences, I hope you're lucky, you gotta have a lot of faith sucka, my very educated mother just sent us nine pizzas, er, mini-pizzas?

The Earth The Solar System

About 4.6B B.C.E. the Cryptic Era begins; the Solar System, incl. the Earth (-4.54B?) and solar planets is formed from the Sun's accretion disk anywhere from 10M to 100M after the Sun begins nuking; that is, if it's really that old. The Earth and Moon are created from the Big Splat between two planets the size of Mars and Venus 30M-150M years after the formation of the Solar System?; the Moon is created when a Mars-sized object crashes into Earth, probably a sister planet?; the Moon is created after Earth turns into a vaporized rock synestia?; the Moon is created by a nuclear explosion on Earth?; massive impactors during the final phase of formation of the Earth, Moon, and Mars deliver highly siderophile (metal-loving) elements incl. gold and platinum?; the oceans formed 11M after the Solar System? Jupiter is formed near the "snow line" (4 AU), acting as a meteor and comet magnet, protecting the Privileged Plant Earth, which is 25K mi. in dia., and which light can only circle 7x/sec. Bible fundamentalists claim that the Earth is only 6K or 40K years old, based on counting the genealogies back to Adam, plus some hand-waving arguments about "days of creation". In a curious mixed metaphor, scientists call the initial phase of the lifeless Earth the Hadean Eon, a swirling ball of molten metal and rock with a giant vapor cloud instead of oceans; it takes 700M-800M years to cool enough for water to condense from a Venus-like atmosphere?


The Moon The Moon The Big Whack?

About 4.51B B.C.E. only 50M (20M-100M?) years after the Earth is formed, it gets into the Big Whack (Splat) (Theia Impact), an impact with the Mars-sized planet Theia (named after the mother of Selene, goddesss of the Moon) producing zillions of moonlets, which coalesce by -4.51B to -4.37B to form the Moon, which ever-so luckily stabilizes Earth's axis of rotation so that life can exist; Mercury loses much of its mantle, and the direction of Venus' rotation reverses; both the Earth and the Moon develop a core, mantle, and surface crust layer.

About 4.5B B.C.E. after chemical reactions involving iron in the magma oceans, the young Earth's mantle becomes richer in oxygen and begins emitting CO2 and H2O into the oxygen-poor atmosphere. The Last Universal Common Ancestor of all cellular life forms on Earth arises, from which 1B years later emerge the eubacteria and archaebacteria; eukaryotes arise from the eubacteria.

Purple Rain by Prince Man in the Moon

About 4.4B B.C.E. the Purple Rain (from the zircons that form) of comets and/or asteroids greater than 100 km in dia. begins on Earth and the Moon (ends -3.9B); the mares are formed on the Moon, creating the plains of solidified lava forming the Man in the Moon; each impact on Earth vaporizes the oceans and conveniently sterilizes any existing life (incl. the gods on Mount Olympus?) while reforming the Earth's surface, furnishing it with most of its life-essential elements incl. carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur; the intense heat creates an underground habitat where single cell "unboilable bacteria" thrive, according to Oleg Abramov et al. of the U. of Colo. in 2009. Between comets, does Earth actually get cool enough (100 C) for liquid water to form? The Four Legos of Life, the first primordial peptides are formed?

About 4B B.C.E. the Sun rotates 10x faster than today, generating a stronger magnetic field and sunspot activity, incl. several hundred times as much UV and X-ray radiation. About 4B B.C.E. the Faint Young Sun Paradox (70% intense as in modern times), pub. in 1972 by Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen tries to explain why the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 35%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%. Venus forms basalt continents and Mars forms shield volcanoes, with neither having differentiation or plate tectonics; Venus goes into a runaway greenhouse effect and loses water?; Mars loses its CO2 quickly and becomes too cold for liquid water and goes into permanent deep-freeze, whether or not it once had oceans?; Mars and Venus end up as the only two other Solar System planets with CO2 atmospheres - the soda pop planets? Eat your heart out, Ray Bradbury? As the bombardment slows, the Earth stabilizes and cools, and its surface becomes resurfaced for the last time and solidifies, the crust differentiates into the earliest felsic crust (first continents), and the initial atmosphere outgasses; a heavy rain floods the surface, forming the deep highly alkaline Archaean (Archean) (Soda) Ocean (Sea) by -3.9B, according to S. Kempe and E.T. Degens (1985), causing the thioredoxin enzymes to be developed, which are chemically stable at temps up to 58F (32C)?.

About 3.8B B.C.E. the first water-related sediments on Earth are found.

About 3.5B B.C.E. the Isuan Era (begun -3.8B) ends, and the Swazian Era of the Archean Eon begins (ends -2.8B); the oldest known oceanic crust is formed. Earth's strong magnetic field begins to decrease as the core nucleates (ends -2.8B). The earliest known fossil cells are from complex mat-forming microbial communities in W Australia that leave Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures (MISS); the Big Bang of Life occurs as two different prokaryote genomes fuse into a eukaryote genome in yeast within the next 2B years?

About 3.4B B.C.E. the first photosynthetic bacteria appear on Earth, absorbing near-infrared rather than visible light and producing sulfurous compounds; their pigments are predecessors to chlorophyll. The oldest fossilized single-cell organisms date to this era; they are anerobic bacteria.

About 3.2B B.C.E. the Earth has its first tides, and the lunar month is only 20 days, while the Earth year is 550 days. The Earth has a global ocean?

About 2.8B B.C.E. the Swazian Era ends, and the Randian Era of the Hadean Eon begins in South Africa (ends -2.45B), when life gets randy and cyanobacteria begin photosynthesis using visible light, which releases CO2 into the atmosphere. The Earth's magnetic field stops its decline.

About 2.7B B.C.E. there is barely enough CO2 in the atmosphere to compensate for the faint young Sun, along with significant amounts of greenhouse gases incl. methane; Earth's atmosphere is really rich in CO2?

About 2.45B B.C.E. the Great Oxidation Event (Crisis) (Catastrophe) (Holocaust) (Revolution) sees the appearance of photosynthesis cause a sudden rise in oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere as oxygen-producing cyanobacteria in shallow waters crank it up; they were preceded by manganese-oxidizing photosynthesis?; the collective genome undergoes an expansion, bringing 27% of all modern gene families into existence; the rise of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere consumes atmospheric greenhouse gas methane, creating CO2 and chilling the Earth, causing the Earth's First Ice Age; pillow basalt lavas delay it even though the Sun's energy is 20% weaker than in modern times.

About 2.4B B.C.E. the Randian Era (begun -2.8B) ends, and the Huronian Era (Glaciation) begins (ends -2.1B) after the rise of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere consumes atmospheric greenhouse gas methane, creating less powerful greenhouse gas CO2 and chilling the Earth, becoming Earth's first and longest ice age, causing a mass extinction of the simple unicellular life on Earth; the first permafrost is created; pillow basalt lavas delay it even though the Sun's energy is 20% weaker than in modern times.

About 2.23B B.C.E. the 43.5 mi. diam. Yarrabubba Impact Structure in Western Australia is the oldest known meteorite structure on Earth; it lands on Snowball Earth and helps ends it?

About 2.2B B.C.E. a huge asteroid collides with Snowball Earth, ending it?

About 1.4B B.C.E. atmospheric CO2 levels on Earth are 10x-200x greater than modern levels (7% vs. 0.35%).

About 1.1B B.C.E. the supercontinent of Rodinia (Russ. "to give birth") emerges, causing land to cover 30% of the Earth's surface instead of only 5%; it ends up being surrounded by the single Iapetus Ocean in the S Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia by -600M; the Grenville Orogeny causes the Laurentian Mts. to be formed.


About 1B B.C.E. the Helikian Era (begun -1.65B) ends, and the Neoproterozoic Era begins (ends -541M); supercontinent Rodinia breaks up after plunging into a snowball state with ice-covered oceans from pole to pole; oxygen builds up in the atmosphere, along with the ozone layer, permitting terrestrial life; the number of eukaryotic species burgeons; the first Earth land life appears in the form of a biocrust of bacteria - try Head On, if it doesn't work we'll give you your money back?

About 850M B.C.E. the Hadrynian (Vendian) Era of the Neoproterozoic Era of the Precambrian Time begins in North Am. (ends -542M). About this time supercontinent Rodinia breaks up after plunging into a snowball state with ice-covered oceans from pole to pole; oxygen builds up in the atmosphere, along with the ozone layer, permitting terrestrial life; the number of eukaryotic species burgeons; the first Earth land life appears in the form of a biocrust of bacteria - try Head On, if it doesn't work we'll give you your money back?

About 800M B.C.E. changes begin in Earth's oxidizing atmosphere begin to lock away phosphorus, reducing phytoplankton growth and oxygen release, turning the atmosphere ferruginous (iron-rich). equatorial ice sheets exist on Earth, indicating a high angle of Earth tilt before the Moon exerts full control; the Moon just happens to keep the Earth from wobbling from 0-85 deg. over time, causing the regular change of seasons which keep temperatures in the livable range, and provide for rain; the Moon just happens to be relatively larger than the moons of the giant planets, and serves as a useful light by night - score one zillion for God or Chance? The earliest Antarctic ice core records of CO2.

About 781M B.C.E. the Brunhes Matuyama Reversal sees the Earth's magnetic field undergo geomagnetic reversal within the space of a human lifetime, becoming one of 83 reversals from 83M B.C.E. to modern times; scientists predict the next one in the next cent., killing communications satellites and allowing cosmic rays to bombard Earth.

About 750M B.C.E. the supercontinent of Rodinia begins to separate into Euramerica, Siberia, and the largest, Gondwana (Gondwanaland), composed of modern-day South Am., Africa, S Europe, a large portion of the Middle East, India, Australia, New Zealand, and much of Antarctica; it extends from the low N latitudes to the high S latitudes; its index fossil is the Glossopteris; as a land bridge it allows manatees to migrate to W Africa, the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, and lemurs to Africa, Madagascar and India; they really reached Magadascar via rafting? The Neoproterozoic period, Earth's 2nd Ice Age sees a Snowball Earth (end -550M) covered by a series of global ice sheets, making it a giant snowball subject to a runaway albedo effect, according to Paul F. Hoffman et al. in 1998.

About 720M B.C.E. the Tonian Period ends, and the Cryogenian Period of the Neoproterozoic Era begins (ends -635M), seeing the Sturtian Glaciation (named after Sturt River Gorge in South Australia) and the Marinoan Glaciation (named after Marino near Adelaide, South Australia), the two greatest ice ages in Earth history, creating either a Snowball Earth or Slushball Earth (band of open sea near the equator); global avg. temp is 5C; CO2 level is 1300 ppm; O2 is 60% of modern level; the end of the glaciation releases methane from equatorial permafrost; glacial meltwater provides oxygen to eukaryotes? Watch video.

Until 700M B.C.E. Venus was habitable?

About 650M B.C.E. the global Marinoan Glaciation begins (ends -635M); Snowball Earth sees Earth's surface become entirely frozen; really just a Slushball Earth with a thin equatorial band of seasonally open water?

About 635M B.C.E. the Cryogenian Period (begun -720M) begins, and the Ediacaran Period, the last period of the Hadrynian Neoproterozoic Era of the Precambrian Time begins (ends -543M/-541M); added in Mar. 2004, becoming the first new period added in 120 years. The Cambrian continents begin to come back together in the Pan-African Orogeny, forming the supercontinent of Pannotia, with a Himalayan-size (2.5km long) mountain range spanning W Africa and NE Brazil sustaining a life explosion.

About 550M B.C.E. atmospheric oxygen on Earth rises from 3% to the modern-day level of 21%, causing complex multicellular animal life to arise; carbon dioxide (CO2) atmospheric concentration is 7K ppm, about 20x modern-day levels. The supercontinent of Pannotia begins breaking up into Laurentia (North Am.), Baltica (N Europe), Siberia, Avalonia (E U.S. to W Europe); Laurasia (-335M) (North Am., Europe, Asia, Greeland, Iceland), and the biggest, Gondwana, which incl. modern-day China, India, Africa, South Am., Australia, and Antarctica; she supercontinent of Gondwana undergoes a 60-degree rotation; the Iapetus Ocean now lies between Laurentia, Baltica, and Avalonia.

Car 54 Jehovah, where are you? Now which triangle is big, Mister Pockets? Is that a trilobite in your pocket, or are you just happy to see me? Working, working up a fast sweat in the o-zone? The family that plays together stays together? Oxygen in the air makes new big living things explode on sea and land in the combinatorial Cambrian Explosion? God's living Windows (Mac?) operating system size jumps from gigabyte to tetrabyte, er, trilobyte, er, trilobite?

Where is everybody, peek-a-boo? What do I want to do when I grow up? Pooped camels often sit down carefully, perhaps their joints creak pretty easily, or maybe popped in place recently with a hollow ring: Precambrian [6500M], Cambrian [600M], Ordovician [500B], Silurian [425M], Devonian [400M], Carboniferous [360M], Permian [280M], Triassic [230M], Jurassic [180M], Cretaceous [135M], Paleocene [65M], Eocene [55M], Oligocene [35M], Miocene [25M], Pliocene [10M], Pleistocene [600K], Recent or Holocene [12K]?

The Original One Billion Served? It takes 4 billion years for Earth to evolve past single-celled life and start cooking Kentucky Plucked Chicken O'Fergus (Kingdom, Phyllum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) (King Philip Can Only Fight Giant Squids), ending in Big MacUs?

Lighting-Fast Cambrian Explosion? Trilobite Graptolite Brachiopods Conodont Annelids Sea Squirt Ctenophore Echinoderm Molluscs Sponges Foraminifera Radiolarian Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873)

The breath of life really blows? About 540M B.C.E. the Hadrynian Era (begun -1B) ends; the 500M-year Precambrian Eon ends along with the (Late) Precambrian Era along with the Ediacaran Period (begun -600M), and the lightning fast (55.6M-year) Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era of the Phanerozoic (Present) Eon begins (ends -500M); named after the Cambrian (Welsh "Cymru" = Wales") Mts. of Wales by British geologist Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) (who carried a lucky trilobite in his pocket, or was he just happy to see me?), who divided the period into Lower, Middle, and Upper based on the presence of Olenellus, Paradoxides and Olenus trilobites; the Earth now has the Western Interior Seaway and the Hudson Seaway, shallow seas covering parts of continents, and the modern-day continent of North Am. has two big inland seas, one on the E, where the large mountainous island of Appalachia (modern-day E seaboard of the U.S. and Canada) exists, and the other on the W, where the large mountainous island (peninsula?) of Cascadia (modern-day Alaska, British Columbia, Wash., Ore., N Calif.) exists; the ozone layer and atmosphere are developed sufficiently to permit a Cambrian Explosion (Radiation) of thousands of new species (incl. all the modern phyla or basic body plans); the first animals with egg, sperm, embryo, and blastula appear; Saccorhytus coronarius, with a large mouth and no anus is the first living creature?; hard-shelled arthropods appear, the most abundant being the 1-18-in.-long (usually 1-4) swimming, bottom-feeding, 3-lobed trilobites with gills, walking legs, and crescent-shaped eyes (distantly related to the modern horseshoe crab), also coelenterates (with stingers), graptolites (colonial organisms with a skeleton of tough chitinlike material), small, mollusc-like, shelled brachiopods (lampshells), conodonts (cone teeth), annelids (segmented worms), chordates (sea squirts), ctenophores (comb-bearers), echinoderms (starfish), molluscs, sponges; also foraminifera (single-shelled protists with shells), dinomastigotes, radiolarians; it was really caused by big changes in global plate tectonics?; it was caused by a cascade of events, according to Paul Smith of Oxford U. and David Harper of Durham U - this Instant Powdered Life in the Murky Mud seems so hokey that to prohibit the teaching of alternates to Darwinian Evolutionary Theory in public schools seems like brainwashing, and parents should pull their kids out in protest?

About 485.4M B.C.E. the Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era (begun -541M) ends, and the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -443.8M); atmosphic CO2 concentration drops to 4K ppm, going from a greenhouse climate (113F or 45C ocean temps) to 72F, then rapidly rising to 4.5K ppm, with global avg. temps dropping to modern-day temps (60F) about -460M to a million-year ice age.

About 450M B.C.E. the Andean-Saharan Glacian in West Africa, Morocco, and WC Arabia begins (ends -420M), migrating to the S Amazon and Andes.

Myriapods Eurypterid Xiphosurid Scorpion Placoderm Lycopod Rhyniophyte Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871)

About 443.8M B.C.E. the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Silurian Period of the Paleozoic Era (ends -419M), named after the Silures tribe in SE Wales in 1835 by British geologist Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871) begins, with high, warm seas; the major continental plates begin to move together; the mountain system in the S of the Iberian Peninsula is located alongside the Alps; the Late Ordovician Glaciation, centered in the Sahara region sees ocean temps 5C cooler than modern-day temps; either the drop in sea level and/or a comet causes the Ordovician-Silurian Extinction Events, the first mass-extinction episode of life on Earth, and 85% of the species become extinct, making room for shelled cephalopods to spread and coral reefs to build in far N seas; great mountains are formed in NW Europe, and another range on a NW-SE line through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and New England by the Taconian Disturbance in the island continent of Appalachia lying between the Atlantic Ocean and an inland sea, causing volcanism in the area of Maine, New Brunswick and Quebec, forming deposits up to 2 mi. thick; later the highlands erode and deposit detritus over E Penn. and SE N.Y.; trilobites begin to decline, and seaweed becomes the dominant plant life; sponges and corals flourish; brachiopods and crustaceans dominate on land; the beginning of widespread air-breathing life on land, incl. myriapods (centipedes and millipedes) and semi-aquatic eurypterids (sea scorpions) (largest known athropods), xiphosurids (horseshoe crabs), scorpions; brachiopods predominate in the sea; jawed fishes incl. placoderms appear; jawless fish live in fresh water, and can't survive without shallow seas?; appearance of the first small land vascular plants (tracheophytes), incl. lycopods and rhyniophytes (rhyniophytina) (Paratracheophytes) with fungi in plant roots.

About 438M B.C.E. atmospheric CO2 concentration drops to 3K ppm, while global avg. temps shoot up to 72F.

About 400M B.C.E. the year is 400 days, the Moon is closer than it is now and the Earth is spinning faster. The appearance of vascular plants (tracheophytes) and large predatory fish coincide with increased oxygen levels; the first fires appear?

About 360M B.C.E. the Karoo Ice Age (Late Paleozoic Icehouse) (named after the Karoo Basin in South Africa) begins (ends -260M), causing contintel glaciers over much of Gondwana. Despite the first vertebrates crawling from water to land, the Late Devonian Kellwasser Event, the 2nd mass extinction of life on Earth occurs, wiping out 80% of species, mostly marine, incl. most of the fish, caused by a comet impact in the ocean; ostracoderms and placoderms (the first fishes) become extinct. Amphibians are the first tetrapods to evolve from fish ancestors; the Hangenberg Event, an anoxic period in the late Devonian marked by black shale causes Romer's Gap of about 15M years, which is almost devoid of tetrapods, named in 1995 after Am. paleontologist Alfred Sherwood Romer (1894-1973), who thought that fish developed limbs to help them cross the desert to find another shrinking pond; Ichthyostega "the original four-legged fish" is the first found. The oldest known fossil of a shrimp is found in Okla.

About -358.9M the Devonian Period of the Paleozoic Era (begun -419M) ends, and the Lower or Early Carboniferous (coal-forming) Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -290M), starting with the Mississippian Subperiod (ends -323M), with avg. global temps of 20C (68F), cooling during the Middle Carboniferous to 12C (54F), with 22.4-hour day creating a stronger Coriolis effect and winds, and atmospheric oxygen content of 35% allowing terrestrial invertebrates esp. insects and amphibians to grow to great sizes; lower sea levels than in the Devonian Period allow swamps and forests to expand in North Am. and Europe, and the first bark-bearing trees to appear along with wood fiber lignin and waxy bark-sealing suberin enjoying a lack of enzymes for them in bacteria, allowing large quantities of wood to be buried; marine beds are common in E North Am. in the early part of the period, almost disappearing by the end; trilobites become uncommon, and marine life becomes rich in crinoids (sea lillies) and other echinoderms, as well as brachiopods (lamp shells); coniferous trees appear in the late Carboniferous, on higher ground; petroleum arises from layers of dead plants and animals?

About 350M B.C.E. the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air is about the same as modern times, rising by 200M B.C.E. to 4x-5x modern-day levels.


Earth turns over a new leaf? About 335M B.C.E. the supercontinent of Pangaea (Pangea) is formed by Gondwana and Laurasia; the vast global Panthalassa Ocean is born (until -175M; the Ancestral Rockies are formed.

About 323M B.C.E. the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Pennsylvanian (Upper or Late Carboniferous) Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -299M); mountains are raised along the E coast of North Am. and C Europe; lush, moist seed-bearing fern forests populated by amphibians and winged insects in the N hemisphere produce vast coal reserves composed primarily of carbon.

About 315M B.C.E. a 45M-year cold spell causes global avg. temps to drop to 54F, establishing most of Earth's coal fields.

About 300M B.C.E. the Carboniferous Period (begun -360M) ends, and the Permo-Carboniferous Era begins (ends -250M), becoming the longest and severest glaciation of the Phanerozoic Eon, with an ice sheet covering a circle spanning 50 deg of latitude around the South Pole, and CO2 levels of 313-344 ppm, giving the first evidence for continental drift.

About 290M B.C.E. the Pennsylvanian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Permian Period (7th and last) of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -252M), characterized by glaciation in the S Hemisphere incl. permafrost, the final folding of the Appalachians and C European ranges, and reefs in warm N seas; the coal forests decline, and conifers (firs) and ferns replace them; the first cycads and ammonites appear; the trilobites become extinct; amniotes (egg-layers) diversify into large amphibians, mammal-like and bird-like, and lizards incl. dinosaurs (archosaurs), which surpass the amphibians; atmospheric CO2 concentration is 900 ppm, and avg. surface temp is about 16C, with 23% O2 in the atmosphere.

The Tris are Sick Period begins, or, Die Trilobites, die, or, Heads up, it's hairspray? The worst mass-extinction of all time?

230 Million B.C.E. - Triassic

About 252M B.C.E. the Permian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Triassic Period (ends -201M) of the Mesozoic Era (Age of the Reptiles) begins (ends -66M); atmospheric CO2 levels rise to 1.2K-1.8K ppm, with global avg. temps of 72F; the hot flat dry C-shaped supercontinent of Pangea encloses the Tethys Sea (Ocean), and has a hothouse climate with inland deserts; the three subperiods are Buntsandstein (Lower), Muschelkalk (Middle) (Ger. "shellbearing limestone"), and Keuper (Upper); lava flows in E North Am.; ferns and cycads dominate land plants; insects of modern types appear. Over the next 5M-10M years the P-T (Permian-Triassic) Extinction Event (Great Dying) (Earth's third) loses 75%-95% of all species, mostly in the sea, incl. 80%-96% of the marine species and 57% of all marine families, plus 70% of land species, incl. gigantopterids; crinoids are hard-hit; 36 of 48 families of amphibians and reptiles die out; sea urchin species drop from 20-30 to 1-2; trilobites and pelycosaurs become extinct; the mass extinction peaks at -252.28 and lasts less than 200K years, with most of the extinction lasting about 20K years; it takes 10M years for a fully-functioning ecosystem to develop; parareptiles are not affected?; was this extinction triggered by an impact event of a comet or 7-mi.-diam. asteroid (Luann Becker et al. of the U. of Wash., 2001), or volcanoes (the Siberian Traps) in Siberia (triggering the poisoning of marine life with carbon dioxide and methane, and the extinction of terrestrial life via a global greenhouse effect), or a geomagnetic reversal, or a mammoth undersea methane buildup caused by a mutation in the Methanosarcina microbe, or did the lack of scattered continents and cold poles cause the ocean to become stagnant and fill with CO2? (Andrew H. Knoll of Harvard U., 1996)?; computer models by Jonathan Payne and Erik Sperling of Stanford U. in 2018 find that the warmer oceans lost about 80% of their oxygen, and about half of the ocean sea floor became oxygen-free, favoring species living in the tropics; another in 2019 by Justin Penn and Curtis Deutsch of the U. of Washington finds that sea surface temperatures rose by 11C (20F) from elevated greenhouse gases, causing 76% oxygen depletion, depleting 40% of the sea floor of oxygen - maybe this is where the part in the Bible about giants in the Earth and Noah's Flood comes in?

About 251M B.C.E. the Siberian Traps in Siberia are formed by a massive volcanic eruption that lasts 2M years, leaving 7M sq. km of basaltic rock with a vol. of 4M cubic km. by modern times.

About 250M B.C.E. atmospheric CO2 levels jump to 7K ppm, while global avg. temps are 60F; a major expansion and radiation of reptiles begins; the archosaurs (flying reptiles), incl. the pterosaurs (Gk. "ptero" + "saurus" = winged lizard) (Gk. "ptero" + "daktulos" = winged finger), the first reptiles capable of powered flight emerge from the diapsids; pterosaurs take off by pole-vaulting over their wings?; pterosaurs appear 50M years before the first bird Archaeopteryx, but don't really begin evolving until after that, getting more specialized for their 160M years?

About 235M B.C.E. there is a 20% reduction in gravity, and the Earth is filled with relatively shallow seas containing several large animals (until -65M).

About 230M (-234M?) B.C.E. the Carnian Pluvial Episode (Event) (Raibi Event) sees widespread extinction of green algae, bryozoa, ammonoids, and conodonts, along with radiation of dinosaurs, corals, crinoids, and calcareous nanofossils; the earliest known dinosaur is dog-sized Eoraptor in Argentina; it rains for 2M years? Watch video.

About 215M B.C.E. oxygen levels leap by nearly one-third (15% to 19%) in three million years, allowing dinosaurs to rise?; CO2 levels drop.

About 214M B.C.E.(-201M) the (Fourth) Triassic-Jurassic Mass Extinction sees a giant meteor or comet impact the N hemisphere in five large fragments, leading to the fourth (3rd largest) mass-extinction (75%-84%) that almost wipes out the dominant therapsids esp. the large-body crocodilian reptiles called the pseudosuchia, clearing the stage for the Age of the Dinosaurs; the fragments impact in Quebec and Saint Martin, Canada, Red Wing, N.D., France, and Ukraine; the largest fragment produces the 62-mi.-dia. Manicouagan Crater in Quebec; a 9% oxygen drop in Earth's atmosphere is aided by a geomagnetic reversal that strips 218T tons (4.5%) of the oxygen from Earth's atmosphere?; eruptions in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province trigger the extinction, with low volcanic temperatures causing high sulfur dioxide and low CO2 emissions?

About 200M B.C.E. the length of the day is 23 hours, and the year is 385 days.

About 180M B.C.E. atmospheric CO2 levels rise to 1.2K-2.5K ppm, and global avg. temps drop to 61F.

About 170M B.C.E. a change in predator-prey relationships begins as calcium carbonate-secreting plankton cover the ocean floor with chalk, stabilizing its composition and balancing its acidity, allowing the production of calcium carbonate to expand from the continental shelves into the open ocean, reducing the evolutionary impact of severe climate changes and permitting a new level of diversification of life.

About 145M B.C.E. 5he Jurassic Period of the Mesozoic Era (begun -201.3M) ends, and the Cretaceous Period (Lat. "creta" = chalk) of the Mesozoic Era begins (ends -66M), an era of a greenhouse climate (warmest period in the last 600M years), with no ice in the polar regions and the climate of Alaska like that of Oregon; atmospheric CO2 levels drop to 1.5k ppm, continuing a downward slide to the Industrial Age that begin about -175M; the spread of reptiles and the development of flowering plants begins; bony fish begin a major radiation; in the U.S. the Lower Cretacean is also called the Comanchean, after the Comanches of Texas; another mass-extinction occurs, and most sauropods in the N Hemisphere, along with stegosaurus, allosaurus, ceratosaurus, ornitholestes et al. become extinct - no likey de steam baths?

About 140M B.C.E. tThe hidden continent of Greater Adria is created after a continent the size of Greenland breaks off from North Africa and is buried in the Earth's mantle under Southern Europe; discovered in 2019 by Douwe van Hinsbergen of Utrecht U.

About 137M B.C.E. after high levels of CO2 raise global temps and melt polar ice, a sudden sea temp. drop in the Atlantic Gulf Stream from 13C (55F) to 4C-7C (39F-44F) occurs, leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs by -65M, not a meteor, according to Gregory Price et al. of Plymouth U.


About 90M B.C.E. there are rainforests near the South Pole.

In 81M B.C.E. the 3.6K-mi. Pacific Ocean Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain of volcanoes rises from the Hawaiian hotspot, which is located far from tectonic plate boundaries.

In 70M B.C.E. the Earth day lasts 23.5 hours; the year has 372 days.

The worst day in history? A Millennium Fever 6-6-6 megalennium, and what happens? The Double-Edge Swordoid? A giant asteroid impact giveth, and taketh away? Do you love the asteroids or do you hate them?

Luis Walter Alvarez (1911-88) Walter Alvarez (1940-)

In 66M B.C.E. the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) Extinction Event sees a 1T-ton 6-mi.-dia. asteroid or smaller comet impact in the area of Chicxulub, Mexico, apparently causing the 5th worldwide (2nd largest) mass-extinction (75% of all species), leaving the K-PG (Cretaceous-Paleogene) Boundary, a thin layer of sediment with high levels of iridium; too bad, the Chicxulub crater lacks iridium; the 24km diam. Boltysh Crater in Ukraine happens several thousand years earlier?; at first sulfur chokes the atmosphere and blocks the Sun for years or decades, causing land temps to plummet by 28C (50F), after which increased CO2 levels cause global warming by 5C (9F) for 100K-300K years; the dinosaurs are wiped out, along with many primitive species of Cretaceous birds, allowing the mammals to inherit the Earth, rapidly increasing their max size from 10kg to 17 tons, a factor of 1Kx; the ammonites become extinct; plankton and small wormlike creatures recover in the silty crater seafloor within a few years; birds have to rediscover how to fly after only flightless emu-like species survive; mixotrophs, which can consume organic matter in the absence of sunlight help smaller organisms survive?; the mass exinction of the dinos was really caused by the Earth traveling through a thin disk of dark matter running through the Galaxy?; in 1978 Am. Nobel Prize-winning physicist Luis Walter Alvarez (1911-88), his geologist son Walter Alvarez (1940-) et al. propose the Asteroid Impact Theory of Dinosaur Extinction to explain the unusual abundance of iridium associated with the K-T Extinction Boundary (65M B.C.E.); 1990 studies of the impact crater of Chicxulub in the Gulf of Mexico lend support to their theory; paleontologists go on to dispute it, only to be shut out and shut down by a conspiracy of global warming environmentalists secretly run by well-connected Alvarez, who calls them "not very good scientists... more like stamp collectors"?; long-term climate change kills off the dinosaurs, not a rogue asteroid, according to German paleontologist Michael Prauss; the precise date is 66,038,000 B.C.E.; the decline of plant-eating dinosaur species in the last few million years is what doomed them? Within 400K years rat-sized placental Protungulatum donnae emerges in North Am., becoming the ancestor of all placental mammals, which branch into 5.4K modern-day species?

About 65M B.C.E. the Cretaceous Period of the Mesozoic Era (begun -144M) ends, and the Paleocene (Palaeocene) ("old recent") Subperiod (Epoch) of the Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era (Age of Mammals) begins (ends -56M); the other subperiods are Eocene ("dawn new"), Oligocene ("few new"), Miocene ("less new"), and Pliocene ("more new") - pee on Moe? The Earth's atmosphere goes from 35% to 21% oxygen. The Laramide Orogeny begins, producing the Rocky Mountains. The 1.5K-mi.-long 137-strong Hawaiian (Sandwich) Islands, riding on the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain begin to be formed by a chain of volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire; despite not being in an earthquake zone, the accretion of material on top of volcanoes causes regular collapses which generate earthquakes; the Hawaiian coastline is 750 mi. (1,210km) long, 4th longest in the U.S. after Alaska, Fla., and Calif. - giving a visit to paradise a caffeine edge?

About 60M B.C.E. the Iceland Plume causes lava flow across Scotland, Ireland, and Greenland, creating Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland and Fingal's Cave in Scotland.

About 56M B.C.E. the Paleocene Period of the Tertiary Period ends, and the Eocene Epoch of the Tertiary Period begins (ends -33.9M); Africa, Saudi Arabia, and India separate from and begin colliding with the Eurasian continent, raising the Rockies, Andes, and Alps; the Eurasian Plate crumples and overrides the Indian Plate, creating the Himalayas ("abode of snows"); Mount Everest forms; Antarctica breaks away from Australia, opening the Greenland-Norwegian Sea; Australia ends up as the continent with the smallest distance between its high and low points (7.5K ft.), as well as the highest low point and the lowest high point; air masses forced over the Himalayas to the E become bone dry, creating the Gobi Desert, and the Great Loess (Huangtu) Plateau of C China, which later becomes the center of Chinese rice production. The Iceland Plume erupts again, lifting the sea floor between Greenland and Europe into the air and creating a land bridge, while magma bleeds through sediments and forms horizontal sheets known as shills that generate methane and CO2 gas that bubbles into the ocean, helping trigger the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)?; a volcano in Scotland is as big as the 1883 Krakatoa eruption.

About 55.5M B.C.E. the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) sees global sea surface temps rise 5C-8C (11F) (from 3C to 8C-11) and sea temps reach 20C for 200K years because of degassing methane ice deposits (clathrates) lasting 20K years, causing mass extinctions of foraminifera, allowing plankton to migrate to higher latitudes along with land animals and plants; the avg. temp. at the North Pole is 23C (74 F), with alligator ancestors and palm trees caused by a greenhouse effect?; mammals begin to proliferate; the warming was caused by massive release of mostly volcanic greenhouse gases, which was still slow enough for negative feedbacks to mitigate ocean acidification?

About 55M B.C.E. the Arctic region around the North Pole is subtropical, with surface sea temps of 23C (73F) (until -49M). Angiosperm herbs and trees with fruit, and grasses appear; associated with this is a significant increase in the diversity of birds and insects (cabbage-sized mosquitoes?). Mammals spread from Eurasia to Africa and India.

About 53M B.C.E. the evergreen forests of the Pacific Northwest U.S. emerge during a time of a subtropical climate like modern-day S Fla., with the highest-known global temps in the last 66M years.

About 49M B.C.E. the ocean around the North Pole is closed off by the continents, creating a freshwater sea at about 10C (50F); breadfruit trees and crocodiles thrive on the shores of the Arctic Ocean; too bad, low salinity causes the Azolla Event, when azolla (mosquito)) (duckweed) (water) ferns (fairy moss) multiply, consuming the carbon dioxide and cooling it down?

About 40M B.C.E. the avg. global temp is 88F (31C) due to high CO2 levels of 900-1K ppm.

About 18M B.C.E. the Miocene Climatic Optimum begins (ends -16M). The W half of the Grand Canyon begins to open from crustal stretching, eroding at 1-2 in. every 1K years?; the Great Uniformity of the Grand Canyon took more than erosion? - how did the Grand Canyon get dug? Two Jews dropped a penny?

About 16M B.C.E. an enormous volcano in the Pacific Northwest erupts, covering modern-day Wash., Ore. and Idaho with lava for 750K years, which become the Columbia River Flood Basalts, bringing global warming along with elevated CO2 levels; the Langhian stage of the Miocene Epoch begins (ends -13.65M), continuing the warming period until -14.8M to -14.1M, when a major growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet along with increased production of cold Antarctic deep waters brings cooling along with a wave of extinctions of aquatic and terrestrial life forms.

About 15M B.C.E. the Earth becomes cooler and more arid, but the climate is still very warm, up to 6C (11F) warmer than today, with almost all the ice melting, and CO2 levels as high as modern times; alligators live in England.

About 15M B.C.E. the fast weathering of relatively new rocks in the Himalayas captures atmospheric CO2, after which rivers carry dissolved carbon to the oceans, which algae use to build their calcium carbonate shells, falling to the sea floor when they die and locking atmospheric carbon in deep sea sediments; on Sept. 22, 2019 Yair Rosenthal et al. of Rutgers U. pub. the paper Is Theory on Earth's Climate in the Last 15 Million Years Wrong? in Nature Geoscience, finding that rock weathering may not really be responsible for long-term global cooling, and that high CO2 levels doesn't reduce calcium carbonate in algae.

About 12M B.C.E. the Earth shifts relative to its spin axis, causing Greenland to move far enough toward the North Pole to kick off the ice age that began about 3.2M B.C.E.?

About 10M-6M B.C.E. the North Pole has ice-free summers, and the sea surface temp reaches 4C-9C (39F-48F), with sea levels about 100m higher than today.

About 7.2M B.C.E. the Messinian Age (Salinity Crisis) begins (ends -5.3M), in which the Mediterranean becomes separated from the Atlantic and becomes shallow, losing 5K ft. of depth, with a retraction of the shores that washes out underground oil and gas with river streams in the Nile Delta, and forms a saltwater sea gorge invading the Nile as far S as Aswan; primates migrate from Africa to S Spain across dry land (Am. Museum of Nat. History); some Atlantic eels, which breed in the Sargasso Sea (S of Bermuda) become separated E of Gibraltar, making that their new breeding ground? - what an eely mess?

About 5.96M B.C.E. the Messinian Salinity Crisis sees the channel between the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean closed, becoming known as the Atlantic Dam and Lago Mare.

About 5.33M B.C.E. the Gibraltar Dam keeping the Atlantic out of the Mediterranean breaks, causing the Zanclean Flood (Deluge), flooding the Mediterranean desert with 1 mi. of saltwater within 50 years, creating the 40-mi. x 9-24 mi. x 1K ft. deep Strait of Gibraltar, with entrance at the Pillars of Hercules incl. the Rock of Gibraltar (world's most famous rock?) on the S point of the Iberian Peninsula, and Mt. Abila (Abyla) (Sierra Bullones) (Monte Hacho) in Ceuta, N Africa, or Jebel Musa in Morocco, N Africa.

About 4.5M B.C.E. the Pliocene Warm Period begins (ends -3.5M); the Bering Sea is ice-free and full of life.

The Pleistocene is the nice icy pleis for modern man to be seen? Meanwhile, farewell mammoths?

About 2.6 B.C.E. the Pliocene Epoch of the Tertiary Period ends, and the Pleistocene Epoch (AKA Ice Age) (named by Charles Lyell) of the Quaternary Period begins (ends -9.7K), characterized by cyclic growth and decay of continental ice sheets associated with Milankovitch Cycles; global cooling leads to frequent Ice Ages and glaciers covering more than 35% of the Earth's land surface; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covers North Am. (Canada and the N U.S. as far S as Penn., as far W as the Missouri River, incl. the Great Lakes and the area between the Ohio and Missouri Rivers), reaching 2 mi. thuck in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, along with volcanoes along the W coast of the U.S., and another glacier from the Rocky Mts. S and E to the Mississippi River as far S as St. Louis, Mo., and more glaciers in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mts. as far S as New Mexico; yet more glaciers cover Scandinavia S and E across N Germany and W Russia and SW over the British Isles; yet another giant glacier covers Siberia; the Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevada Mts., Glacier Nat. Park in the Rocky Mts., Bonneville Lake (which shrinks to Great Salt Lake), the Great Lakes, Lake Algonquin, Lake Iroquois, and the Finger Lakes are left when they recede, along with the Red River Valley of Manitoba, left by glacial Lake Agassiz, which drained into Hudson Bay; the 2.5M sq. km Cordilleran Ice Sheet covers North Am. from Mont. and Idaho to British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and Alaska, still covering W Canada by -10.5K, with large areas possibly ice-free as early as -12K?; in Oct. 2019 Maite F. Jansen and Alice Marzocchi pub. the paper Global cooling linked to increased glacial carbon storage via changes in Antarctic sea ice in Nature Geoscience, using the CO2 greenhouse warming theory to claim that an explosion of Antarctic sea ice may have blocked CO2 from being released, causing an ice age.

About 2M B.C.E. the N tip of Greenland is home to 100+ plant genera, 9 animal taxa incl. the mastodon, plus marine life in a climate 18F-31F warmer than modern-day Greenland.

About 1.8M B.C.E. after the Nubian Swell, a geologic structural uplift going E-W separating the lower Nile River from the Sudan basin causes the Nile River to dry up (until -0.8M), the migration of flora and fauna between Africa and Eurasia via a land bridge in the Levant halts; Homo erectus becomes the first human ancestor to migrate out of Africa.

About 1.25M B.C.E. the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (Rev.) sees glacial cycles switch from 41K-year periodicity and low amplitude thin ice sheets to strongly assymetric cycles with long-duration cooling and thick ice sheets, with fast changes to a warm interglacial; avg. cycle lengths become 100K years, causing the 100,000-Year Problem, which is explained by decreasing levels of atmospheric CO2 and gradual removal of regoliths.


About 800K B.C.E. equatorial ice sheets exist on Earth, indicating a high angle of Earth tilt before the Moon exerts full control; the Moon just happens to keep the Earth from wobbling from 0-85 deg. over time, causing the regular change of seasons which keep temperatures in the livable range, and provide for rain; the Moon just happens to be relatively larger than the moons of the giant planets, and serves as a useful light by night - score one zillion for God or Chance? About 800K B.C.E. the earliest Antarctic ice core records of CO2.

About 781K B.C.E. the Brunhes Matuyama Reversal sees the Earth's magnetic field undergo geomagnetic reversal within the space of a human lifetime, becoming one of 83 reversals from 83M B.C.E. to modern times; scientists predict the next one in the next cent., killing communications satellites and allowing cosmic rays to bombard Earth.


Life picks up the ball and gets some backbone in the O.J. Simpson, er, Ordovician Period?

Bryozoan Crinoids Nautiloid Ancient Coral Ostracoderm

About 500M B.C.E. volcanoes sprout along the Atlantic Coast, and mountains rise in New England; the Canadian Shield (Laurentian Plateau) is formed. Gondwana begins moving over the South Pole. Limestone is deposited in shallow seas, and there is a great expansion of the marine invertebrates, which include all major groups; the Cambrian trilobites are replaced by graptolites and brachiopods; the Ordovician Biodiversification Event sees an explosion of marine animal life over a period of 25M years, incl. marine invertebrates such as bryozoans (moss animals), crinoids (sea lilies), nautiloids, and corals (epiphyton girvanella); jawless armored ostracoderms, the first primitive jawless fishes; the first vertebrates appear in near-shore tropical waters. Two key DNA mutations set the stage for sex hormones incl. estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol?

About 485.4M B.C.E. the Cambrian Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era begins (ends -443.8M); CO2 content of the atmosphere goes from 7,000 ppm to 4,400 ppm, going from a greenhouse climate (113F or 45C ocean temps) to modern-day temps about -460M to a million-year ice age.

About 450M B.C.E. an ice age begins (ends -400M). The rise of an early phase of the Appalachian Mts. and cooling oceans allows invasive species to upset the North Am. ecosystem? Land plants appear. Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) appear. Several groups of soil bacteria acquire a gene from fungi allowing them to break down chitin and use it as food.

The first chance to smoke fern grass, if you can get through all them scorpions and millipedes?

Myriapods Eurypterid Xiphosurid Scorpion Placoderm Lycopod Rhyniophyte Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871)

About 443.8M B.C.E. the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era ends, and the Silurian Period of the Paleozoic Era (ends -419M), named after the Silures tribe in SE Wales in 1835 by British geologist Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871) begins, with high, warm seas; the major continental plates begin to move together; the mountain system in the S of the Iberian Peninsula is located alongside the Alps; the Late Ordovician Glaciation, centered in the Sahara region sees ocean temps 5C cooler than modern-day temps; either the drop in sea level and/or a comet either the drop in the sea level and/or a comet causes the Ordovician-Silurian Extinction Events, the first mass-extinction episode of life on Earth, and 85% of the species become extinct, making room for shelled cephalopods to spread and coral reefs to build in far N seas; great mountains are formed in NW Europe, and another range on a NW-SE line through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and New England by the Taconian Disturbance in the island continent of Appalachia lying between the Atlantic Ocean and an inland sea, causing volcanism in the area of Maine, New Brunswick and Quebec, forming deposits up to 2 mi. thick; later the highlands erode and deposit detritus over E Penn. and SE N.Y.; trilobites begin to decline, and seaweed becomes the dominant plant life; sponges and corals flourish; brachiopods and crustaceans dominate on land; the beginning of widespread air-breathing life on land, incl. myriapods (centipedes and millipedes) and semi-aquatic eurypterids (sea scorpions) (largest known athropods), xiphosurids (horseshoe crabs), scorpions; brachiopods predominate in the sea; jawed fishes incl. placoderms appear; jawless fish live in fresh water, and can't survive without shallow seas?; appearance of the first small land vascular plants (tracheophytes), incl. lycopods and rhyniophytes (rhyniophytina) (Paratracheophytes) with fungi in plant roots.


About 400,000 B.C.E. the ice age ends; the year is 400 days, the Moon is closer than it is now, and the Earth is spinning faster. Greenland is nearly ice-free. The appearance of vascular plants (tracheophytes) and large predatory fish coincide with increased oxygen levels; the first fires appear? Placoderms radiate and begin to dominate brackish and near-shore waters; the oceans are the domain of fierce, toothy meat-eaters living the eat-or-be-eaten predatory life style; the sturdy coelacanth (still exists today) appears - didn't fossilize? The Woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) diverges from the steppe mammoth in E Asia, with about the same size as modern African elephants, although its closest modern-day relative is the Asian elephant.


About 300,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation in the Alps (named after the Riss River in Upper Swabia) begins (ends -128K), along with the Saale Glaciation (ends -128K). Homo erectus becomes extinct - but not their erections? An asteroid impacts, creating the 0.5-mi.-wide Wolfe Creek Crater in Western Australia (second largest "obvious" meteorite crater on Earth). The Woolly rhinoceros (coelodonta antiquitatis) diverges in C Asia, migrating into Europe, becoming one of the most common inhabitants of the tundra-stepps; its closest modern-day relative is the Sumatran rhino.

About 128,000 B.C.E. the Riss Glaciation ends, and the Eeemian (Sangamonian) (Ipswichian) (Mikulin) (Kaydayky) (Valdivia) (Riss-Wurm) Warming begins (ends -113K), becoming the Last Interglacial Period; Northern Hemisphere winters are warmer and wetter than today, with some areas slightly cooler; melting ice sheets in Antarctica caused by a 2C temp. rise cause sea levels to rise by 3m; the hippopotamus ranges as far N as the Rhine and Thames Rivers; trees grow as far N as S Baffin Island (vs. Kuujjuaq, N Quebec today); the Great Plains prairie-forest boundary is near Lubbock, Tex. (vs. Dallas, Tex. today).

About 123,000 B.C.E. forests reach as far N as North Cape, Norway above the Arctic Circle; hazel and oak grow as far N as Oulu, Finland.

About 113,000 B.C.E. the Eemian Warming ends, and the Wurm (Würm) Glaciation (named after a river in Bavaria), the Last glacial period begins in Europe (ends -9.7K), becoming the last ice age in the Alpine region, and the youngest major glaciation to extend beyond the Alps, with avg. yearly temps below -3C; this period sees 25 Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) Events, rapid warming over decades followed by global cooling over a few cents., expanding the polar front S across the North Atlantic Ocean; each is preceded by a Heinrich Event, in which large armadas of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic, depositing rock matter on the sea floor and adding extensive amounts of fresh water.

About 100K B.C.E. the Sahara is cool and wet enough to support sparse hunter-gatherer pops., and from thence modern humans spread to North Africa and the Near East? Kilauea (Hawaiian "spewing", "much spreading") emerges above sea level, becoming one of five volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii, and the most active, emitting 2K deg. F basalt lava, the hottest known, enough to pave 20 mi. of 2-line highway per day in modern times. 90% of modern-day Earth species came into being about this time? Condors emerge in North Am.

About 73,000 B.C.E. a long cooling period begins in Europe (ends -9K); the Wisconsin Glaciation, the last glaciation begins in North Am., reaching a max ice extent approx. 21K B.C.E.; it is responsible for the disappearance of Neanderthals, not displacement by modern humans, who simply were better able to adapt to cold?

Are races born out of fire or ice? About 72,000 B.C.E. the Toba Volcano in Sumatra, Indonesia supererupts, about 5K times the size of Mt. St. Helen in 1980, burying human sites containing stone tools; no humans arrive in S Asia until after this; did 6-10 years of global volcanic winter followed by a 1K-y. cooling episode cause rapid genetic divergence in modern races of humans?; did humans not only survive but thrive after the eruption?

About 60,000-40,000 B.C.E. buried wood trunks dug up in 1999 indicate that surface temps are 2C-3C warmer than today, even though atmospheric CO2 is 200 ppm.

About 40,000 B.C.E. a climate-changing volcanic eruption in Liguria on the Italian Rivera in the Phlegraean Fields W of modern-day Naples devastates Europe, wiping out most of the Homo sapiens, with some surviving in rock shelters incl. Riparo Bombrini.

About 24,000 B.C.E. sea level reaches a minimum as ice sheets jutting out from Antarctica become fully attached to the sea floor; about 12,000 B.C.E. the West Antarctic Ice Sheet contracts to a small size, then collapses and calves into the sea about 10,300 B.C.E., after which inland glaciers begin breaking up 200-1,400 years later; the Larsen Ice Shelf in the N Antarctic Peninsula collapses in 2002 C.E.

About 20,000 (-18K?) B.C.E. the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sees a cold Earth whose N continents are covered by vast ice sheets, with low atmospheric CO2 levels; global sea levels drop, exposing the floors of the Bering Strait, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea; the global avg. temp is 7.8C (46F).

About 18,000 B.C.E. the last ice age in the N Hemisphere ends, caused by changes in the Earth's orbit?; modern-day New York City is covered by the 1K ft. thick Wisc. Ice Sheet, part of the Laurentide ice sheet, which is 5K ft. thick in the Adirondacks and 10K ft. thick in Labrador.

About 17,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Glacial Retreat begins, seeing the glacial ice sheet begin its retreat to the N, accelerating about -13K and ending about -9.7K with abrupt warming and rapid melting of the remaining ice sheets of Europe and North Am.; melting ice causes a global sea level rise until -4K, averaging 10mm/year (1m/cent.), with rapid jumps of up to 2.5m/cent.; sea levels continue to rise to modern times at a rate of 2.8mm/year, for a total of 120m (400 ft.).

About 16,000 B.C.E. the Wurm Glaciation in the European Alps reaches its maximum extent in the Gschnitz Stadial; there is a mi.-thick glacier on Manhattan Island, Seattle, Berlin, and London, and a continuous belt of winter sea ice extending S to Cape Hatteras. The last ice age in the S Hemisphere ends in response to warming in the N Hemisphere; sea level rises by 120m in the next 8K years, eroding the coastline of Australia by 50m/year, for a total of 120m by modern times since the arrival of aborigines in Australia in -38K.

About 13,000 B.C.E. the last Ice Age (Devensian Glacial Maximum) abruptly (a few decades) ends with temperatures rising several degrees C; in the Near East there is a N migration of monsoon rains, creating a "Garden of Eden" effect in Jordan, Palestine, and Mesopotamia, and spawning universal flood myths?

Before 13,000 B.C.E. tree-ring dating cannot be used in N Europe because it was covered by Ice Age glaciers?

About 12,900 B.C.E. a comet hits E Canada, causing wildfires followed by chilly weather that helps wipe out the woolly mammoths along with three-fourths of the large mammals plus the Clovis people, as indicated by tiny diamonds found in Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island off Calif. and other sites in 2009?; the real cause of mammoth extinction was inbreeding?

About 12,500 B.C.E. the Sahara Desert becomes moist and wet, with a savanna climate, peaking about 4,000 B.C.E., when the Sahara reverts to desert conditions, causing a marked decline in the magnitude of Nile River floods between 2,700 B.C.E. and 2,100 B.C.E.

About 12,000 B.C.E. the 200-year Older Dryas begins in N Europe (ends -11.5K), based on oxygen isotope ratio cycles and the marker species Dryas octopetaia, a cold dry climatic period during the coldest stadial after the Weichselian Glaciation in N Europe. About this time the Allerod (Allerød) Oscillation begins (ends -11K), causing warm moist temperatures in the N Atlantic; the interstadial to the Older Dryas? An ice-free corridor opens, allowing big game hunters to enter North Am. by crossing over the Bering Strait from Russia into Alaska, becoming the first Paleoindians?

About 11,800 B.C.E. (-12.7K to -11.5K) Meltwater Pulse 1A causes global sea level to rise 16m-25m (52 ft.-82 ft.) in 400-500 years (40mm-60mm/year).

About 10,800 B.C.E. a disintegrating giant comet strikes the Earth, causing a 1.2K-year global deep freeze that brings global species extinctions?; start of the Younger Dryas (-10.8K?) (ends -9.4K) (named after an Arctic plant of the rose family which appears), last cold snap of the Pleistocene (Ice Age) Epoch (begun -2.586M), caused by an inrush of fresh glacial meltwater from glacial Lake Agassiz into the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans greater than the volume of all the Great Lakes combined, causing abrupt (10 years) cooling in Europe and North Am. and return of near-glacial conditions for 1K years, leading to extinction of megafauna in North Am. incl. mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed tigers, and giant short-faced bears, and the extinction of the Clovis Culture; it is caused by a comet impact (over the Great Lakes?) that set large areas of North Am. on fire and caused the extinction of most of its megafauna along with mass starvation of humans?; in 2019 Francis Thackeray et al. of the U. of the Witwatersrand discover a platinum spike in Wonderkrater in Limpopo Province (N of Pretoria), South Africa, matching others around the world and indicating a meteorite or asteroid impact; according to Alan Brandon of the U. of Houston, the real reason is volcanic activity; the melting of continental ice sheets reverses in Scotland and Norway; abrupt drought in the Near East brings on the beginnings of agriculture, the creation of granaries to store food, etc., ending the mobile way of life, and causing pop. concentrations around sources of water, changing Stone Age hunter-gatherers into the world's first farmers, with the first domestication and genetic selection of plants incl. wheat and grains, along with the first monumental architecture?; at the same time Antarctica heats up by 1°C, coupled with rising CO2; it is caused by a comet ripping through North Am., according to Douglas J. Kennett et al. of the U. of Ore. in 2009; in 2010 C. Vance Haynes of the U. of Ariz. finds evidence for a comet to be lacking; nanodiamond evidence is inconclusive and tends to contradict the comet theory?; in 2013 Mukul Sharma et al. of Dartmouth College claim conclusive evidence of an asteroid or comet impact; atmospheric CO2 peaks at -10,680.

About 10,500 B.C.E. the Age of Leo begins (ends -8,600), seeing a golden age where deglaciation causes a 300-ft. rise in sea level.

About 10,000 B.C.E. the Early Archaic Period begins in North Am. (ends -7K); the paleoindian Clovis culture occupies the rest of North Am.; beginning of the Folsom Culture in North Am.; human settlement is found in Tennessee; beginning of 500-year dessication period in the North Am. Southwest.

About 9,700 B.C.E. the Pleistocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period (begun -2.586M) ends, and the Holocene (Recent) Epoch of the Quaternary Period begins (until ?); Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa is topped with ice (until 2021?).

About 9,300 B.C.E. the Arctic becomes virtually ice-free (until -7.7K).

About 9,000 B.C.E. the Boreal Age begins in N Europe, based on the study of Danish peat bogs and named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Semander, characterized by a pollen zone.

About 8,800 B.C.E. a larch tree grows beneath the modern-day Morteratsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps, living 337 years.

Colin Renew (1937-)

About 7,800 B.C.E. the last ice age ends, and the Atlantic Period Begins (ends -4.8K), AKA the Holocene Climatic Optimum (Thermal Maximum) (Megathermal) (Hypsithermal) (Mid-Holocene Warm Period), becoming the warmest period of the Holocene, a warmer climate than today; humans are still mainly at the hunter-gatherer stage; meanwhile complex trade routes begin to be set up in the Mediterranean basin between now and -5000, according to British archeologists Colin Renfew (1937-) et al.

About 7,500 B.C.E. the Neolithic Subpluvial (Holocene Wet Phase) begins (ends -3500), bringing wet rainy conditions to North Africa incl. a Green (Wet) Sahara; the climate of Britain warms up to modern conditions, and Britain is reforested; Periodic tidal waves over the next 2K years inundate 1K sq. mi. of land now under the North Sea.

About 7,000 B.C.E. the Holocene Thermal Maximum (Climatic Optimum) begins (ends -3K); Hinlopen Strait in Svalbard is 4C-7C warmer than modern times even though CO2 concentration is 260 ppm; Eden-like conditions exist in Egypt?

About 6,200 B.C.E. after melting glaciers pour cold fresh water into the North Atlantic, the 8.2 KA Event sees cool meltwater from North Am. lakes flood into the North Atlantic, stopping ocean circulation systems, triggering a 400-year Mini Ice Age (after the Younger Dryas) (ends -5800), causing a temperature drop of 8 deg F and a drop in atmospheric methane levels of 90%, cooling the climate of Europe, Greenland, and SW Asia and causing the Euxine Lake level to drop, changing it from saltwater to freshwater (as rivers from the Balkans, Alps, and Caucasus Mts. drain into it), and creating grassland, which thrives because of the low elevation; meanwhile drier summers reduce crop yields, causing Catal Huyuk in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) to be abandoned, along with farms along the Anatolian plateau, Palestine, the Negev highlands, and the mountain flanks of the Fertile Crescent, and the Black Sea becomes their common oasis, attracting diverse white peoples of different language groups (capable of bricklaying, carpentry, painting, sculpting, leather, pottery, basket and jewelry work, etc.), and causing word transfer, such as Russian vinograd, Italic vino, Germanic wein, Anatolian wijana, Kartvelian wino, proto-Semitic wajnu, and proto-Indo-European woi-no.

Jason and the Argonauts Hero and Leander Walter Clarkson Pitman III (1931-) William B.F. Ryan

About 5,600 B.C.E. according to geologists Walter Clarkson Pitman III (1931-) and William B.F. Ryan of Columbia U. in 1997, a catastrophic Great Flood creates the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) when the Mediterranean creates a giant 30-mi. by 1-to-4 mi. crack called the Dardanelles (Gk. Hellespontus) (Turk. Cannakkale bogazi) (between Asia Minor and the Gallipoli Peninsula of Europe), connecting the Aegean (Mediterranean) Sea with the Sea of Marmara (Propontis), and then flushes over the even narrower (20 mi. x 0.5-2.75 mi. x 400 ft. deep) crack called the Bosporus (Bosphorus) Straits (Bosporus Thracius) (Karadeniz Bogazi) (Gk. "Ox Ford", since the goddess Io turned into a heifer and swam it) (originally a spillway for freshwater flowing into the Aegean Sea), and floods the freshwater Euxine Lake (should be White Is Right Lake?) (the S end later called the Golden Horn, one of the largest natural harbors on Earth) with a force 400x that of Niagara Falls, the sound carrying for 60 mi. and turning it into a mixed 6K-7K ft. deep, 165K sq. mi. (750 mi. x 380 mi.) fresh-saltwater body characterized by brutal (mainly winter) storms and a lethal anoxic bottom layer full of hydrogen sulfide, with the freshwater flowing toward the Bosporus on the top, while the saltwater comes in underneath 40 ft. down above the anoxic sublayer in a swift current (made swifter for 10 mo. of each year by winds), causing it to become impassable, and the shores unlivable, and the Epic of Gilgamesh to later call it "the waters of death", Pliny the Elder to call it Pontus Axenus (Pontos Axeinos) (Inhospitable Sea), and the Turks to call it Karadeniz (Harbinger of Death); later some jokesters call it the Pontos Euxeinos (Hospitable Sea); the Greeks call the Dardanelles the Hellespontus because Helle alleged drowns there while fleeing with the Golden Fleece; Leander (Gk. "lion man") dies in the Hellespont during a nightly crossing from Abydos to visit his virgin-vowed babe Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite at Sestos, whose usual lamp in the tower is extinguished by a storm, and when his body washes ashore in front of her she throws herself in after him and drowns; lame Lord Byron swims it in 1810 C.E. to prove he's a lion man hero and not a girlie man?; the Black Sea becomes a challenge to sailors, engendering the 7-11 (July-Aug.-Sept.-Oct.-Nov.) story of Jason and the Argonauts (sent from Thessaly to fetch it from Colchis in modern-day W Georgia by his uncle King Pelias of Thessaly, he gets Hercules to join, but Herc's boyfriend Hylas is lured by nymphs on the coast of Mysia in Asia Minor, causing him to jump ship to look for him), until they figure out how to hop from island to island between storms, and drag a 40-ft. anchor to let the saltwater layer tug them along; the flood causes dispersion of farmers to Europe and Asia, incl. proto Indo-Europeans up the Dnieper River, Semites and Ubaids S to the Levant and Mesopotamia, Kartvelians to the Caucasus Mts., Linearbandkeramik (LBK) farmers up the Dnieper River over the Carpathians through Prague into the Rhineland N of the Alps (continually leapfrogging for reasons unknown?), Vincas farmers up the Danube River into the Hungarian Basin, Hamangians into Thrace, Danilo-Hvars through the Aegean and Ionian Seas into the Dinaric Alps on the E coast of the Adriatic, and Tocharians E to the Tarim Basin S of the Tien Shan Mts. and N of the Tibetan Plateau in Chinese Turkestan (later the route of the Silk Road).


Madam, in Eden I'm Adam? Name no one man? This is everything I wanted, this is just for men? Our brochure will give you the answers? The beginning of the Leta (Let's Exterminate the Aliens) the Swan Story? The darkest alley in the Great Track of Time has the most profound consequences for who, me, yes, you?

Adam and Eve, by Giulio Clovio (1546) Rivers of Eden Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) Satan

In 4004 B.C.E. the nightfall (6:00 p.m.) before Oct. 23 (Sun.) (autumnal equinox) is the date of the Creation, according to Protestant Bible fundamentalists, based on the work of Irish Anglican Archbishop James Ussher (Usher) (1581-1656), who in "The Annals of the World" (1658) dates the birth of Christ in 4 B.C.E. (so Darwinian evolution is the Fall of the House of Ussher?); end of the Sixth Day (land animals and man created); Adam (d. -3074) (Heb. "red", as in dirt or maybe blood, the sacred mojo of Jehovah?) is created from the dust of the Earth (Gen. 2:7); Noah's birth is 1,056 years ahead (-2992); (the original think outside the bun wasn't a good idea?) the Garden of Eden, the birthplace of the human race, is the source of four rivers, the Euphrates (Prath), Gihon, Pishon (which encircles the entire land of Havilah), and Tigris (Hidekel), indicating either that it is in the snow-covered mountains or that there is no snow but that it receives a constant source of rainfall, making it a lush garden where food and medicine grow on trees and all humans have to do is tend them and live practically forever, as long as they don't disobey God (i.e. sin), which he tests them by telling them that one special tree is not to be eaten from, the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Bad (Evil), which is not necessarily special in itself but is just an easy-to-obey test, which doesn't stop them from doing it anyway, introducing Sin into the world, causing God to instantly judge them as worthy of death and have them expelled from Eden so they can be die eventually despite any and all technology they can come up with to feed, clothe, and shelter themselves in the cruel world, while being barred from directly talking with God anymore, leaving them to their new god, I hope you know my name, please allow me to introduce myself, Satan, Heaven's Top Model, originally the 2nd of God's sons (the Logos being the first), who was originally given the prestige job of "covering angel" for newly-created humans, the first material creatures created in God's image (hence all the complicated gray junk in our skulls), and are given God's Blessing of living forever while multiplying and filling the Earth and subduing it through the seed of the original perfect sinless man Adam, who can talk directly with God if he wants to and doesn't need a Savior yet? Too bad, Satan gets tired of working in the department store and letting little humans sit on his knee, and grows envious of God, figures these inferior humans can be subverted to worship him instead, and goes to work with the Great Deception, appearing in the form of a naughty girl's toy and getting a little too friendly with "weaker vessel" Eve (the first cunnilingus?), after which "the Serpent beguiled me and I did eat" of the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and sin (disobey an order of God, who made sinning both so easy and so hard, depending on whether you love him); then, even worse, she leads her lawfully-married-under-God husband Adam to do it for fear of losing his helpmate (tailor-made just for him out of his rib) and ending up as a lonely people counting crows again? Too bad, this leaves God standing in the wind, as sin is the ultimate grief man can give their all-loving Creator, who, as an all-just judge, must reverse the Blessing and institute the Curse, kick them out of the Garden of Eden (where life is easy and food and medicine grow on trees, and animals are all tame and vegetarian), and bar them from the gates by an angel with a flaming sword (Gen. 3:24), after which the area turns into a sour grapes forbidden zone overgrown with vegetation? Once he's past that problem, the fallen angel Satan (opposer) (serpent) (Rev. 12:9), AKA Lucifer (Light-Bringer, appearing to be Light) (Isaiah 14:12-13) and Devil (liar, slanderer) (1 Peter 5:8) (the original Elvis?), who sinned first, before Eve and Adam, and who is himself doomed to die and knows it, decides he'd rather rule in hell than serve in heaven, and keeps his new groupies deceived that the world is still their oyster, death is natural, but that if they stick with him and do his walk they're going to become as gods and know right from wrong on their own outside of God's favor, therefore stayin' alive, stayin' alive forever, when actually they're his slaves, told what to think and do, and led down the er, garden path as they are under judgment of eternal death by their wronged Creator and Supreme Court? So what do they do? The wrong thing? Instead of repenting, telling Satan to stuff it and trying to get right with God, they continue to sin and let themselves be used, abused and losed by Sick Santa, spreading their sin to their children, and filling a fallen Earth with fallen people more and more openly worshiping Satan as their god after totally alienating themselves from the Real Thing Big J (Jehovah)? Never fear, God-And-Man-No-Religion-Modern-Love, the Sun's coming up, as Big J knows the End from the Beginning, and is already an infinite number of moves ahead of his opponent Jim the Bow Snake, and has already put a Redemption Plan (Gen. 3:15) in place to turn the Curse back into the Blessing, after man earns it, not by doing good works expecting to pay the fine and avoid the death sentence, but by being faithful to the Invisible God no matter what bull Satan can tempt him with, and paying the one and only ransom God will accept, namely, not all of Nature Talks To Me, but Jesus swinging in the breeze? But that's where you come in? As a day is as a thousand (or thousands) of our years with God (2 Peter 3:8, Psalms 90:4), it will end up taking 4K+ years to implement, as humans reproduce into the billions and all the variations on the board get played? Meanwhile, God makes the Earth livable, but with no free lunch, i.e., only at the expense of eternal toil, pain in childbirth, sickness and disease caused by the loss of perfection (Gen. 3:16-19)? You got X-ray eyes? Too bad, until the game is played out this is Satan's world now, and he keeps accusing God of being unable to maintain the loyalty of man without giving him everything for free, and even appears in his court (Job chap. 1) to make a motion to allow him to have a free hand to afflict him with curses to show God he's right that even a righteous man will blame and curse God instead of him?

About 4,000 B.C.E. the sea level, which has been rising since the end of the Ice Age reaches modern-day levels; Mesopotamia develops a rich, fertile delta, and the Near East becomes a wet warm Eden; the Saharan grasslands turn to desert; ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is nearly ice-free?; the Alps are ice-free.

In 3,942 B.C.E. the North Star is Thuban (Alpha Draconis) until -1900; in modern times the two inner stars of the Big Dipper end up pointing to it, while the two outer stars point to the new pole star Polaris.

About 3,900 B.C.E. the 5.9 Kiloyear Eventbegins (ends -3400), bringing five cents. of colder climate in northernly latitudes, launching the modern dessication of the Sahara and triggering human migration to the Nile River Valley.

About 3,500 B.C.E. European climate reaches a temperature max, and begins a downward turn for the next 5K years; the Sahara region begins to expand beyond its original boundaries; the sea level around Britain reaches its maximum since the last Ice Age.

About 3,250 B.C.E. the Great Shock of 3250 B.C.E. begins 1K years of wet stormy weather (ends -1500).

Ötzi the Iceman, -3200

About 3,200 B.C.E. a major world warming event turns the habitable Sahara region into a desert and causes peoples in Edenic settings such as the Fertile Crescent to resort to irrigation; the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Andes Mts. of Peru is formed; Alpine man Oetzi (Ötzi) the Iceman is trapped in a glacier in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian–Italian border, and found by hikers in 1991 C.E.; he has leather shoes with bearskin soles, deerskin panels, tree bark netting, and grass socks, becoming the oldest known natural human mummy, and oldest known person with a tattoo.

About 3,040 B.C.E. the climate of North Am., along with vegetation cover and sea levels achieve modern levels.

In 2600 B.C.E. the pop. in the Indus Valley and Sarasvati River regions begins to mushroom due to farming (ends -2000), building two large cities by -2500 at Harappa on the Indus River S of Lahore in W Punjab, Pakistan, and Mohenjo-Daro near Larkana in S Sindh, Pakistan, with public bldgs. and sanitation, leaving the sculptures Dancing Girl and Priest-King; discovered in the 1920s; too bad, starting about 2500 B.C.E. a climate change begins, causing summer monsoon rains to gradually dry up, causing the Harappa culture to abandon their cities and move to smaller villages in the Himalayan foothills by 1800 B.C.E.

In 2,354 B.C.E. a severe global environmental downturn is caused by comets?

Noah's Ark Noah's Great Flood, -2348

In 2,348 B.C.E. Methuselah (b. -3317) dies at age 969 (Gen. 5:27); 600-y.-o. Noah (b. -2948) finishes Noah's Ark, 300 cubits long x 50 cubits wide by 30 cubits high (438 ft. x 73 ft. x 44 ft.) (Gen. 6:15-16), which has 1.4M cubic ft. of cargo space and 96K sq. ft. of floor space on 3 floors (same as the Titanic) and holds at least the bare minimum of 43 kinds of mammals, 74 kinds of birds, and 10 kinds of reptiles necessary to restock the Earth; the waters of the Great Flood of Noah (Noah's Flood) (Genesis Flood) (Deluge) begin to fall in Nov. (Gen. 7:11); allegedly a protective water canopy hovering over Earth falls, at first drowning everything that breathes air, then part of it freezes, leaving a permanently raised ocean level with a new continental configuration (avg. ocean depth 2.5 mi., avg. land elev. 0.5 mi.) (incl. the 277-mi.-long 18-mi.-wide 6,093-ft.-deep Grand Canyon, the world's largest gorge?); since then we get too much direct radiation, causing the life span to plummet (and also conveniently causing all the hereditary skin colors?); whether the Great Flood happened or not, glaciers end up occupying 5.8M sq. mi. of the world's land surface, about 15%, an area the size of South Am.; if the Earth were to be flattened out, water would cover it to a depth of 2 mi.; if the Antarctic ice were melted, the ocean level would rise 240 ft., submerging one-quarter of the world's land mass.

About 2,200 B.C.E. shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation cause the 4.2 Kiloyear Aridification Event to begin (ends -2100), causing the 200-year Meghalayan mega global drought that devastates civilizations from Egypt to China, causing the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt, the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu Culture in the Lower Yangtze River Basin, also probably causing the collapse of the Indus River Valley civilization, s purring migration of Indo-European speaking people into India, plus mass migrations from Egypt, Greece, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, the Indus River Valley, and the Yangtze River Valley; a drought begins in the Akkadian Empire, causing migration away from urban centers followed by a collapse of the govt. known as the Third Millennium Mesopotamian Urban Crisis; the Meghalayan Age in modern-day Meghalaya, India begins.

In 2,154 B.C.E. Agade (Akkad) is sacked and destroyed, allowing the Gutians (Guteans) (Guti) people of the Zagros Mts. in Iraq to overrun S Mesopotamia, ending the Akkadian Empire (founded -2334); its fall was caused by climate change?

About 1,800 B.C.E. the Middle Bronze Age Cold Epoch begins (ends -1500), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic region, along with severe volcanic eruptions in Mt. Vesuvius (-1660), Mount Aniakchak (-1645), and Mt. Thera in Minoa (-1620).

In 1,159 B.C.E. Mt. Hekla in S Iceland erupts, creating a "nuclear winter" for Scotland, and beginning an 18-year period of worsening climate.

About 1,000 B.C.E. trees flourish in SE Iceland in a warm climate, part of a large forest that later disappears after the climate begins cooling about -500.

In 800 C.E. a cent.-long drought begins in the Yucatan Empire, causing the disintegration of the Mayan civilization.

About 950 B.C.E. the Homeric Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends -800).

About 900 B.C.E. the Iron Age Cold Epoch (Neoglaciation) (Climate Pessimum) begins (ends 300 B.C.E.), bringing unusually cold climate to the North Atlantic, peaking during the expansion of Greece era about 450 B.C.E.

About 660 B.C.E. an enormous solar storm strikes Earth.

About 600 B.C.E. the dense pop. of Zealand, Jutland, and Skane suddenly collapses after being hit by a cyclone or tsunami, after which the North Atlantic freezes, the Arctic becomes a solid ice sheet, and Scandinavia develops a damp, cool climate,

About 250 B.C.E. the Roman Warm Period (Climatic Optimum) in Europe and North Am. begins (ends 400 C.E.), causing Theophrastus to write that date trees can grow in Greece but can't set fruit, as in modern times; the mild weather conditions help Hannibal cross the Alps with his elephants.

In winter 43 B.C.E. a volanic eruption in Okmok Island in the Aleutian Islands causes the Nile River to fail to flood this year and next, causing famine in Egypt.

B.C.E. represents the numerical position in the alphabet of the first three prime numbers (2,3,5) (G=7, K=11, M=13, Q=17, S=19, W=23)?

So divideth the B.C.E., the Don't-Say-B.C.-Before-Christ Butt Crack of Eternity (Before Common Era) from the C.E., the Don't-Say-A.D.-Anno-Domini-Year-of-the-Lord-Christ Scratch-and-Dent-Sale Common Era?


In the 1st cent. C.E. the U.S. Southwest experiences a 50-year drought and 100-year dry period.

About 180 C.E. Mt. Taupo (Hatepe) in New Zealand erupts (VEI-7, the most powerful volcanic eruption in history?), ejecting 7.2 cu mi. of Earth in a few min., turning the sky red over Rome and China; luckily New Zealand is uninhabited?

In 535 C.E. Krakatoa Volcano (Rabul Volcano near Papua, New Guinea?) in Malaysia (at 105 deg. E, 5 deg. S) explodes, splitting the island of Sumatra asunder and creating the islands of Java and Sumatra separated by the Sunda Strait, reducing daylight to four hours and affecting crop growth for 10 years, causing seven years of crop failures, encouraging fleas in Africa to multiply, bringing the plague 3x; the Late Antique Little Ice Age (LALIA) begins (535-6, 539-40, 547).

I'm a walkin' in the rain, tears are fallin' and I feel a pain, a wishin' you were here by me to end this misery. The worst year to be alive in human history?

In 536 C.E. extreme weather eventsbegin after three simultaneous volcanic eruptions, causing the Volcanic Winter of 536 and becoming the most severe protracted short-term cooling events in the Northern Hemisphere until ?, with Constantinople experiencing darkened skies and lower temperatures in Mar., followed by summer temperatures up to 2.5C (4.5F) below normal in Europe, and effects extending to Ireland, Europe, the Middle East, Peru, and China, where snow falls in Aug., and summer 536 temps fall 1.5C-2.5C; "For the sun gave forth its light without brightness, like the moon, during the whole year" (Procopius); did this accelerate the coming of the Dark Ages? In 536-9 C.E. there is a bread famine in Ireland. In 536 C.E. a piece of Halley's Comet slams into Earth, cooling it and leading to Justinian's Plague of 541-2?; the plague is really caused by a series of volcanic eruptions, starting in 536 with a massive eruption in Iceland?

In 540 C.E. a global environmental downturn begins, with global avg. temps decreasing by up to 3.6F, as attested in tree-ring chronologies et al.; there are no written references to it; caused by the Ilopango Volcano in El Salvador; ushers in the Dark Ages of Europe?

In 688 C.E. according to Venerable Bleed, er, Bede, "The rain turned to blood in Britain, and in Ireland milk and butter turned to blood."

In 892 C.E. a 220-year drought begins in Calif. (ends 1112), followed by a 140-year one in 1209 to 1350, causing water levels to drop 50+ ft.

Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) Medieval Warm Period

About 950 C.E. the Medieval Climate Optimum (Climatic Anomaly) (Warm Period) in the North Atlantic begins (ends 1250), becoming the warmest period in the Northern Hemisphere since the Roman Warm Period of -250 to 400, with temps 1C-1.4C higher than modern temps; the tropical Pacific region is colder than normal; Tree Ring Growth in this half-cent. and the next cent. are especially rapid, indicating a warm period; the warmest period is between 950-1100, becoming the warmest period of the last 2K years prior to the 20th cent., allowing commercial winemaking in S England to compete with France 500 km to the N, and vineyards in Germany to be planted at 780m above sea level (vs. 560m today); first proposed by English climatologist Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) in his 1965 report "The early medieval warm epoch and its sequel, based on data from the realms of botany, historical document research and meteorology", whose diagram of global temperature variations over the last thousand years is pub. in the IPCC's First Assessment Report in 1990, massaged to obliterate the Medieval Warm Period?; it was global? Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - David Deming.


About 1040 the Oort Minimum of reduced solar activity begins (ends 1080).


About 1250 the Medieval Climate Optimum (begun 950) along with the optimal climate conditions in Europe since 1000 end, and the Little Ice Age(begins 1350?) (ends 1850) begins as Atlantic ice pack begins growing, bringing poor harvests, famine, and disease, and changing the sociopolitical landscape with a pop. reduction, uprooted vagabond farmers, and a blind rage against the rich and Jews; Europe begins to be rapidly deforested, leading to a shortage of wood for heating and cooking by 1500, along with a decline of wild game and a food shortage; luckily, in the 16th cent. potatoes and corn (maize) are brought in from the New World, and soft coal begins to be used as fuel.

In 1257 a volcanic eruption in Mt. Samalas on Lombok Island near Bali, Indonesia destroys the capital city of Pamatan and shoots 2.4 cu. mi. of rocks and ash, incl. the most sulfur into the atmosphere in 7K years.

In Jan.-May 1258 a large volcanic eruption occurs in Mexico or Ecuador, shooting 190-270 megatonnes into the air (8x larger than Krakatoa in 1883), causing a severe winter and famine in England, W Germany, France, and N Italy, pestilence in London, France, Austria, Iraq, Syria, and SE Turkey, lunar eclipses in England, a dry fog in France, a harsh spring in N Iceland et al.

In 1258 after an unusually mild winter in 1249 where flowers sprout in Jan. before turning cold in Apr.-May, the summer in England is unusually wet and cool, leading to crop failures and famine in winter, killing 20K in London, with people driven to eating tree bark.

About 1280 the Wolf Minimum of minimum solar activity begins (ends 1350).

In Feb. 1287 the South England Flood of 1287 destroys Winchelsea and Broomhill, and diverts the Rother River away from New Romney, ending its role as a port, allowing Rye to take its place; New Winchelsea is built on higher ground; on Dec. 14 after a huge storm and storm tide in the North Sea and English Channel, St. Lucia's Flood kills 50K-80K in the Netherlands and N Germany, becoming one of the largest floods in recorded history, with a freshwater lake connected to the North Sea by the Vlie River becoming the Zuiderzee (Southern Sea), reshaping the coastline and giving sea access to Amsterdam; on Dec. 14 the storm and tide kills thousands in England; the port of Dunwich in Suffolk, England is devastated; the monastery of Spalding, England is destroyed.


About 1300 farm expansion in Europe halts because of the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which lasts until 1850; less cattle is raised, and the herring supply starts to slide; food production slides in Greenland and Scandinavia, and the coast of Greenland grows icebound, causing the settlements to dwindle; Greenland has a pop. of 3K colonists living on 300 farms along the W coast, but the worsening weather dooms them to eventual near-extinction.

In 1302-7 (1304-6?) a European drought occurs just before the onset of the Little Ice Age and the cold-wet Dantean Anomaly of the 1310s; in 1302-4 there is a drought in the Mediterranean, followed by hot dry summers N of the Alps in 1304-6.

In 1306 after getting pissed-off at all the air pollution, King Edward I bans coal; England gets the honor of enacting the first anti-pollution laws - not a misprint?

In spring 1315 bad weather caused by volcanic activity in SE Asia and New Zealand leads to the Great Famine of 1315-17 (1314-22?), which kills 35% of the 30M pop. in Europe in a 400K sq. mi. area from Ireland to Italy and Russia, causing cannibalism, infanticide, disease, and crime, ending the period of growth and prosperity begun in the 11th cent.; mothers are fed their children, becoming the source of the Hansel and Gretel legend?


About 1460 the Sporer (Spörer) Minimum begins (ends 1550), a 90-year span of low solar activity first proposed in 1976 by John A. Eddy based on analysis of C-14 in tree rings, and named for German astronomer Gustav Sporer.

On Feb. 17, 1495 after experiencing the first recorded hurricane near Hispaniola and gathering 1.6K male and female slaves on Haiti, Christopher Columbus' expedition embarks with the healthiest 550, leaving the rest for sale; about 200 Indians die on the voyage and are thrown overboard.


On Feb. 28-Sept. 19, 1540 the European Super Drought of 1540 causes Milan, Italy to be completely dry for 5 mo., while in Zurich it only rains 4x, causing the water table in Switzerland to drop over 1.5M and thousands along the Ruhr River to die of poisoning from dirty water; Lindau Island becomes connected to the mainland after the water level in the Bodensee sinks; the water flow in the Elbe River is reduced to one-tenth normal, allowing people to walk across them, along with the Rhine and Seine Rivers; by Aug. trees begin shedding their leaves early, after which fires destroy more communities than in the preceding millennium, causing a blanket of smoke to shroud Europe, turning the Sun and Moon into flaming red balls; prices for flour and bread zoom sky high.

'The Hunters in the Snow' by Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-69), 1565

In Dec. 1565 winter in N Europe is super-cold, killing birds and fruit trees; on Dec. 25-Jan. 13 the Thames River freezes solid, and Elizabeth I becomes fond of daily trips on the ice; portrayed by Dutch Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel (Bruegel) the Elder (1525-69) in his 1565 painting The Hunters in the Snow (Return of the Hunters); stark portrayal of global cooling?

In 1570 Swiss theologian Heinrich Bullinger wrote the soundbyte: "The spring of this year was like winter, cold and wet, the wine blossom terrible, and the harvest bad."

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Robin Williams (1951-)

In 1581 with clocklike precision, Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) discovers that the time taken by a swinging lamp in the Cathedral of Pisa does not depend on the angle through which it swings (i.e., a pendulum swings isochronously). In 1591 he drops a 1 lb. and a 100 lb. weight from the Tower of Pisa simultaneously to prove a point in physics about bodies falling at the same speed regardless of mass, refuting the know-it-all Aristotelians. In 1593 he invents the Thermoscope, a primitive uncalibrated thermometer used as a novelty perpetual motion machine.

Gov. John White of Roanoke (1540-1618) John White's Indian Paintings John White's Indian Paintings

The original Don't Be a Paleface? The foolhearty Anglo whites take a dare in Injunland a little too early? In July 1587 after John White (1540-93) (half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh) visits the North Carolina area and returns with shocking but cool, twisted-to-Euro-prejudices paintings of the half-naked but partly civilized and hence useful Indians (hence kinda a little bit white?), he leads a party of 116 English settlers (90 men, 17 women, 9 children) and lands on Roanoke Island off the N.C. coast; on Aug. 18 Virginia Dare (1587-) is born to Gov. John White's daughter Ellinor and Ananias Dare, becoming the first white European child born in the Am. colonies (don't think Heidi Klum and Seal?); wasting no time to make the place liveable, the colonists brew their own ale from corn; on Aug. 27 Gov. White leaves for England with a skeleton crew of 15 to seek help and supplies, leaving instructions that if the colonists are forced to leave in his absence they should inscribe their destination in a "conspicuous place"; too bad, the war between England and Spain keeps him from returning until 1590; the paintings start out circulating in the hands of the elite only, but eventually get made into prints which circulate in Europe for two cents., forming their main impression of Am. Indians; meanwhile white men's diseases (smallpox, typhus, measles) begin their genocidal effect on the defenseless pop., aggravated by a drought lasting until 1589. On Aug. 18, 1590 a relief expedition reaches the Roanoke Colony and finds it deserted, with the word "Croatoan" carved on a post, indicating that they had gone to Croatoan Island to the S to live with the friendly Hatteras tribe, which in 1650 migrates to the Lumber River Valley 200 mi. away, becoming the Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, N.C.; at the time, though, nobody can figure out what happened to them, and suspect the worse; Roanoke Island becomes submerged by modern times - see that great episode of the Fess Parker TV series "Daniel Boone"?


Capt. John Smith (1580-1631) Pocahontas (1595-1617) Chief Powhatan (1547-1618)

Early in the 1607 after leaving England last Dec. 20 in three ships, Godspeed, Susan Constant, captained by 1-armed Christopher Newport (1561-1618), and Discovery, captained by Bartholomew Gosnold (1571-1607) with 144 passengers and crew, then being pinned to the coast of England by howling winds for 6 weeks, the Virginia Co. expedition crosses the Atlantic by a southernly route and reprovisions in the West Indies, then heads N for Virginia, expecting to arrive in Apr.; too bad, they hit a tempest and sound for four days, looking for offshore shallows, and on Apr. 26 at 4 a.m. they sight land, enter Chesapeake Bay, then sail 40 mi. up the James River to hide from Spaniards; on May 14 they finally land after 144 days at sea at a marshy spot of land on the N shore of the James River (Jamestown Island in the river?) (140 mi. N of Roanoke), in an area surrounded by howling Indian settlements, naming it Jamestown in honor of James I, becoming the first permanent English settlement on the North Am. mainland; Capt. John Smith (1580-1631), who had accused the leaders ("our ignorant transporters") of incompetence, calling them "ten times more fit to spoil a commonwealth than... to begin one", was clapped in irons on the voyage and sentenced to hang but pardoned to be used in possible future fighting by Capt. Newport after a gallows is built on Nevis Island in the Caribbean, becoming the first English Am. inmate; most of the 107 male cavalier colonists are devout, have Puritan leanings and are strongly anti-Catholic, and allegedly first stop at Cape Henry at the mouth of the James River and plant a cross on the shore, claiming it for Christ; to keep investors from bugging out, the names of seven governing council members are carried in a sealed box, and opened upon landing, and capt. Edward Maria Wingfield (1550-1631) becomes the first pres. of the council; after living behind a crescent brush fence for two weeks they are attacked by 200 Indians, who are repelled with the help of the ship's cannon after two English die and 11 are wounded, causing them to decide to build a log palisade, and in June heat under frequent arrow attack they cut and split 600+ trees in 19 days and lay them in a 300-yard 2.5-ft.-deep triangular trench, after which "scarce 10 among us could either go or well stand, such extreme weakness and sickness oppressed us" (Smith); being "gentlemen adventurers" they don't know how to farm, hunt in the woods or even fish, forcing them to depend for food supplies on trade for copper scraps with the 30-tribe 14K-21K pop. Powhatan (Powatan) (Powhaten) (1545-1618) (pr. pow-uh-TAN) confederation of Algonquian Indians in the Tidewater area of E Va. between the James and York Rivers, led by 60-y.-o. Pawmunkey chief Powhatan, real name Wahunsonacock (sounds like?) (father of 11-y.-o. Pocahontas), whom Capt. Smith says "sat covered with a great robe made of raccoon skins, and all the tails hanging by" flanked by "two rows of men, and behind them as many women, with all their heads and shoulders painted red", and wearing long strings of pearls, presenting "such a grave and Majesticall countenance, as drave me into admiration to see such state in a naked Salvage", and to whom Smith later lies that they are merely visitors driven there to hide from the Spanish (ask Dr. D. James Kennedy how they only came to spread the gospel to the heathens?); too bad, the Powhatans want English swords and firearms, not just copper and them cool glass beads, and to make allies of them to fight other Indians, not to become tributaries to James I, and since the colony is owned by Walmart, er, the London Co., er, the Virginia Co., they have to show a profit for the stockholders back in the Big E, so in June Capt. Newport leaves for England with two ships carrying samples of clapboard and sassafras, leaving 104 settlers, all male (incl. some boys, cute cute cute?), who also attempt to hunt for precious minerals and plant cotton; too bad, a major drought lasting for seven years (1606-12) makes freshwater scarce, and being too lazy to dig a well, they have to drink from the Shi, er, James River (filled with you know what from the many Indian settlements upriver), giving them salt poisoning as well as dysentery to go with their typhoid, leading to the Starving Time of 1609-10.

Thomas Harriot (1560-1621)

In 1610 after beating Galileo by 4 mo. and making the first drawing of the Moon through a telescope on July 26, 1609, English astronomer Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) discovers sunspots - you're the cream in my coffee?

Johannes Baptista van Helmont (1580-1644)

In 1624 Brussels-born Belgian Flemish chemist Jan (Johannes) Baptist van Helmont (1580-1644) pub. his discovery that the atmosphere is composed of gases, and coins the term "gas" (Gr. "chaos" = unformed) for a compressible fluid - that would make it classical gas?

On Aug. 24-25, 1635 the Great Colonial Hurricane of 1635 brushes Jamestown, Va. before hitting SE New England incl. Mass Bay Colony and R.I., creating 14-20-ft. storm surges, destroying thousands of trees and many houses, becoming the most powerful hurricane in New England since colonization; the small barque Watch and Wait of Isaac Allerton founders off Cape Ann killing 21 of 23 aboard, later becoming the subject of John Greenleaf Whittier's poem "The Swan Song of Parson Avery"; Boston is spared the high tides, which sweep over Dorchester.

In the 1640s all surviving harvest records in North Am. show big dips; in 1641-53 the Canadian Rockies suffer a severe prolonged drought; in 1643-71 Indonesia experiences its longest drought in four cents., with peak episodes in 1659-64.

In 1641 Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany (founder of the Accademia del Cimento in Florence) invents an alcohol glass thermoscope, calibrated to "coldest winter cold" and "hottest summer heat".

In 1642/3 (winter) a severe winter in Japan kills 500K.

On July 15 (July 5 Old Style), 1643 Gov. John Winthrop records a sudden storm in Essex County, Mass. that was "so violent for half an hour as it blew down multitudes of tres"; it may be the first tornado recorded in the U.S., although it might have only been a line squall.

Evangelista Torricelli (1608-47)

In 1643 Rome-born Italian physicist-mathematician Evangelista Torricelli (1608-47) (Galileo's mathematics student, who succeeded to his chair in mathematics at the U. of Pisa) accidentally invents the Mercury Barometer (Torricelli Tube) (along with Vincenzo Viviani); a torr is later defined as the number of millimeters of mercury in a Torricelli Tube; on June 11, 1644 Torricelli writes the soundbyte in a letter to Michelangelo Ricci: "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of air" (Noi viviamo sommersi nel fondo d'un pelago d'aria).

It Surely Changes? The 70-year Maunder Minimum cools the climate almost instantly?

In 1645 70-year the Maunder Minimum (period of low sunspot counts) begins (ends 1715); the Thames River freezes every winter, and there is famine throughout Europe and China, beginning a series of bad weather, poor harvests, and plagues worldwide; in 1645 the summer in England is excessively hot and dry, causing small animals and birds to suffer from heat-borne diseases; in 1645-6 Russia suffers droughts, plagues of locusts; in 1647- S Russia suffers early frosts and poor harvests, creating widespread food shortages; this year a great storm in Shanghai, China causes the sea to break the dikes, flooding the fields with salt water and destroying the rice crop; this year intense rains in Crete destroy crops and bldgs.; in Sept. a year-long rainstorm in Sicily destroys the winter harvest and seriously reduces the summer harvest; in winter 1645/6 Ukraine suffers a cruel winter filled with frosts and heavy snow, followed by heavy spring rains that make roads impassible, destroying the harvest and causing starvation among the Cossacks on the lower Dnieper River; in Aug. 1646 cold rainy weather causes wheat prices to reach record-setting levels, followed by bad harvests for five years as cattle die from murrain, with peak wheat prices in 1648-9; in fall 1646 a great drought begins, lasting through the spring; in 1646 a great storm strikes Holland and Denmark, killing 110K with floods; meanwhile in 1646 the sea breaks in at Dullar in Friesland and Zealand, drowning 100K in 300 villages, plus 10K in Dordrecht, Netherlands; in 1646 the Iberian Peninsula suffers a disastrous harvest; in 1646 a locust plague in Moldavia destroys the harvest, leaving not even one blade of grass, doing ditto in 1647 and 1648; in 1646 torrential rains in Turkey are followed by a drought in 1647, which destroy Istanbul's harvest surpluses and create a food shortage;in 1646-7 a super-cold winter stops a Mughal invasion of Afghanistan; in May 1647 the weather in S Spain turns cold, "even worse than the coldest January dry", resulting in the worst harvest of the cent.; in 1647 the harvest in France fails, causing even the royal court to suffer a food shortage, leading to the 1648-53 Fronde Rev. that kills 1M; in 1647 there is a famine in Crimea; in Apr.-Nov. 1648 it rains every day in Holland, causing crops to rot in the fields, after which 6 mo. of frost and snow cause the canals to freeze, stopping barge traffic; in 1648 bad weather ruins the harvest in S Italy, causing grain prices in Naples to quadruple; in 1648 heavy rains in Yucatan, Mexico result in a yellow fever plague, after which an extraordinary drought produces wildfires that destroy all remaining crops, leaving the ground sterile, killing almost half the pop. by 1656; in 1649 floods in England and France; in 1649-50 rain and wars cause famine in Scotland and N England, followed by plague in England and Ireland; in 1650-1 Scotland has its worst drought in 1K years, while Ireland suffers a major famine.

In 1646 Italian scientist Marco Aurelio Severino (1580-1656) becomes the first to describe refrigeration anaesthesia using snow-ice mixtures.

Adrien Auzout (1622-91)

In 1647 French astronomer Adrien Auzout (1622-91) proves that air has barometric pressure.

In 1648 Blaise Pascal proposes the concept of air pressure in barometers, having his brother-in-law carry one up a mountain and record its readings to show that higher altitudes have lower air pressure.

In 1655 a famine in Ireland produces another one in Scotland.

In 1659 the Central England Temperature Record (CET) is established, becoming the longest-running set of temperature data on Earth; it starts out with 0.5C accuracy, increasing to 0.1C in 1699-1706 and Nov. 1722-present; in 1772 it goes from monthly to daily.

In 1675 North Am. has a year without a summer, becoming the 2nd coldest winter recorded in North Am. in the last six cents.

In Dec. 1683 the Great Frost of 1683-4 (worst until ?) strikes Europe and the British Isles, freezing the Thames River to a depth of 11 in. for 2 mo. and becoming the wettest recorded winter in the E Mediterranean in five cents.; a Frost Fair is held on the rideway of the River Thames in London between Southwark and the Temple until the ice melts on Feb. 6; the Thames freezes at least 8x in 600 years of the existence of the London Bridge because its 19 arches impede the river's flow ; the winters of the late 1680s are at least 3C cooler than in modern times all them scientific brains and no mention of global cooling?

Edmond Halley (1656-1742)

In 1686 London-born English astronomer Edmond (Edmund) Halley (1656-1742) pub. Weather Map in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, a map of the trade winds and monsoons in the seas of the tropics; the first weather map?


On Dec. 7, 1703 (Nov. 26 Old Style) the Great Storm of 1703 rages in C-S England, an extratropical cyclone (Category 2?) that collapses 2K chimneys in London, destroys 4K oaks in the New Forest, kills 1K seamen on the Goodwin Sands in Kent, killing a total of 8K and destroying the new Eddystone Lighthouse; Daniel Defoe calls it God's punishment for poor English performance against the Roman Catholic armies in the War of the Spanish Succession, while the Church of England calls it God's punishment for the nation's sins.

Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)

An Irish satirist predicts U.N.-backed climate scientists 300 years in advance? In 1704 Dublin-born Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) pub. A Tale of a Tub; his first major work, pub. anon.; satire about three brothers, each representing a major branch of Christianity; despite getting his cousin Thomas to claim authorship, it damages his prospects in the Church of England; "Seamen have a custom, when they meet a whale, to fling him out an empty tub by way of amusement, to divert him from laying violent hands upon the ship"; "There are certain common privileges of a writer, the benefit whereof, I hope, there will be no reason to doubt; particularly, that where I am not understood, it shall be concluded, that something very useful and profound is couched underneath; and again, that whatever word or sentence is printed in a different character, shall be judged to contain something extraordinary either or wit of sublime"; "Bread is the staff of life"; "Books, the children of the brain"; "As boys do sparrows, with flinging salt upon their tails"; "He made it a part of his religion never to say grace to his meat"; "It is a maxim, that those to whom everybody allows the second place have an undoubted title to the first." In 1726 he pub. Gulliver's Travels (Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts, By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships); Lemuel Gulliver visits the countries of Lilliput and Blefuscu (6-in. tall people, Lilliput's capital city Mildendo is surrounded by a 2.5-ft. wall), Brobdingnag (60-ft. tall giants), Laputa (flying island of scientific quacks), Glubdubdrib (sorcerers), Luggnag (island where the Stuldbrugs live forever while suffering the infirmities of old age), the land of the Houyhnhnms, where intelligent horses rule over savage humanoid Yahoos, and Balnibarbi (failed inventors and projectors, capital Lagado); a satire of all things English, or just English modernism?; "If I had to make a list of six books which were to be preserved when all others were destroyed, I would certainly put 'Gulliver's Travels' among them" (George Orwell); "He [the emperor of Lilliput] is taller by almost the breadth of my nail, than any of his court, which alone is enough to strike an awe into the beholders"; "I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives [Brobdingnag] to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth"; "He had been eight years upon a project for extracting sunbeams out of cucumbers, which were to be put in vials hermetically sealed, and let out to warm the air in raw inclement summers [Laputa]"; "I said the thing which was not. (For they have no word in their language to express lying or falsehood.) [Houyhnhnms]"; "Poor Nations are hungry, and rich Nations are proud, and Pride and Hunger will ever be at Variance [Houyhnhnms]"; "And he gave it for his opinion, that whosoever could make two ears of corn or two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together."

On Jan. 5/6, 1709 after volcanic eruptions by Teide in the Canary Islands, Santorini in the E Mediterranean, and Vesuvius near Naples, combined with the Maunder Minimum of 1645-1715 leads to the perfect storm, the European Deep Freeze (Le Grand Hiver) of 1709 begins, freezing the entire continent from Italy to Scandinavia and England to Russia for three months, becoming the worst Euro winter in 500 years, seeing the canals of Venice freeze over, allowing people to ice skate, and the Baltic Sea freeze, allowing people to cross on horseback; the pop. of Paris cut off from supplies for 3 mo.; points on the Rhone and Garonne Rivers have 11 in.-thick ice; the hot springs of Aaachen, Germany ice over, along with the Thames River, Ebro River, and the canals and port of Amsterdam; ships get trapped in ice in the Adriatic Sea, and their crews perish from hunger and cold; in Switzerland starving wolves venture into villages; the freeze weakens Sweden's army, leading to the epic Russian V at the Battle of Poltava in June 1709; France and England postpone hostilities in the War of the Spanish Succession, leading to the British V over the French at the Battle of Malplaquet in Sept. 1709; in mid-Apr. the thaw begins, leading to floods and a Euro-wide flu pandemic in 1709-10, compounded by plague from the Ottoman Empire via Hungary; in 1709 a Euro-wide food shortage leads to grain prices rising 6x; the French govt. appoints a commission headed by Henri-Francois D'Aguesseau to preside over food distribution and ban grain hoarding; in 1709-10 deaths increase 600K over the avg., along with 200K fewer births; "I believe the Frost was greater... than any other within the Memory of Man." (William Derham) Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) Anders Celsius (1701-44)

In 1714 Danzig, Poland-born Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) of Amsterdam invents mercury-in-glass thermometer, followed in 1724 by the 0-32-212 Fahrenheit Scale, which becomes popular with beer brewers. In 1742 Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-44) proposes the 0-100 Celsius (Lat. "centigrade" = 100 steps) Scale for use in lab work to the Royal Swedish Society. with 0 for the boiling point and 100 for the freezing point; in 1745 Carolus Linnaeus inverts it; mercury solidifies at -39 C; after the Celsius scale is adopted by the internat. scientific community, only the U.S. sticks with the Fahrenheit scale. In 1724 Fahrenheit discovers the phenomenon of supercooling (undercooling), the ability of a liquid or gas to be lowered below its freezing point, for example when water doesn't freeze in clouds.

George Graham (1674-1751) Anders Celsius (1704-44)

In 1727 after discovering slight magnetic fluctuations on his compass to be correlated with the latter's observations of aurorae, English watchmaker George Graham (1674-1751) and Swedish scientist Anders Celsius (1701-44) discover that sunspots are really magnetic storms.

Pierre Bouguer (1698-1758) Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-77)

In 1729 French scientist Pierre Bouguer (1698-1758) pub. Essai d'optique sur la gradation de la lumiere (lumière), a study of the quantity of light lost passing through the atmosphere, announcing the Beer-Lambert Law, which states that the absorbance is directly proportional to its path length; in June 1760 Swiss superbrain scientist Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-77) pub. Photometria, establishing a complete system of photometry (Gr. "photos" + "metria" = light + measurement), quoting Bouguer's 1729 paper proposing the Beer-Lambert Law and ending up getting credit; in 1852 German Jewish scientist August Beer (1825-63) pub. another version, stating that the intensity of light transmitted through a solution at a given wavelength decreases exponentially with the path length and the concentration of the solute - let's have a beer?

Rene Antoine de Reaumur (1683-1757)

In 1731 French entomologist Rene (René) Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur (Réaumur) (1683-1757) invents an alcohol thermometer with the 0-80 (freezing-boiling) Reaumur (Réaumur) Temperature Scale - he should have used the 20-80 rule and made it 0-100?

Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82)

In 1738 Swiss physicist-mathematician Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82) pub. Hydrodynamica, which lays the basis for the Kinetic Theory of Gases, that they consist of great numbers of molecules moving in all directions, with their impact on a surface causing gas pressure, and heat simply their kinetic energy of motion; he announces Bernoulli's Law (Principle), a pressure-velocity (PV) relationship for fluids explaining the loss of vis viva in fluid flow using the idea of conservation of energy, stating that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in the fluid's pressure or potential energy, founding the field of Hydrodynamics; derives Boyle's Law by considering a gas as a collection of atoms which collide with the container wall, but everybody overlooks it until it's rediscovered in 1859 - they still teach all that in Top Gun school?

In 1740-1 (Year of Slaughter) extreme winters and bad harvests cause widespread famine in Ireland, killing 300K-480K out of 2.4M (13%-20%).

In 1751 atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is measured retroactively back to this year at the Law Dome Ice Core: 277 in 1751-71, 278 in 1772-1784, 279 in 1785-88, and 280 in 1789-91.

Joseph Black (1728-99)

In 1754 Bordeaux-born Scottish chemist Joseph Black (1728-99) discovers carbon dioxide (carbonic acid) (CO2) gas by heating calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ); he calls it "fixed air" because it is denser than air and can't sustain fire or animal life, and discovers its function in the "causticization of lime", which helps disprove the phlogiston theory.

In July 1757 the July 1757 Heat Wave in Europe becomes the hottest summer in Europe until 2003.

In the 1770s the mean Jan. temp is 34.3F (1.3C), becoming a low point, after which a steady warming trend sees the mean Jan. temp rise to 40.5F (4.7C) in the 1920s; "Starting in the mid-13th century, the northern hemisphere entered a period of prolonged cooling known as the Little Ice Age. This extended chill was not smooth and uniform, however, but marked by intervals of plummeting temperatures in the midst of otherwise stable warmth. Around 1770, one such interval of abrupt freezing began in the Northern Atlantic, wreaking immediate havoc on shipping, transportation and agriculture. In 1775, severe grain shortages in France caused by successive years of poor harvests resulted in bread riots throughout the kingdom. Later dubbed the Flour War, it was a harbinger of things to come."- Climate Chaos Helped Spark the French Revolution

In 1770 a famine in Bengal kills up to one-third of the pop. in affected areas; more famines in 1876-7 (5M killed), 1899 (4.5M killed), and 1943 (5M+ killed).

On Jan. 26-29, 1772 the Washington-Jefferson Snowstorm hits Va., dropping its greatest snow in the District of Columbia area, 3 ft., becoming the most seen since Euro settlement; both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson record it in their weather diaries after Jefferson and his new bride are caught in it, requiring them to abandon their carriage at Blenheim 8 mi. from Monticello, and complete the journey on horseback, arriving at a cold dark house after the servants had retired for the night.

In 1774 records of sea level begin to be kept in Stockholm, Sweden, showing a yearly decrease of 3.81 +/- 0.32 mm/year, which modern global warmists modify to account for supposed land uplift to become a rise of 1.55 mm/year, increasing to 3 mm/year starting in 1980. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Oct. 9-20, 1780 the 200 mph Great Hurricane (of the Antilles) of 1780 (Huracán San Calixto) kills 20K-27K in the Lesser Antilles, becoming the deadliest Atlantic hurricane (until ?); 40 French ships involved in the Am. Rev. War capsize.

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

In 1781 Am. big brain Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) writes Notes on the State of Virginia, containing observations of the climate in Williamsburgh, Va. in 1772-7, describing local warming, with the soundbyte: "A change in our climate however is taking place very sensibly. Both heats and colds are become much more moderate within the memory even of the middle-aged. Snows are less frequent and less deep. They do not often lie, below the mountains, more than one, two, or three days, and very rarely a week. They are remembered to have been formerly frequent, deep, and of long continuance. The elderly inform me the earth used to be covered with snow about three months in every year. The rivers, which then seldom failed to freeze over in the course of the winter, scarcely ever do so now. This change has produced an unfortunate fluctuation between heat and cold, in the spring of the year, which is very fatal to fruits. From the year 1741 to 1769, an interval of twenty-eight years, there was no instance of fruit killed by the frost in the neighbourhood of Monticello. An intense cold, produced by constant snows, kept the buds locked up till the sun could obtain, in the spring of the year, so fixed an ascendency as to dissolve those snows, and protect the buds, during their developement, from every danger of returning cold. The accumulated snows of the winter remaining to be dissolved all together in the spring, produced those overflowings of our rivers, so frequent then, and so rare now."

In 1782 the Great Tenmei Famine in Japan begins (ends 1788), killing 1M of 30M.

On Feb. 4, 1783 a series of earthquakes begins in Calabria, Italy killing 50K, becoming the first earthquake to be investigated scientifically.

In June 1783 Laki Volcano in SE Iceland begins erupting for the next 8 mo. (until Feb.), killing 50%+ of the cattle and most of the crops, leading to a famine that kills 35% of the human pop., becoming the worst in Icelandic history (until ?); after 120M tons of sulfur dioxide is spewed into the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, global temps drop, causing crop failures in Alaska and droughts in North Africa and India.

On Aug. 4, 1783 after small eruptions on May 9 and a larger eruption on July 26, Mt. Asama 85 mi. N of Tokyo, Japan erupts bigtime, destroying four villages plus an 18 sq. km primeval forest and killing thousands, worsening the Great Tenmei Famine; in 1820 Dutch ambassdor Isaac Titsingh (1745-1812) pub. an account of the eruption.

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846)

In fall 1792 Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. pub. the first (1793) ed. of The (Old) Farmer's Almanac; by the late 1860s circ. zooms from 3K to 200K.

John Dalton (1766-1844)

In 1793 English meteorologist John Dalton (1766-1844) pub. his first work Meteorological Observations and Essays (2nd ed. 1834), based on his habit of M.O., which goes on from 1787-1844, later used to propose the Dalton Minimum of low sunspot counts in 1796-1820 (1790-1830?).

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834)

In 1798 Westcott, Surrey, England-born cleric Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) pub. An Essay on the Principle of Population (June); pub. under the alias Joseph Johnson; 2nd ed. 1803; 6th ed. 1826; a response to William Godwin's view of the "perfectibility of society" in "Political Justice" (1793), dissing the English Poor Laws and supporting the Corn Laws (taxes on grain imports), claiming that the pop. can double in 25 years, causing the food supply to run out in two generations, and proposes Malthus' Iron Law of Pop. (Wages), that "Food is necessary to the existence of man", "The passion between the sexes is necessary and will remain nearly in its present stage", thus the "power of population is infinitely greater than the power in the Earth to produce subsistence for man"; "The mighty law of self-preservation expels all the softer and more exalted emotions of the soul... In so short a period as withing fifty years, violence, oppression, falsehood, misery, every hateful vice, and every form of distress, which degrade and sadden the present state of society, seem to have been generated by the most imperious circumstances, by laws inherent in the nature of man, and absolutely independent of its human regulations"; as a corollary, a rising pop. causes a rising labor supply, leading to lower wages, causing passage of the British Census Act of 1800; despite its uncorked exponential scientific assumptions, it gets used to justify war as a way to keep the non-white (or less-white) pop. down for the common good of whites (or more-whites) everywhere. In modern times globalist Malthusians openly talk about mass extermination of human beings like slugs, giving the U.N. a reason to push a false narrative of global warming to reduce CO2 and curtail the food supply? Watch video. Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859)

In 1799 German (Prussian) polymath geographer-explorer Baron Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) travels through Venezuela, noting that Aragua Valley farmers are deforesting the region to grow indigo, causing a nearby lake to dry up, causing him to write a letter in 1804 to U.S. Pres. Thomas Jefferson with the soundbyte: "The wants and restless activity of large communities of men gradually despoil the face of the Earth", becoming the first known Western observation of human-caused climate change?; really just land despoilation? In 1800 after launching an exploration of South Am. in 1799 (ends 1804) proposes that South Am. had once been joined with Africa, becoming the first person to describe anthropogenic climate change - just look how Brazil fits into the Gulf of Guinea? In 1802 he discovers and explores the cold sluggish low-salinity Humboldt (Peru) Current running along the Pacific coast of South Am. toward the equator, extending 300-600 mi. off the coast (500M cu. ft. per sec). In 1845-52 he pub. Kosmos (Cosmos) (5 vols.), a bestseller retracing the history of science and showing its Greek origins, claiming that contemplation of the beauty of the Cosmos holistically viewed as a single entity gives one a superior outlook on life; too bad, he taints it with Romanticism?; "It was the discovery of America that planted the seed of the Cosmos."


Sir William Herschel (1738-1822)

In 1800 German-born English astronomer Sir Frederick William Herschel (1738-1822) discovers Infrared Light (beyond the red end of the spectrum) using prisms and thermometers on solar rays; he also discovers a connection between 11-year sunspot cycles and wheat prices, becoming the first theory of economic cycles.

Luke Howard (1772-1864)

In 1802 English chemist Luke Howard (1772-1864) pub. Essay on the Modification of Clouds, containing the first scientific definition of cloud types, incl. cumulus (puffy popcorn), stratus (formless), and cirrus (ice crystal), plus modifications incl. cirrostratus, stratocumulus, and cumulonimbus, becoming the father of the science of Meteorology.

In 1802 Alexander von Humboldt discovers and explores the cold sluggish Humboldt Current, running along the Pacific coast of South Am. (500M cu. ft. per sec); he also makes a record-settling climb of Mt. Chimborazo in Ecuador, and doesn't reach the top but correctly traces his altitude sickness to lack of oxygen.

William Henry (1774-1836)

The Soda Pop Law? On Jan. 1, 1803 English chemist William Henry (1774-1835) pub. the paper Experiments on the Quantity of Gases Absorbed by Water, at Different Temperatures, and under Different Pressures, proposing Henry's Law, which states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase, with the soundbyte: "Water takes up, of gas condensed by one, two, or more additional atmospheres, a quantity which, ordinarily compressed, would be equal to twice, thrice, &c., the volume absorbed under the common pressure of the atmosphere."

Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857)

In 1805 County Meath, Ireland-born hydrographer and British rear adm. Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1857) devises the Blowfart, er, Beaufort Wind Scale (0-12) for gauging wind force at sea: 0:0-1 mph (calm), 1:2-3 (light air), 2:4-7 (slight breeze), 3:8-12 (gentle breeze), 4:13-18 (moderate breeze), 5:19-24 (fresh breeze), 6:25-31 (strong breeze), 7:32-38 (moderate gale), 8:39-46 (fresh gale), 9:47-54 (strong gale), 10:55-63 (whole gale), 11:64-72 (storm), 12:73-82 (hurricane).

On Feb. 10, 1807 the U.S. Coast Survey is established by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, becoming the first U.S. scientific agency, changing to the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1878; in 1870 the U.S. Nat. Weather Bureau is formed, followed on May 22, 1917 by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps (NOAA Corps); on Oct. 3, 1970 the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) is formed, which founds seven internal research labs incl. the U.S. Surface Climate Reference Network (USCRN), and the Air Resources Lab (ARL), which in Oct. 2005 is merged with the Aeronomy Lab, the Climate Diagnostics Center, the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab, the Environmental Technology Lab, and the Forecast Systems Lab to form the Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) in Boulder, Colo.

The Mississippi runs backwards? On Dec. 16, 1811 the 7.5-7.9 1811-12 New Madrid Earthquakes in the Mississippi River Valley on the North Am. Plate begin with a 7.2-8.2 earthquake and a 7.4 aftershock; rocking the bootheel region of Mo. centered in New Madrid, Mo., becoming known as the Great Shaking, decimating the region and reversing the course of the Mississippi River for a few hours; two more follow, on Jan. 23 and Feb. 7, the last reaching 8.3 (vs. 7.6 for the 1906 San Francisco quake), felt in one-third of the continental U.S., as far away as New York City and Canada, and becoming the worst in the contiguous U.S. E of the Rocky Mts. (until ?) (the Mar. 27, 1964 Alaskan Good Friday Earthquake is larger); the earthquakes uncover a scandalous murder and affect the War of 1812 after Tecumseh points to them as a sign from the Great Spirit that palefaces are doomed? Watch video.

On Apr. 10, 1815 the Mt. Tambora on Sumbawa Island in Indonesia erupts with a force(VEI-7) 100Kx Mt. St. Helens (most powerful recorded volcanic explosion in history), killing 90K, mostly from starvation after it destroys the crops; its ash affects the weather as far away as England, blackening skies around the globe and blocking sunlight for three years, triggering a blizzard in Upstate New York in June 1816 and killer frosts in New England in July-Aug. 1816, making 1816 "the year without a summer", causing a new genre of Gothic fiction incl. Frankenstein and human vampires to emerge?

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846)

In 1816 the Year Without a Summer (Poverty Year), caused by the Apr. 10, 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora sees the worse European winter (until ?) followed by a widespread European crop failure that causes food riots in Britain, France, and Belgium, while Britain experiences its worst-ever depression (until ?) during the next two years, with the economy taking until 1820 to begin reviving; meanwhile, the economic depression combined with the overthrow of Napoleon brings the English working class to the brink of rev. over the winter of 1816-7; Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846) of Worcester County, Mass. in his Old Farmer's Almanac (founded 1792) mistakenly forecasts snow in July and Aug., but before he can send out replacements it actually does snow in the summer, making him into a genius and boosting his almanac's popularity?

The Old Farmer's Almanac, 1818-

In 1818 The Farmer's Almanac is founded in Morristown, N.J. by David Young and Jacob Mann; in 1851 Samuel Hart Wright succeeds Young, and is succeeded in 1875 by his son Berlin Hart Wright; in 1934 Ray Geiger becomes ed., followed in 1994 by his son Peter Geiger; each new ed. is released in Sept., and covers 16 mos., covering seven U.S. climatic zones using a "top secret mathematical and astronomical formula, that relies on sunspot activity, tidal action, planetary position and many other factors"; the forecaster is named Caleb Weatherbee; 80% forecast accuracy is claimed by the publishers, but meteorologists regard it ias pseudoscience.

Maria, Lady Callcott (1785-1842) Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Louis Agassiz (1807-73)

On Nov. 19, 1822 the Chilean Earthquake of 1822 is experienced by Scottish writer (recent widow) Maria, Lady Callcott (1785-1842), whose description of large land areas rising from the sea is later used by Charles Lyell to support his theory that mountains are formed by volcanoes and earthquakes, and backed up by Charles Darwin when George Greenough tries to ridicule her on sexist lines. In 1830-3 Scottish geologist Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) pub. The Principles of Geology, which expounds and expands James Hutton's uniformitarian theory, trashes the Bible-based catastrophist position, and flips the ultimate bird at Jehovah by dividing the geological system into Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene - plumbing is a mercurial mistress? In July 1837 30-y.-o. Swiss naturalist Louis Jean Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-73) shocks the Swiss Society of Natural Sciences in Neuchatel, abandoning his prepared lecture on Brazilian fossil fish and announcing his new theory that a vast "ocean of ice" had once covered all of Europe and N Asia as far as the Caspian Sea, based on an expedition the previous summer with older friend Jean de Charpentier, where they had found evidence that glaciers move, carrying rocks with them, incl. one incident where Agassiz is lowered into an Alpine glacier too far and almost freezes in meltwater; too bad, the other scientists scoff at any implication that the Biblical Flood doesn't explain all. In 1840 Agassiz pub. Studies of Glaciers (Etudes sur les Glaciers), explaining the role of glaciers in geological change, making a Biblical Flood unnecessary; in the fall noted Biblical Flood proponent Rev. William Buckland of Oxford debates with Agassiz at the annual meeting of the British Assoc. for the Advancement of Science in Edinburgh, and they end up going to Blackford Hill to the S to outpoint each other, and after Buckland gets the first points for an unstratified boulder, Agassiz takes him to a nearby cliff and points out hidden striations, indicating a moving glacier, and shouts "That is the work of ice", instantly converting him?; the scientific community remains unconvinced for a dozen years until the snow cover of Greenland is found to lie on top of a gigantic moving ice sheet, and the drift deposits on the Baltic coastline are explained by moving icebergs, giving scientists the rush of a new potential sciencescope; too bad, linguistic evidence of primitive cultures describing a universal flood also begins to be uncovered, so the battle rages on.

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830)

In 1822 French mathematician Baron Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) pub. On the Propagation of Heat in Solid Bodies (Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur), his mathematical theory of heat conduction, introducing his hot new Fourier Series, expansions of piecewise continuous functions as trigonometrical series. In Oct. 1824 Fourier pub. the paper Remarques generales sur les Temperatures du globe terrestre et des espaces planetaires (General Remarks on the Temperature of the Terrestrial Globe and the Planetary Space) in Annales de Chimie et de Physique, in which he calculates that the Earth would be far colder if it had no atmosphere, allegedly discovering the Greenhouse Effect (talking about a glass box) and launching climate change science; "In short, if all the strata of air of which the atmosphere is formed, preserved their density with their transparency, and lost only the mobility which is peculiar to them, this mass of air, thus become solid, on being exposed to the rays of the sun, would produce an effect the same in kind with that we have just described. The heat, coming in the state of light to the solid earth, would lose all at once, and almost entirely, its power of passing through transparent solids: it would accumulate in the lower strata of the atmosphere, which would thus acquire very high temperatures. We should observe at the same time a diminution of the degree of acquired heat, as we go from the surface of the earth. The mobility of the air, which is rapidly displaced in every direction, and which rises when heated, and the radiation of non-luminous heat into the air, diminish the intensity of the effects which would take place in a transparent and solid atmosphere, but do not entirely change their character. The decrease of heat in the higher regions of the air does not cease, and the temperature can be augmented by the interposition of the atmosphere, because heat in the state of light finds less resistance in penetrating the air, than in repassing into the air when converted into non-luminous heat"; Fourier stated that the greenhouse effect could only exist if the Earth's atmosphere were solid like the roof of a greenhouse; too bad, 1896 Svante Arrhenius quoted him backwards, starting a chain-reaction of fake physics leading to the 1988 formation of the U.N. IPCC. Watch video. Watch video.

Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832)

In 1824 French physicist Nicolas Leonard (Léonard) Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) pub. Reflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu (Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop That Power), which shows that the transformation of heat into motive power depends on the quantity of heat (caloric) and the temperature difference, while the efficiency of a steam engine is a function of the temperature difference between the hot and cold chambers (source and sink), the "free energy", a preliminary formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics; it also introduces the reversible Carnot Cycle and the Carnot heat engine; Carnot considers the Earth's atmosphere to be a giant heat engine, which ends up being ignored in the rush to frame CO2 on being the atmosphere's only heat engine?

Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart (1801-76)

In 1828 French botanist Adolphe-Theodore (Adolphe-Théodore) Brongniart (1801-76) begins pub. Histoire des végétaux fossiles (History of fossil plants) (2 vols.) (1838-37), which infers a warm humid climate from the vegetation present in the fossil record of the late Devonian and early Carboniferous periods, finding that the Pteridophyta (ferns) predominate in the Palaeozoic Period, the Gymnosperms in the Mesozoic Period, and the Angiosperms in the Cenozoic Period, founding the science of Paleobotany, and giving later researchers incl. Eunice Newton Foote the idea that the atmosphere contained a high CO2 concentration of about 600 ppm.

Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (1803-79)

In 1828 German scientist Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (1803-79) discovers that tropical cyclones rotate counterclockwise in the N hemisphere and clockwise in the S hemisphere.

On Dec. 10, 1830 the Deep Freeze of 1830-1 hits NE U.S., incl. Boston, Mass.; "God save the poor" writes Emerson.

On Jan. 6, 1839 the Blizzard of 1839 ravages the NE coast of the U.S. for 12 hours, destroying 20 ships and killing 40, incl. the Favorite from Wicasset, Maine, which is wrecked on Norman's Woe Reef in Cape Ann off Gloucester, Mass., becoming the subject of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's 1842 poem The Wreck of the Hesperus.

Christian Friedrich Schönbein (1799-1868) Jacques Louis Soret (1827-90)

In 1839 Ozone (O3) (gr. "ozein" = to smell) is discovered and named by German-Swiss scientist Christian Friedrich Schoenbein (Schönbein) (1799-1868), co-inventor of the fuel cell in 1838; its molecular structure and formula is determined in 1865 by Swiss chemist Jacques-Louis Soret (1827-90), which are confirmed by Schoenbein in 1827.

Julius Robert von Mayer (1814-78) James Prescott Joule (1818-89) Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-94) Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

In Feb. 1840 German physician Julius Robert von Mayer (1814-78) sails from Rotterdam in the 3-masted ship Java, and after docking at Surabaya he notices that the venous blood of sailors he's bleeding is brighter red, indicating less oxygen being consumed than in colder climates, causing him to have a bright idea that food is oxidized to create not only animal heat but work, hence that heat and work are interchangeable in some way. In 1842 he announces an improved value for the mechanical equivalent of heat, calculated by an apparatus pulled by a horse that stirs paper pulp in a cauldron, and proposes the law of conservation of energy, which holds even for living systems, and also states that the Sun is the ultimate source of energy on Earth; too bad, not being a recognized scientist (member of a prof. assoc. of stuffed shirts), he is ignored; he says that a weight falling 365m will lose enough potential energy to warm an equal weight of water by 1°C, corresponding to a mechanical equivalent of heat of 3.56 Joules per calorie, not far from the real figure of 4.184. The tendency of learned societies of know-nothings to keep newbies out follows the dismal example of established churches? In 1843 British (Manchester) brewer and obsessive amateur scientist James Prescott Joule (1818-89) calculates the first fairly accurate value (41.54M ergs or 4.154 Joules per calorie) for the mechanical equivalent of heat; later 10M ergs is called a Joule in his honor; at first his work is disregarded since he's not a recognized academic, and is refused by the Royal Society and learned journals, forcing him to get it pub. in 1847 in a Manchester newspaper on which his brother is the music critic; a few mo. later he is allowed to present it at a scientific gathering, and 23-y.-o. Scottish physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin) gets it accepted, causing it to be taken up by respectable German scientist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-94), who ends up getting credit for the law of conservation of energy instead of amateurs Joule and Mayer in 1847; Joule finally gets to present his paper to the Royal Society in 1849, making him look like a beer-brewing copycat? In 1852 Joule and Thomson discover the Joule-Thomson Effect, a change in temperature of a non-ideal gas or liquid when forced through a valve (throttle) or porous plug in an adiabatic environment. Meanwhile in 1840 James Prescott Joule pub. the I^2*R law for the heat given off by a conductor of resistance R carrying a current I (Joulean heat) - the reason Easy-Bake Ovens work?

On Nov. 2, 1840 the Rhone River and Saone River overflow, with catastrophic results, incl. floods in Lyon; a flood of the Tigris River buries Baghdad in mud, and the resulting plague and starvation reduce the pop. from 100K to a few hundred?

On Oct. 29, 1842 a Category 2 (60 mph) hurricane hits SW Spain after passing near Madeira.

Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958)

In 1842 French mathematician Joseph Alphonse Adhemar (Adhémar) (1797-1862) pub. Revolutions of the Sea, proposing the astronomical theory of Ice Age causation, which evolves into the theory of Milkanovich Cycles in the 1920s by Serbian mathematician Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958) to explain long-term climate changes by the position of the Earth vis a vis the Sun after he had the idea that variations in the Earth's orbit could have a major effect, and found that solar flux in July at 65 deg. N lat. can vary by as much as 35%.

Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-93)

In 1843 German astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) discovers 11-year Schwabe Solar Cycles of sunspot counts, with Cycle 1 set in 1755-66 by Swiss astronomer Johann Rudolf Wolf (1816-93) in 1848, who devises the Wolf (Zurich) (Internat. Sunspot) (Relative Sunspot) Number for the number of visible sunspots and sunspot groups; in 1852 Wolf et al. discover the link between the Wolf Cycle and geomagnetic activity on Earth.

The Great Hunger in Ireland, 1846-9

In 1846 famine strikes Europe (until 1847); an economic depression caused by the potato blight (Phytophthora infestans) and other crop failures strikes France (until 1847); all of this creates good hunting for revolutionary recruiters; the Great Irish Potato Famine (Hunger) in Ireland (1845-9) results from the total failure of the potato crop after an exceptionally warm winter (Jan.-Feb.), halving the 8M pop. by 1848, with 1847 (Black '47) being the worst; about 1M die and another 1M emigrate, with the eager assistance of the Roman Catholic-hating English landlords, esp. in County Cork, who forcibly remove whole towns and villages of "disaffected" tenants, incl. Lord Kingston of Fermoy, Stephen Moore, 3rd Earl Mount Cashell (Lord Kilworth) (1792-1883), Lord Doneraile, and Baron Ennismore (Earl of Listowel), packing them off in ships for Quebec, where most die from starvation, smallpox, and ty phus on the journey, and those who arrive have to clear forest and build log cabins when they have never used an axe before; others, mainly from Munster and Connacht become navvies working on canals and railroads; Ottoman sultan (1839-61) Abdul Mecid I tries to send 10K sterling to the Irish, but Queen Victoria tells him to only send 1K because she sent only 2K, which doesn't stop him from sending three ships of food to Drogheda - Jesus what?

George Perkins Marsh (1801-82)

In 1847 big brain Renaissance man (speaks 7 languages) U.S. Rep. (Whig-Vt.) (1843-9) George Perkins Marsh (1801-82) (architect of the Washington Monument) gives a speech to the Agricultural Society of Rutland County, Vt., becoming the first modern thinker to theorize that man's activities influence climate and "the father of ecology", but never mentioning carbon dioxide, with the soundbyte: "Man cannot at his pleasure command the rain and the sunshine, the wind and frost and snow, yet it is certain that climate itself has in many instances been gradually changed and ameliorated or deteriorated by human action. The draining of swamps and the clearing of forests perceptibly effect the evaporation from the earth, and of course the mean quantity of moisture suspended in the air. The same causes modify the electrical condition of the atmosphere and the power of the surface to reflect, absorb and radiate the rays of the sun, and consequently influence the distribution of light and heat, and the force and direction of the winds. Within narrow limits too, domestic fires and artificial structures create and diffuse increased warmth, to an extent that may effect vegetation. The mean temperature of London is a degree or two higher than that of the surrounding country, and Pallas believed, that the climate of even so thinly a peopled country as Russia was sensibly modified by similar causes." In 1864 Perkins pub. the book Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action (which he repub. in 1874 as "The Earth as Modified by Human Action"), drawing lessons from ancient Mediterranean civilizations that ruined soil productivity, with the soundbyte: "The operation of causes set in action by man has brought the face of the earth to a desolation almost as complete as that of the moon", pointing to current trends in the U.S., causing a sensation that helps launch the modern conservation movement and the U.S. Nat. Forest Service; "Whereas [others] think the earth made man, man in fact made the earth"; "[He was] unwilling to leave the world worse than he found it."

In 1850 the Little Ice Age (begun 1250), which has kept Europe cold and half-starved suddenly ends in a span of a few years; the Great Glacier Retreat begins (ends ?) - giving Euros a chance to create a peaceful Paradise or a war-torn Hell?

Rudolf Clausius (1822-88)

The original Rudolf the Red-Nosed Rain On Your Parade, Dear? In 1850 German physicist Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (1822-88) formulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and the Kinetic Theory of Gases. In 1865 he coins the term "entropy", and reformulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics using it: "The entropy of the Universe is constantly increasing to an eventual maximum" - that sounds good and bad at the same time?

On Feb. 6, 1851 after intense heat and drought in 1850, the Black Thursday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia see the temp in Melbourne peak at 47.2C (117F) at 11:00 a.m., whipping winds up to tornado-like force and starting a fire that burns 5M hectatres and kills 1M sheep, thousands of cattle, and 12 humans; "The temperature became torrid, and on the morning of the 6th of February 1851, the air which blew down from the north resembled the breath of a furnace. A fierce wind arose, gathering strength and velocity from hour to hour, until about noon it blew with the violence of a tornado. By some inexplicable means it wrapped the whole country in a sheet of flame - fierce, awful, and irresistible." (Picturesque Atlas of Austalasia, 1886)

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) Bozo the Clown

In 1851 Danzig-born German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), famous for his 1818 work "The World as Will and Representation" pub. Parerga und Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays (2 vols.), which contains the soundbyte that the cold Euro climate is responsible for white peoples' higher intelligence and culture: "The highest civilization and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians, are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste, or race, is fairer in colour than the rest, and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmins, the Inca, and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention, because those tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their intellectual powers, and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want, and misery, which, in their many forms, were brought about by the climate. This they had to do in order to make up for the parsimony of nature, and out of it all came their high civilization."

Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)

The lukewarm Love Train, or, There are only two kinds of people, those who think that there is a God, and those who believe they are God? Right in your face mask? In 1851 English physicist William Thomson (1824-1907) (later Lord Kelvin) begins pub. papers on the laws of conservation and dissipation of energy, generalizing Carnot's 1824 paper and formulating the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the idea of degradation of energy and the eventual heat death of the Universe, in which there is a uniform temperature throughout, hence none of its energy can be converted into useful work; "Though the total energy of the Universe is constant, the amount of free energy decreases steadily"; luckily there is still enough free energy left for trillions of years?

In 1853 the Polar Vortex is first described, an upper-level low-pressure area over each pole up to 1K km in diam., rotating eastward via the Coriolis effect, extending from the middle-upper troposphere into the stratosphere, below which lies a large mass of cold dense Arctic air; in 1952 sudden stratospheric warming of up to 50C (120F) in a few days caused by disturbances in the Polar jet stream is first observed via radiosondes at 20km+ alt. Watch video.

British Vice-Adm. Robert FitzRoy (1805-65)

In 1854 after 38 French merchant ships and one warship sink during a violent storm in the Crimean War, the Met (Meteorological) Office is founded in England as a nat. storm warming service under English meteorologist Capt. (later vice-adm.) Robert FitzRoy (1805-65) (captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin's voyage in 1831-6), who coins the term "forecast" in 1859 after a big storm on Oct. 25-26, 1859 in the Irish Sea that sinks 133 ships, badly damages 90, and kills 800 incl. the steam clipper Royal Charter off the NE coast of Anglesey, Wales

On Aug. 23, 1856 after attending the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and signing the Declaration of Feelings, Goshen, Conn.born Eunice Newton Foote (1819-88) of Seneca Falls, N.Y. speaks at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, and delivers her paper Circumstances affecting the Heat of the Sun's Rays, describing her experiments that proved that cylinders filled with CO2 and exposed to the Sun's rays heated more than others filled with air, with the soundbyte: "The receiver containing the gas became itself much heated - very sensibly more so than the other - and on being removed, it was many times as long in cooling. An atmosphere of that gas would give to our earth a high temperature; and if as some suppose, at one period of its history the air had mixed with a larger proportion than at present, an increased temperature from its own action as well as from increased weight must have necessarily resulted. On comparing the sun's heat in different gases, I found it to be in hydrogen gas, 104F; in common air, 106F; in oxygen gas, 108F; and in carbonic acid gas, 125F"; too bad, as a woman her scientific contribution to the discovery of the Greenhouse Gas Effect was ignored so that men could later take credit?

In 1856 the Battery Tide Gage in New York City begins keeping records of sea level rise, showing 2.84 +/- 0.09 mm/year through 2014; too bad, on Mar. 30, 2016 The New York Times pub. the article Scientists nearly double sea level rise projections for 2100, because of Antarctica, about a recent paper by Robert M. DeConto of the U. of Mass. and David Pollard of Penn. State U., predicting a future rapid melt of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with the soundbyte: "In their worst-case scenario, the sea level could rise by six feet by the end of this century", which would be 10x the historical rate.

Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-75)

On Sept. 1-2, 1859 the Solar (Super) Storm of 1859 (Carrington Event) sees a solar storm induce a geomagnetic solar storm in the Earth's magnetsphere, creating auroras that can be seen from Cuba to Hawaii, so bright that people in the NE U.S. can read their newspapers by its light, and creating an EMP that interferes with telegraphs, but doesn't shut them down; it is all recorded by London, England-born amateur astronomer Richard Christopher Carrington (1826-75), proving the existence of solar flares; in 1863 his observations of sunspots reveal the differential rotation of the Sun.

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-87) and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-99)

In 1859 Heidelberg U. profs. Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (1811-99) (1855 inventor of the Bunsen Burner) and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-87) team up and begin experimenting with spectrum analysis after Kirchhoff's Three Laws of Spectroscopy is announced, that if a body absorbs light of a certain wavelength, it emits the same wavelength (thus the dark Fraunhaufer lines in the solar spectrum are caused by elements in the Sun absorbing various wavelengths, and if one can find elements on Earth that give bright emission lines at these same wavelengths, the composition of the Sun can be deduced without having to visit it and vaporize first). In 1860 they discover the elements Cesium (Cs) (#55) (most electropositive element) and Rubidium (Rb) (#37), both of which ignite spontaneously in air, becoming the first time that spectroscopic identification is used to prove the existence of new elements; their book Chemical Analysis by Observation of Spectra causes spectral analysis to become an instant sensation.

John Tyndall (1820-93)

In 1859 Irish physicist John Tyndall (1820-93) discovers that gases incl. water vapor, CO2, and coal gas (methane) can absorb infrared radiation, and suggests that they could be used to bring climate change, AKA the Greenhouse Effect, going further in a lecture on Feb. 7, 1861, claiming that changes in CO2 and H2O in the atmosphere explain all climate changes so far identified by geological research; too bad, in 1856 Am. scientist Eunice Foote already pub. it; Tyndall really measured opacity not absorption? In Sept. 1861 Tyndall pub. On the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gases and Vapours, and on the Physical Connection of Radiation, Absorption, and Conduction in Philosoohical Mag., followed in 1861 by On Radiation through the Earth's Atmosphere in the same mag.; "Now if, as the above experiments indicate, the chief influence be exercised by the aqueous vapour, every variation of this constituent must produce a change of climate. Similar remarks would apply to the carbonic acid diffused through the air; while an almost inappreciable admixture of any of the hydrocarbon vapours would produce great effects on the terrestrial rays and produce corresponding changes of climate. It is not therefore necessary to assume alterations in the density and height of the atmosphere, to account for different amounts of heat being preserved to the earth at different times; a slight change in its variable constituents would suffice for this. Such changes in fact may have produced all the mutations of climate which the researches of geologists reveal." On Jan. 25, 1862 The American Railway Times pub. the article Radiation and Absorption. In 1873 Tyndall pub. Further Researches on the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gaseous Matter (1862) in Contributions to Molecular Physics in the Domain of Radiant Heat, containing the soundbyte: "As a dam built across the river causes a local deepening of the stream, so our atmosphere, thrown as a barrier across the terrestrial rays produces a local heightening of the temperature of the Earth's surface." On Sept. 7, 1878 the New-York Daily Tribune pub. the article A Cosmical Atmosphere, with the soundbyte: "Tyndall, by subsequent researches on radiation, showed that certain gases, in amount too small to affect considerably the barometic pressure, might influence powerfully climate conditions, and suggested that in the former presence in the atmosphere of moderate quantities of a gas like carbonic acid might be found a solution of the problem of the climates of former geologic ages."

Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) Gatling Gun, 1862

On Apr. 12, 1861-May 9, 1865 the horrific U.S. Civil War sees the invention of the first modern weapon when N.C.-born agricultural equipment maker Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) patents the 10-barrel hand-cranked hundreds-of-rounds-per-min. Gatling Gun (the first practical machine gun) just in time for use on some Johnny Rebs; it is first used by the Union Army in 1864, but luckily never sees extensive use.

On Aug. 1, 1861 the first Public Weather Forecast by the Met Office is pub. in the London Times, becoming the first daily weather forecast in Britain.

Thomas Sterry Hunt (1826-92)

In Nov. 1863 Norwich, Conn.-born geologist-chemist Thomas Sterry Hunt (1826-92) pub. the article On the Earth's Climate in Paleozoic Times in Am. Journal of Science and Arts, building upon the greenhouse gas research of John Tyndall to propose that climate change in the Carboniferous Period was caused by CO2 and that it continues to modern times; too bad, he believes that atmospheric CO2 in the past was of cosmic not volcanic origin; "Now we have only to bear in mind that there are the best of reasons for believing that during the earlier geological periods all of the carbon since deposited in the forms of limestone and of mineral coal existed in the atmosphere in the state of carbonic acid, and we see at once an agency which must have aided greatly to produce the elevated temperature that prevailed at the earth's surface in former geological periods." In June 1868 Mechanics' Mag. pub. the article Primitive Climate of the Earth, which starts out: "The primitive atmosphere of the earth was greatly richer in carbonic acid than the present, and therefore unfit for the respiration of the warm-blooded animals. The agency of planets in purifying the atmosphere was long ago pointed out, and the great deposits of fossil fuel have been derived from the decomposition of this excess of carbonic acid by the ancient vegetation. In this connection the vegetation of former periods presents the phenomenon of tropical plants growing within the polar circle. Prof. T. Sterry Hunt considers as unsatisfactory the ingenious hypotheses proposed to account for the warmer climate of ancient times, and thinks that the true solution of the problem is to be found in the constitution of the early atmosphere, when considered in the light of Dr. Tyndall's researches on radiant heat. He has found that the presence of a few hundreths of carbonic acid gas in the atmosphere, while offering almost no obstacle to the passage of the solar rays, would suffice to prevent almost entire the loss by radiation of obscure heat, so that the surface of the land, beneath such an atmosphere, would become like a vast orchard house, in which the conditions of climate necessary to a luxuriant vegetation would be extended even to the polar regions." On Jan. 30, 1869 Scientific Am. pub. a report on Hunt, with the soundbyte: "Another curious question solved, if these views are correct, is the fact that in the polar regions, where thre is now little or no vegetation whatever, there existed in former ages plants now confined to the tropics. Many hypotheses have been framed to account for this change of climate; but the true solution is undoubtedly to be found in the composition of the atmosphere at this period - the mixed gases heretofore described. These gases imprisoned, so to speak, the sun's heat, so that the earth might be compared to an immense greenhouse. The high temperature at the poles was then the consequence of impeded radiation."

James Croll (1821-90)

In 1864 self-taught Scottish scientist James Croll (1821-90) begins studying links between the Earth's orbit and ice ages; too bad, he claims that the last ice ended 80K years ago, which causes his theory to be rejected.

On Sept. 7, 1865 the Manchester Guardian pub. the British Assoc. for the Advancement of Science's President's Address, containing the soundbyte: "The light and heat which are emitted from the sun reach the earth without great diminution by the absorbtive action of the atmosphere; but the waste of heat from the surface of our planet through radiation into space is prevented, or rather lessened, by this same atmosphere... The vaporous atmosphere acts like warm clothing to the earth. By an augmented quantity of vapour dissolved, and water suspended in the air, the waste of surface heat of the earth would be impeded; the soil, the water, and the lower parts of the atmosphere would grow warmer; the climates would be more equalised; the general conditions more like what has been supposed to be the state of land, sea, and air during the geological period of the coal measures."

On Jan. 10, 1871 the Brisbane Courier in Australia pub. the article Imaginary Changes of Climate from the Pall Mall Gazette, which starts out: "Three consecutive years of drought, while they have stimulated the inventive resources of practical agriculturists, have had the natural effect of calling forth a plentiful crop of speculation from weather prophets and projectors, and half-instructed meteorologists, and all the philosophic tribe of Laputa in general, to whom the periodical press now affords such fatal facilities. We have often noticed that in the tabular statements of those compilers of weather records who write to the Times, useful and welcome as their communications are, every season is sure to be 'extraordinary,' almost every month one of the driest or wettest, or windiest, coldest or hottest, ever known. Much observation, which ought to correct a tendency to exaggerate, seems in some minds to have rather a tendency to increase it. And many seem now to regard three dry hot years in succession as betokening some general change of climate, as if it was not perfectly certain, in the wide range of the table of what we call changes, that with our existing conditions of climate such a combination must every now and then recur."

On June 19, 1872 the Whaley Bridge Flood in Derbyshire, England becomes one of the worse in English history; on Aug. 1, 2019 another flood damages the dam.

William Ferrel (1817-91)

In 1874 Fulton County, Penn.-born meteorologist William Ferrel (1817-91) pub. Tidal Researches, which explains his tide prediction machine that works on the principle of harmonic motion. In 1877 he pub. Meteorological Researches, which states Ferrel's Law, that moving objects are deflected to the right in the N hemisphere and left in the S hemisphere, explaining cyclones and anticyclones and Foucault's Pendulum.

On Jan. 9, 1875 the temp in Denver, Colo. reaches a record low of -29F (-34C) (until ?).

In 1875-8 the Great Drought causes the Great Indian (Madras) Famine of 1876-8 in India, the N Chinese Famine of 1876-9 and other famines in Africa, SE Asia, Australia, and NE Brazil in 1876-8 that kill 30M-6M incl. 5.5M in India and 9M-13M in China, aided by an El Nino in 1877-8.

Johann Josef Loschmidt (1821-95)

In 1876 after becoming the first to estimate the Avogadro Constant in 1865, Austrian physicist-chemist Johann Josef Loschmidt (1821-95) pub. the results of experiments with columns of air, finding that gravity causes it to form a stable non-zero vertical temperature gradient of maximum entropy at the molecular level (not at the air parcel level) called the Lapse Rate, which applies to every planet's troposphere; too bad, it is disputed by his colleagues Ludwig Boltzmann and James Clerk Maxwell, who get all the publicity?

Louis Paul Cailletet (1831-1913) Raoul Pictet (1846-1929)

On Dec. 22, 1877 French physicist Louis-Paul Cailletet (1832-1913) and Swiss physicist Raoul Pictet (1846-1929) simultaneously send telegrams to the Academy of Science in Paris announcing their invention of machines for liquefying oxygen; Picet goes on to liquefy nitrogen and demonstrate that radiation from a cold object cannot heat a warmer object - picture their yipee-yo-cay-yay?

In Mar. 1878 NASA records show this as the hottest month on record (until ?).

Josef Stefan (1835-93) Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)

In 1879 using experimental data from Irish physicist John Tyndall, Austrian (Carinthian Slovene) mathematician-physicist Josef Stefan (1835-93) pub. the paper Über die Beziehung zwischen der Wärmestrahlung und der Temperatur (On the relation between heat radiation and temperature), announcing the Stefan (Stefan-Boltzmann) Law, that the total energy per unit time radiated from a black body per unit surface area is directly proportional to the fourth power of its thermodynamic temperature, using it to calculate the temp of the Sun's surface as 5,430C (9,810F); in 1884 Austrian physicist Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844-1906) (founder of Statistical Mechanics, and coiner of the term "ergodic") pub. Ableitung des Stefan'schen Gesetzes, betreffend die Abhängigkeit der Wärmestrahlung von der Temperatur aus der electromagnetischen Lichttheorie (Derivation of Stefan's Law, concerning the dependency of heat radiation on temperature, from the electromagnetic theory of light), extending Stefan's Law to grey body emissions.

In 1880 the U.S. NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS) backdates its global avg. temperature (GAT) baseline to measure CO2-caused global warming.

On Dec. 7, 1882 Nature pub. the article Pollution of the Air by H.A. Phillips, containing the soundbyte: "According to Professor Tyndall's researches, hydrogen, marsh gas and ethylene have the property in a very high degree of absorbing and radiating heat, and so much so that a very small proportion, of only say one-thousandth part, had very great effect. From this we may conclude that the increasing pollution of the atmosphere will have a marked influence on the climate of the world. The mountainous regions will be colder, the Arctic regions will be colder, the tropics will be warmer, and throughout the world the nights will be colder and the days warmer. In the temperate zone winter will be colder, and generally differences will be greater, winds, storms, rainfall greater." On Jan. 11, 1883 Joseph John Murray replies to Phillips, with the soundbyte: "Mr. H.A. Phillips... thinks that the effect of the increasing quantity of hydrocarbons in the air from the combustion of coal will be to make climates more extreme. It seems to me the effect will be the direct contrary. Gaseous and vaporous hydrocarbons absorb heat much more powerfully than air, and whatever makes the atmosphere absorb and retain more solar heat than at present will tend to equalise temperatures between day and night, and also between different latitudes. I think, however, that any possible effect of hydrocarbons will be quite insignificant in comparison with the effect of the watery vapour of the atmosphere, which, as Tyndall has shown, moderates climates by its power of absorbing solar heat." On Jan. 18, 1883 H.A. Phillips replies to Murphy, with the soundbyte: "In answer to Mr. Joseph John Murphy's letter... stating that the radiation of marsh gas (from the incomplete combustion of coal) would be insignificant compared to that of vapour, I would like to say that their behaviour in the atmosphere is different; the moisture in the air is there, so to speak, on sufferance as long as the pressure and temperature allow it; that is, it is held in suspension by what might be called the capillary attraction of the air of a certain pressure and temperature. If you reduce the temperature you reduce the capacity of air for vapour, first by its reducing the capillary attraction, and secondly, by reducing one of the conditions that makes OH2 a vapour. If you reduce the pressure, you enlarge the spaces between the molecules and reduce the capillary attraction, if I may apply this term to a gas. This is borne out by the balloon ascents of Mr. Glaisher. At 4 miles high the temperature was 8 deg., the dew-point was -15 deg., or a difference of 23 deg.; at 5 miles it was 28 deg., and at 30,000 feet he states that there is no doubt that the dew-point is a difference of 50 deg.; that is, the higher, the less vapour. But this will not be the case with marsh gas, as it is a permanent gas, and being of less density than even vapour, or about half the density of air, there is no reason why it should not be found in larger quantities at greater altitudes; and I think that its effect there would be that in the temperate zones and at the poles it would radiate its temperature of say from -8 deg. at 30,000 to -30, and produce cold and rain, snow and floods as the storms on the Alps and the floods on the Continent, and in the Tropics to make the nights colder. In fact, it will have a tendency to do the reverse of vapour; a vapour retains our heat and shields us from the cold of space. This radiator and absorber will tend to radiate the cold to us or to the vapour in the lower atmosphere, and produce rain and wind."

On Jan. 12-13, 1883 (Thur.-Fri) a blizzard from Canada blows in suddenly, causing a trick of Nature on a beautifully warm 70 F day in the midst of miserably cold Jan. as the temp drops suddenly by 100 F and leads to the death of 500+ pioneers, incl. 100+ lightly-dressed children walking home from school in the plains of the Dakotas, Minn., and Neb. in the Big Brash (School Children's) Blizzard; as far away as Denver, Colo. the temp drops to -18 F with 60 mph winds, but little snow.

Eruption of Krakatoa, Aug. 26-27, 1883

Atlas cracks his toa in Indonesia? Krakonesia, biggest volcano grave on Earth? On Aug. 26-27, 1883 the small volcanic island of Krakatoa (Krakatau) in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra (100 mi. W. of Batavia) erupts with a ginormous explosive force of 200 megatons (Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6), ejecting 6 cu. mi. of rock, creating a 120-ft.-high tsunami which travels 5,450 mi. to South Africa in 12 hours and drowns 36K; a Dutch warship in Batavia (Djakarta) 100 mi. away is washed ashore and left stranded .5 mi. inland 30 ft. above sea level; the sound (largest noise ever heard by man?) is heard 2.2K mi. away in Alice Springs and 2.97K mi. away in Rodrigues Island near Mauritius; at Batavia people have to light their lamps during the day; for the next two years a thin haze of particles can be seen in the night sky as far away as London, and for three years all over the world sunrise and sunset are brilliantly colored; the explosion leaves a 2,667-ft. cone, and the island shrinks from 18 sq. mi. to 6 sq. mi.; the explosion causes the Muslims of Indonesia to see it as a sign from Allah and begin a jihad to push the Dutch out; the volcanic ash in the atmosphere causes global cooling next year, with aftereffects lasting almost a cent., offsetting anthropogenic global warming?

On Feb. 19-20, 1884 the U.S. South is rocked by the 15-hour Enigma Tornado Outbreak of 50-60 tornadoes in Ala., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., Miss., N.C., and S.C., Tenn. and Va., killing 178-1.2K and causing destroying 10K bldgs., causing $3M-$4M damage; on Aug. 28 the first photograph of a tornado is taken near Howard, S.D. - is this like when Jesus died and the sky darkened?

Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912)

On Aug. 19, 1886 a 150 mph hurricane wipes out the town of Indianola, Tex., killing 74 and causing $200K damage, preceded by four and followed by three more this year; on Aug. 31 a 7.3 North Am. Plate earthquake rocks "the most polite city in America" Charleston, S.C., killing 110 and causing $5M in damage in a 200-mi. radius of the town, which is built on an unstable sandy coastal plain; Am. geologist Clarence Edward Dutton (1841-1912) studies the earthquake, discovering a method for determining its depth of focus; in 1889 he coins the term "isostasy".

Samuel Pierpont Langley (1843-1906)

In 1889 after attempting to determine the surface temp of the Moon by measuring infared radiation reaching the Earth, using the angle in the sky to estimate CO2 and water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, U. of Pittsburgh astronomer Samuel Pierpoint Langley (1834-1906) pub. The Temperature of the Moon: from Studies at the Allegheny Observatory.

John Muir (1838-1914)

On May 28, 1891 Dunbar, Scotland-born Am. conservationist ("John of the Mountains") ("the Father of Nat. Parks") John Muir (1838-1914) and a group of professors from UCB and Stanford U. found the Sierra Club in a 14-room mansion in San Francisco, Calif. to protect the Sierra Nevada, with Muir as pres. #1 (until Dec. 24, 1914), going on to get federal protection for the Yosemite Valley and get Glacier Nat. Park and Mount Rainier Nat. Park established.

Edvard Munch (1863-1944) 'The Scream' by Edvard Munch (1863-1944), 1893

In 1893 Norwegian Expressionist painter Edvard Munch (1863-1944) paints his masterpiece The Scream (Norwegian "Skrik" = Shriek), which he repaints in four versions by 1910; painted after witnessing a blood-red sunset over Oslo in 1892 caused by Krakatoa and rare nacreous (polar stratospheric) clouds, writing in his diary that he felt "a great, undending scream piercing through Nature"; the 1895 version sells for almost $120M.

On Feb. 24, 1895 The New York Times pub. the article PROSPECTS OF ANOTHER GLACIAL PERIOD; Geologists Think the World May Be Frozen Up Again, which starts out: "The question is again being discussed whether recent and long-continued observations do not point to the advent of a second glacial period, when the countries now basking in the fostering warmth of a tropical sun will ultimately give way to the perennial frost and snow of the polar regions."

In Sept. 1895 the 1895-6 Heat Wave begins; in Jan. 1896 a 24-day heat wave in Australia sees temps reach 48C, killing 437 incl. many children; the max temp is above 38.8C for 3+ weeks.

Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) Knut Ångström (1857-1910)

In Apr. 1896 Swedish chemist Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) pub. On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Earth, which first describes the "hothouse effect" of CO2 in raising atmospheric temps via the greenhouse effect, using values for the radiant heat of the full Moon at different elevations above the horizon supplied by Samuel Pierpont Langley to compute the heat absorbed by the atmosphere, calculating the effect of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to be an increase in surface temp of 5C-8C, while a halving of it would produce a new ice age, with the conclusion: "If the quantity of carbonic acid increases in geometric progression, the augmentation of the temperature will increase nearly in arithmetic progression"; too bad, he only proves that atmospheric CO2 absorbs and blocks infrared energy before returning it to space, not that it can return any of it to the surface; in 1900 Swedish physicist Knut Johan Angstrom (Ångström) (1857-1910) pub. a refutation of Arrhenius' theory, showing from lab experiments that adding CO2 doesn't have much effect on radiation going through a gas, and that its absorption bands overlap that of water vapor, which is false?; in 1906 after winning the 1905 Nobel Chem. Prize Arrhenius pub. The Probable Cause of Climate Fluctuations, amending his views, lowering his estimates to 1.6C-3.9C and claiming increased CO2 to be beneficial; "Since, now, warm ages have alternated with glacial periods, even after man appeared on the earth, we have to ask ourselves: Is it probable that we shall in the coming geological ages be visited by a new ice period that will drive us from our temperate countries into the hotter climates of Africa? There does not appear to be much ground for such an apprehension. The enormous combustion of coal by our industrial establishments suffices to increase the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air to a perceptible degree." Too bad for modern climate alarmists, in 1906 Arrhenius pub. the bestseller Worlds in the Making: The Evolution of the Universe ("Världarnas utveckling"), which is trans. to German in 1907 as "Das Werden der Welden", and to English in 1908, containing the soundbytes: "Another process which withdraws carbonic acid [carbon dioxide] from the air is the assimilation of plants... [If] the percentage of carbon dioxide be doubled, the absorption by the plants would also be doubled. If, at the same time, the temperature rises by 4C, the vitality will increase in the ratio of 1:1.5, so that the doubling of the carbon dioxide percentage will lead to an increase in the absorption of carbonic acid by the plant approximately in the ratio of 1:3. An increase of the carbon dioxide percentage to double its amount may hence be able to raise the intensity of vegetable life... threefold"; "We often hear lamentations that the coal stored up in the earth is wasted by the present generation without any thought of the future, and we are terrified by the awful destruction of life and property which has followed the volcanic eruptions of our days. We may find a kind of consolation in the consideration that here, as in every other case, there is good mixed with the evil. By the influence of the increasing percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, we may hope to enjoy ages with more equable and better climates, especially as regards the colder regions of the earth, ages when the earth will bring forth much more abundant crops than at present, for the benefit of rapidly propagating mankind"; he becomes the first to suggest that oil and coal reserves are finite and must be regulated; this book makes him the "Father of Global Warming" and "Father of the Energy Crisis"?; Arrhenius is largely ignored until the 1979 Charney Report?; too bad, Arrhenius didn't realize that he used measurements by Langley that weren't of CO2 but water vapor? His ancestor Greta Thunberg later becomes a global warming alarmist celeb.

In Aug. 1896 the 10-day 1896 Eastern North Am. Heat Wave from Chicago, Ill. to Newark, N.J., New York City, and Boston, Mass. kills 1.5K esp. manual laborers despite NYC police commissioner Theodore Roosevelt ordering free ice distributed at police stations and permission to sleep in New York City parks so they won't fall off their roofs at night when the temps don't drop.

Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928)

In 1896 German physicist Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) pub. Wien's Displacement Law, that the wavelength of the peak of the emission of a black body is inversely proportional to its temperature, with the constant of proportionality being approx. 3 mm-K, winning him the 1911 Nobel Physics Prize; for the Sun (surface temp 6,000K) the wavelength is 500 nm (middle of the range of visible light), for the human body (300K) it's .01 mm (far infared), and for the Cosmic Microwave Background (3K) it's 1mm (microwave region); the law breaks down at long wavelengths, giving Max Planck his big idea for quantum theory in 1900.

T.C. Chamberlin (1843-1928) Charles Schuchert (1858-1942)

In Nov. 1897 after biting big on Arrhenius' CO2 global warming theory, prominent glacial geologist Thomas Chrowder (pr. KROW-dur) "T.C." Chamberlin (1843-1928) pub. the article A group of hypotheses bearing on climatic changes in The Journal of Geology, discussing how changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration affect climate, with the soundbyte: "[Arrhenius] does not, however, postulate the conditions which control the enrichment and depletion of the atmosphere which has been the essential endeavor of this paper." In 1899 Chamberlin pub. the paper , An Attempt to Frame a Working Hypothesis of the Cause of Glacial Periods on an Atmospheric Basis, proposing that changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration could cause changes in climate, with the soundbyte: "When the temperature is rising after a glacial episode, dissociation is promoted, and the ocean gives forth its carbon dioxide at an increased rate, and thereby assists in accelerating the amelioration of climate." In 1916 after Angstrom's rebuttal of Arrhenius' CO2 global warming hypothesis causes it to fall out of favor, Chamberlin writes a letter to Am. invertebrate paleontologist Charles Schuchert (1858-1942) of Yale U.'s Peabody Museum, containing the soundbyte: "I greatly regret that I was among the early victims of Arrhenius' error."

Léon Teisserenc de Bort (1855-1913)

In 1898 French meteorologist Leon (Léon) Teisserenc de Bort (1855-1913) pub. a paper in Comptes Rendus detailing his experiments with high-flying hydrogen balloons, announcing his discovery of a temperature inversion that ends the lapse rate at approx. 11 km alt., going on to coin the terms "troposphere", "tropopause", and "stratosphere".

On Feb. 10-14, 1899 the Great (St. Valentine's Day) Blizzard (Arctic Outbreak) of 1899 affects the U.S. E of the Rocky Mts., with Swift Current in modern-day Sask. Canada recording a record high 31.42 in. of Hg. on Feb. 11; the Mississippi River freezes, sending ice flows into the Gulf of Mexico; on Feb. 11 the city of Washington, D.C. records its lowest temperature of -15F (-26C) (until ?); Galveston, Tex. suffers a record low, becoming the most severe Arctic blast recorded by the federal govt. (until ?).

Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928)

On Nov. 1, 1899 Mattoon, Ill.-born geologist Thomas Chrowder "T.C." Chamberlin (1843-1928) pub. An Attempt to Frame a Working Hypothesis of the Cause of Glacial Periods on an Atmospheric Basis, which promotes the theory that atmospheric CO2 concentration can drive changes in the climate for the purposes of climate engineering (geoengineering); "When the temperature is rising after a glacial episode, dissociation is promoted, and the ocean gives forth its carbon dioxide at an increased rate, and thereby assists in accelerating the amelioration of climate."; "A study of the life of the geological periods seems to indicate that there were very notable fluctuations in the total mass of living matter. To be sure there was a reciprocal relation between the life of the land and that of the sea, so that when the latter was extended upon the continental platforms and greatly augmented, the former was contracted, but notwithstanding this it seems clear that the sum of life activity fluctuated notably during the ages. It is believed that on the whole it was greatest at the periods of sea extension and mild climates, and least at the times of disruption and climatic intensification. This factor then acted antithetically to the carbonic acid freeing previously noted, and, so far as it went, tended to offset its effects. It now becomes necessary to assign agencies capable of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at a rate sufficiently above the normal rate of supply, at certain times, to produce glaciation; and on the other hand, capable of restoring it to the atmosphere at certain other times in sufficient amounts to produce mild climates."


In the 20th cent. the amount of atmospheric dust on Earth doubles.

In 1900 the Modern Maximum of solar activity esp. sunspots begins, ramping up in the 1940s and reaching the highest level since the warm Boreal Period in 7K B.C.E. during the late 1950s, reaching a double peak in the 1950s and another in the 1990s, with the highest level of solar magnetic activity for most of the past 11.4K years.

Galveston Flood, Sept. 8, 1900

Galveston, oh Galvesto-o-n? On Sept. 8, 1900 "the Wall Street of the West" Galveston, Tex., the #2 wealthiest city in the U.S. after New York City is struck by the Category 4 (145 mph) 1900 (Great) Galveston Hurricane (Aug. 27-Sept. 17), killing 6K-12K and almost wiping the city off the map, throwing smug Americans who thought they ruled the world into denial, becoming the deadliest hurricane in U.S. history (until ?); the authorities failed to order evacuation, thinking they were immune from Mother Nature?

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) Max Planck (1858-1947) Planck's Law, 1900

In 1900 English physicist John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) pub. the Rayleigh-Jeans Law (improved by Sir James Jeans in 1905), claiming that the spectral radiance (emission at a single frequency) of a "black body" (perfect absorber of radiation, radiating an amount equal to that which it is absorbing) is proportional to the frequency to the fourth power, which heads toward infinity as the frequency approaches infinity, causing the Ultraviolet Catastrophe, the prediction that a black body emits radiation with infinite power; on Oct. 19 after ruminating not on that but on why Wien's 1896 Displacement Law breaks down at low frequencies, German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) announces to the Berlin Physical Society his revolutionary Planck's Radiation Law, proposing the (Old) Quantum Theory to account for the radiation from a black body, explaining that it is emitted in discrete quanta, each being of an energy value equal to Planck's constant h times the frequency, and violating the ancient maxim "Natura non facit saltum" (Nature doesn't make jumps); as he can't explain the meaning of his new constant, he delves into atomic theory to try and find a clue; meanwhile herr Wilhelm Wien proposes the formula E = (3/4) * M * C^2 for the relation between electromagnetic mass and electromagnetic energy - don't complain about the wienie in your neighbor's eye when you have a planck in your own?

In 1900 a reliable record of Atlantic hurricane landfalls is started.

In 1901-50 the Early Twentieth Cent. Warming (ETCW) starts with Indian monsoon failures, followed by heat waves and droughts in North Am. in the 1930s, drought in Australia in 1937-45, and droughts and heat waves in Europe in the late 1940s-early 1950s.

Nils Gustaf Ekholm (1848-1923)

In Jan. 1901 Swedish meteorologist Nils Gustaf Ekholm (1848-1923) (lifelong friend of Svante Arrhenius and believer in the ability of atmospheric CO2 to control the mean temp of the Earth) pub. the article On the variations of the climate of the geological and historical past and their causes in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, containing the soundbyte: "Yet we must expect that secular variations of the quantity of carbonic acid in the atmosphere will occur and cause climatic variations of the same kind as those revealed by geological science. Thus a future Ice Age might possibly occur. But here we find a remarkable circumstance that has hitherto been unexampled in the history of the earth. This is the influence of Man on climate... Thus it seems possible that Man will be efficaciously to regulate the future climate of the earth and consequently prevent the arrival of a a new Ice Age. By such means also the deterioration of the climate of the northern and Arctic regions, depending on the decrease of the obliquity of the ecliptic, may be counteracted. It is too early to judge of how far Man might be capable of thus regulating the future climate. But already the view of such a possibility seems to me so grand that I cannot help thinking that it will afford to Mankind hitherto unforeseen means of evolution." In 1905 Ekholm founds the Swedish storm warning system, with 27 warning stations on the W coast, expanding to cover the entire coastline by 1913.

In mid-June-early Aug. 1901 the 1901 Eastern U.S. Heat Wave sees Philly experience 12 straight days above 90F starting June 25, with several institutionalized individuals in New York City committing suicide in 95F heat, and dead horses becoming a source of contamination; July becomes the hottest month in the contiguous U.S. until the Julys of 1931, 1934, 1936, and 2012; a drought in the Upper Midwest and Ohio Valley gives Ill. its driest year until ?; a total of 9.5K are killed.

In July 1901 Popular Science Monthly pub. the article Climate and Carbonic Acid by Bailey Willis, detailing how U. of Chicago prof. Thomas Crowder Chamberlin has worked out how Earth's climate is driven by variations in atmospheric carbonic acid.

On Aug. 10, 1901 the Queanbeyan Age of New South Wales, Australia pub. the article London on the Border of Destruction: To Be Wiped Out by a Huge Wave, containing the soundbyte: "According to a recent theory of some geologists London is on the border edge of destruction, the destroying angel being the great Antarctic icecap which has been forming itself for centuries, and which holds at present in its grip all the waters drawn from off the Northern Hemisphere. Geologists believe that this great ice-sucker has reached the stage of perfection when it will break up again, letting loose all the waters of its suction over the two hemispheres, and completely flooding the low-lying lands of Europe, Asia, and North America."

In early Sept. 1902 after an unusually hot dry season and high winds, forest fires rage in every part of Greece.

On Oct. 23, 1902 the Morganton, N.C. News Herald pub. the article Hint to Coal Consumers, which starts out: "A Swedish professor, Svend Arrhenius, has evolved a new theory of the extinction of the human race. He holds that the combustion of coal by civilized man is gradually warming the atmosphere so that in the course of a few cycles of 10,000 years the earth will be baked in a temperature close to the boiling point. He bases his theory on the accumulation of carbonic acid in the atmosphere, which acts as a glas in concentrating and refracting the heat of the sun."

On Sept. 12, 1903 the Category 2 (100 mph) New Jersey (Vagabond) Hurricane starts NE of Antigua, making landfall near Atlantic City on Sept. 16 with 80 mph winds, then weakening over Penn. and turning into an extratropical cycline in W N.Y. on Sept. 17, killing 57 and causing $8M damage, becoming the first North Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in N.J. since records began in 1851 (until ?).

On July 8, 1905 Calif. sets a record high avg. temp of 104F (until ?), with more than half the state above 105F and more than a third 110F or above; Orland in N Calif. is 120F; CO2 concentration is 300 ppm.

On Jan. 21, 1906 U.S. temps measured by USHCN stations see almost half over 60F, and 20% over 70F; on Jan. 22 it reaches 80F in Boston, Mass.; on Jan. 26 the Junction City Union of Junction City, Kan. carries the soundbyte: "A warm wave which scores the highest record in temperature since 1890, prevailed Sunday throughout the region between the Mississippi valley and the Atlantic coast. Its crest was in Ohio, where the temperature as reported to the weather bureau ranged from 70 to 74 degrees."

In 1906 after claiming that it was ice-free in 1903, Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen becomes the first to sail the Northwest Passage after determining the position of the magnetic North Pole. Watch video - Tony Heller.

Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941)

In 1906-12 German chemist Walter Hermann Nernst (1864-1941) formulates the Third Law of Thermodynamics, that the entropy of a system approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.

John Henry Poynting (1852-1914)

In Dec. 1, 1907 English physicist John Henry Poynting (1852-1914) pub. an article in Philosophical Mag. containing the first use of the term "greenhouse effect" as an alternative to the term "blanketing effect" of the atmosphere.

On Jan. 2, 1908 the 1908 Australian Heat Wave begins, with 13 days over 100F in Jan. and five more in Feb., peaking at 111.4F on Jan. 15.

On Dec. 28, 1908 the super-powerful 7.2 Southern Calabria-Messina Earthquake kills 150K, wrecking Messina in NE Sicily and killing 70K, separating Sicily from Calabria.

Robert Williams Wood (1868-1955)

In 1909 Concord, Mass.-born physicist Robert Williams "R.W." Wood (1868-1955) pub. the article Note on the Theory of the Greenhouse in Philosophical Mag., containing the soundbyte: "There appears to be a widespread belief that the comparatively high temperature produced within a closed space covered with glass, and exposed to solar radiation, results from a transformation of wave-length, that is, that the heat waves from the sun, which are able to penetrate the glass, fall upon the walls of the enclosure and raise its temperature: the heat energy is re-emitted by the walls in the form of much longer waves, which are unable to penetrate the glass, the greenhouse acting as a radiation trap. I have always felt some doubt as to whether this action played any very large part in the elevation of temperature. It appeared much more probable that the part played by the glass was the prevention of the escape of the warm air heated by the ground within the enclosure. If we open the doors of a greenhouse on a cold and windy day, the trapping of radiation appears to lose much of its efficacy. As a matter of fact I am of the opinion that a greenhouse made of a glass transparent to waves of every possible length would show a temperature nearly, if not quite, as high as that observed in a glass house. The transparent screen allows the solar radiation to warm the ground, and the ground in turn warms the air, but only the limited amount within the enclosure. In the 'open,' the ground is continually brought into contact with cold air by convection currents"; he goes on to describe an experiment he performed confirming this, concluding: "Is it therefore necessary to pay attention to trapped radiation in deducing the temperature of a planet as affected by its atmosphere? The solar rays penetrate the atmosphere, warm the ground which in turn warms the atmosphere by contact and by convection currents. The heat received is thus stored up in the atmosphere, remaining there on account of the very low radiating power of a gas. It seems to me very doubtful if the atmosphere is warmed to any great extent by absorbing the radiation from the ground, even under the most favourable conditions."


On Aug. 20-21, 1910 the Great Fire (Big Blowup) of 1910, a giant forest fire in W Mont., N Idao, and NE Wash. burns 3M acres in two days, most in six hours, killing 87 (mostly firefighters) becoming the deadliest forest fire in U.S. history (until ?), making firefighters into heroes and permanently changing the focus of the U.S. Forest Service to fire prevention; NASA later calls it one of the coldest years on record. Watch video.

In early July-Sept. 11, 1911 the 1911 U.K. Heat Wave becomes the most rainless July in 50 years, setting high temperature records throughout England, with a max of 36.7C (98.1F), which isn't broken until 1990; on Aug. 8 after a nationwide strike of transport workers is called by Labour Party leader Keir Hardie, riots in Liverpool are quashed by troops, who fire on demonstrators, killing two; meanwhile 50K troops are rushed to London as famine looms; just at the worse time, on Aug. 9 the temp. in London reaches a record 98.1 deg F. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On July 4-15, 1911 the 1911 Eastern North Am. Heat Wave sees temps of 106F (41C) in New York City, killing 158 people and 600 horses; on July 4 Boston, Mass. reaches 104F (40C), setting a record (until ?); a thunderstorm ends the heatwave while killing five more.

In Mar. 1912 Popular Mechanics pub. the article Remarkable Weather of 1911: The Effect of the Combustion of Coal on the Climate - What Scientists Predict for the Future by Francis Molena, containing the soundbyte: "The furnaces of the word are now burning about 2,000,000,000 tons of coal a year. When this is burned, uniting with oxygen, it adds about 7,000,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere yearly. This tends to make the air a more effective blanket for the earth and to raise its temperature. The effect may be considerable in a few centuries."

On June 6-8, 1912 Mount Katmai in Novarupta, Alaska (Lat. "newly erupted") erupts violently, forming the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (named by Robert F. Griggs), and becoming the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th cent.

On July 17, 1912 the Braidwood Dispatch and Mining Journal of Australia pub. the article Coal Consumption Affecting Climate, which begins: "The furnaces of the world are now burning about 2,000,000,000 tons of coal a year. When this is burned, uniting with oxygen, it adds about 7,000,000,000 tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere yearly. This tends to make the air a more effective blanket for the earth and to raise its temperature. The effect may be considerable in a few centuries."

Niels Bjerrum (1879-1958)

In 1912 Danish chemist Niels Bjerrum (1879-1958) pub. On the Infared Spectra of Gases showing that infrared absorption by molecules is caused by uptake of rotational and vibrational energy in definite quanta, becoming the first (incorrect) application of quantum theory to interpretation of spectra.

Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964)

In 1912 Austrian-born Am. physicist Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964) discovers Cosmic Rays with a hot air balloon during a near-total eclipse, measuring rising radiation at rising altitudes despite the Moon blocking most of the Sun's visible radiation, winning him the 1936 Nobel Physics Prize; "The results of my observation are best explained by the assumption that a radiation of very great penetrating power enters our atmosphere from above."

On Jan. 28, 1913 The Pueblo Leader pub. the article The Coming Exodus to Siberia and Canada, claiming that because of the work of "one of the greatest scientists in the world... Arrhenius of Sweden", the "proportion of carbon dioxide in the air will make the climate warmer, by acting like the glass roof of a green house. With the carbon dioxide increased from two and one-half to three times, the temperature of the whole world will be raised 3 to 9 degrees centigrade - and Greenland will have a good climate for farming. All the good soil of Canada will be in as temperate a climate as that now enjoyed by Missouri.... The increased heat will cause more evaporation of water vapor from the oceans - and as what goes up must come down, this will cause moister climates almost everywhere, and our dry-farming sections will become as wet as Ohio. And thent the passengers on this Good Ship Earth will have vast fields of good land, which are not good now, upon which to multiply - as it seems to be their fate to do. All this will take place in a time shorter than the history of England since the Norman Conquest - in twice the time which has elapsed since the governor's palace was built in Santa Fe New Mexico - our youngest state!"

Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1947)

In Jan. 1913 Yale U. geographer Ellsworth Huntington (1876-1947) pub. the article Changes of Climate and History in Am Historical Review, followed by the book The Climatic Factor (1914), the book Civilization and Climate (1915) (which tries to justify the evident superiority of the white Euro race and its superior civilization by the fact it lived in a colder climate than yellow Asians, black Africans, etc.), the article Climatic Change and Agricultural Exhaustion as Elements in the Fall of Rome in Quarterly Journal of Economics (Feb. 1917), Climatic Changes: Their Nature and Causes (w/Stephen Sargent Visher of Indiana U.) (1922), and The Human Habitat (1927) (which further develops the human development vs. climate theme). In "Climatic Changes" he writes the soundbytes: "Thus the races, though alike in their physical response to climate, may possibly be different in their mental response because they have approached America by different paths"; "The human organism inherits so delicate an adjustment to climate that, in spite of man's boasted ability to live anywhere, the strain of the frozen North eliminates the more nervous and active types of mind."

On July 1, 1913 the 1913 N U.S. Heat Wave begins, with 20 straight days of 100+ F and 81+ days of 90+F, killing 40 in Chicago, Ill. and 11 in Detroit, Mich., and driving people insane in New York City; on July 10, 1913 Death Valley, Calif. reaches a high air temp of 134F (56.7C) at Furnace Creek in Greenland Ranch (record highest on Earth until ?); on July 8-14 temps are 128F and higher, incl. 130F on July 12 and 131F on July 13.

On Sept. 1-8, 1913 daily afternoon temps in Steffenville, Mo. reach 100F+, peaking at 109F.

On Nov. 9-11, 1913 the 1913 Great Lakes Hurricane ravages the Great Lakes.

Charles Fabry (1867-1945) Henri Buisson (1873-1944)

In 1913 after the spectrum of radiation from the Sun is found to be blocked 97%-99% at 200nm-315nm in the ultraviolet end, French physicists Maurice Paul Auguste Charles Fabry (1867-1945) and Henri Buisson (1873-1944) discover the Earth's Ozone Layer, located at 12-19 mi. (20-30km) above the surface in the stratosphere, containing 10 ppm of ozone (O3), compared to 0.3 ppm for the rest of the atmosphere.

Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1878-1942)

In 1913 Harvard chemist-biologist Lawrence Joseph Henderson (1878-1942) pub. The Fitness of the Environment: An Inquiry into the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter, "an inquiry into the biological significance of the properties of matter", becoming the first major book to develop the concept of fine tuning in the Universe; "The properties of matter and the course of cosmic evolution are now seen to be intimately related to the structure of the living being and to its activities; they become therefore, far more important in biology than has been previously suspected. For the whole evolutionary process, both cosmic and organic, is one, and the biologist may now rightly regard the universe in its very essence as biocentric"; "One of the remarkable physical properties of carbon dioxide is its degree of solubility in water. This quality varies enormously in different substances. For example, at ordinary pressures and temperatures, water can absorb only about 5 per cent of its own volume of oxygen, while it can take up about 1300 times its own volume of ammonia. Now for carbon dioxide, unlike most gases, the volume that can be absorbed by water is nearly the same as the volume of the water. The volumes vary, however, according to temperature, being absolutely the same at a temperature of about 15ºC. or 59ºF., which is close to the ideal temperature for man's physical health and practically the same as the mean temperature of the earth's surface when all seasons are averaged together"; "Hence, when water is in contact with air, and equilibrium has been established, the amount of free carbonic acid in a given volume of water is almost exactly equal to the amount in the adjacent air. Unlike oxyzen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, carbonic acid enters water freely; unlike sulphurous oxide and ammonia, it escapes freely from water. Thus the waters can never wash carbonic acid completely out of the air, nor can the air keep it from the waters. It is the one substance which thus, in considerable quantities relative to its total amount, everywhere accompanies water. In earth, air, fire, and water alike, these two substances are always associated"; "Accordingly, if water be the first primary constituent of the environment, carbonic acid is inevitably the second, - because of its solubility possessing an equal mobility with water, because of the reservoir of the atmosphere never to be depleted by chemical action in the oceans, lakes, and streams. In truth, so close is the association between these two substances that it is scarcely correct logically to separate them at all; together they make up the real environment and they never part company."

Roland Garros of France (1888-1918) Anthony Fokker (1890-1939) Max Immelmann (1890-1916) Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1958) Roger Adams (1889-1971)

On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties. and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe. On Feb. 26-28, 1915 the Germans first use a Flamethrower (Flame Projector) in the village of Douaumont, France near Verdun, becoming the first of 653 flamethrower attacks in the war. On Apr. 1, 1915 French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918) becomes the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft using a deflector gear, which allows shooting through the propeller; after more Vs against German aircraft on Apr. 15 and Apr. 18, he is shot down and the Germans capture his plane, after which Dutch designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) clones then improves the deflector gear into the synchronization (interrupter) gear, mounting them on the new Fokker E.I. in Aug., beginning the Fokker Scourge (Scare) as they shoot down nearly every enemy aircraft they encounter and generate the first German aces, incl. Max Immelmann (1890-1916); next year the French counter with the Nieuport 11 Bebe (Bébé), in which the gun is mounted on the top wing clear of the prop, and the British with the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and Airco DH.2 (Feb. 1916), which mount the engine backwards with the prop in back, causing them to be called "pushers", ending the Fokker Scourge by spring 1917. In 1915 arsenic-based vomiting-sneeze gas Adamsite (DM) (diphenylaminechlorarsine) is synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957); in 1918 Am chemist Roger Adams (1889-1971) duplicates it, and both sides stockpile it, but it is allegedly never used on the battlefield. On Mar. 22, 1916 the British have their first success with their new Depth Charge off the SW coast of Ireland, destroying a German U-boat. Are you used to Hell yet, try this? On Sept. 15, 1916 Winston Churchill's pet project the Tank (Russian Water Closet) (Char-Schneider) is first used by the Brits in the Somme.

On Jan. 13, 1915 a 6.8 earthquake in Avezzano, Italy near L'Aquila kills 29K.

In 1916 the once-in-a-cent. WWI Climate Anomaly begins, which brings relentless rain in Europe all the way to Gallipoli, causing many troops to be lost in a "liquid grave".

Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)

In Feb. 1917 Edinburgh, Scotland-born telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) pub. an article in Nat. Geographic Mag., warning that unrestricted burning of fossil fuels "would have a sort of greenhouse effect... The net result is the greenhouse becomes a sort of hot-house", advocating ethanol fuels made from agricultural waste incl. corn stalks and sawmill dust to replace coal and oil, which "are now actually within measurable distance to the end of supply", with the soundbyte: "We need never fear the exhaustion of our present fuel supplies so long as we can produce an annual crop of alcohol to an extent desired"; he actually only mentioned the greenhouse in 1914?

On May 25-June 1, 1917 the 1917 U.S. Tornado Outbreak sees 73+ tornadoes of F4+ hit the U.S. Midwest and SE incl. Ill., Ind., Ark., Ky., Tenn., Ala. and Miss., becoming the most intense and longest continuous tornado outbreak sequence on record (until ?); kills 383 and causes $6.88M damage, incl. 101 killed in Charleston, Ill. and Mattoon, Ill.; on June 6, 2017 a massive tornado outbreak kills dozens from Kan. to Mich., causing $1M damage and injuring 40-50 in Kan. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On July 8, 1917 (Sun.) a planned attack by British troops on 1K Ottoman troops in Ramadi, C Iraq is foiled by record 160F (71C) temperatures.

In Dec. 1917-Jan. 1918 a record cold wave in the Ohio Valley in S. Ind. and C Ky. sees a record 49 in. of snowfall in Louisville, Ky.

USS Cyclops, 1910-18

On Mar. 4, 1918 the 542-ft. 19K-ton U.S. Navy collier USS Cyclops (AC-4) (launched May 7, 1910) (largest ship in the U.S. Navy) en route from the West Indies to Baltimore carrying manganese ore disappears without a trace along with all 309 crew and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle, becoming the first mysterious ship disappearance there; its last message is "Weather Fair, All Well"; the Germans disavow knowledge.

In 1915 the Proceedings of the Nat. Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) begins pub.; too bad, it later gets captured by the globalist Marxist U.N. IPCC and its global warming proponents, carrying anything in favor of their theories incl. wildly exaggerated temperature and sea level rises and other climate alarmism after "pal review".

On June 28/29, 1917 (night) the Great Rainstorm of June 28, 1917 in England sees 5"-7" of rainfall over a heavily populated area, becoming the worst in England (until ?).

In 1917 Albert Einstein pub. the paper Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung in Physische Zeitung, disproving the notion that radiation absorption and emission by atmospheric CO2 can transfer heat because in a gas in thermodynamic equilibrium the rate of absorption equals the rate of emission, making it impossible for atmospheric CO2 to trap surface infrared and act like a blanket.


About 1920 the Warming in the North begins (ends 1960), which sees the salinity of North Atlantic water passing through the Faroe-Shetland Channel into the Norwegian Sea peak, and the West Greenland banks warm by 2C+, disolocating biogeographical boundaries for plankton, fish, mammals, and birds.

Milutin Milankovic (1879-1958)

In the 1920s after he got the idea that variations in the Earth's orbit could have a major effect on the climate, and found that solar flux in July at 65 deg. N lat. can vary by as much as 35%, Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovic (Milankovitch) (1879-1958) proposes Milankovitch Cycles to explain long-term climate changes by the position of the Earth vis a vis the Sun, namely that during an ice age there will be more or less ice depending on these orbital cycles, but if the Earth is too warm, they basically won't do anything in terms of growing ice; in 1930 he pub. the book Mathematical Climatology and the Astronomical Theory of Climatic Changes, which is a big hit at first until lack of ice age data makes it impossible to verify; in 1972 scientists use the potassium-argon dating method to compile a climatic event timeline for the last 700K years using deep-sea cores. Watch video.

On Apr. 20, 1920 seven killer tornadoes rock Miss., Ala. and Tenn., killing 220 and causing $3.5M in property damage.

On Nov. 27, 1920 Scientific American mag. pub. the article Carbonic Acid Gas to Fertilize the Air by Alfred Gradenwitz, praising CO2's role as a plant food and advocating pumping more into the atmosphere via blast furnaces.

On Dec. 16, 1920 (7:05:53 p.m. local time) a 7.8 earthquake in Gansu (Kansu) Province in W China destroys 30K sq. mi. and kills 273.4K.

In 1921 the 1921 Summer Heatwave in Europe causes the Russian famine of 1921-22, which kills 5M around the Caspian Sea.

Knickerbocker Theatre, 1917 Knickerbocker Theatre, Jan. 28, 1922

On Jan. 27-28, 1922 the Knickerbocker Blizzard (Storm) in the upper South and mid-Alantic U.S. dumps 20+ in. of snow and causes the flat-roofed Knickerbocker Theatre movie house in Washington, D.C. (founded 1917) to collapse on Jan. 28 (9:00 p.m.), killing 98 incl. ex-Congressman Andrew Jackson Barchfield and injuring 133, becoming the biggest snowstorm in Washington, D.C. since the Washington-Jefferson Storm of Jan. 1772; Congress is adjourned during the storm; architect Reginald Geare commits suicide in 1927, followed in 1937 by owner Harry Crandall.

On Apr. 29, 1922 The Mail of Adelaide, South Australia pub. the article Flood threat from polar ice, which starts out: "'We're doing about the most we can do right now to study the possible collapse of the west ice sheet,' said Dr. Richard Cameron, NSF program, manager for glaciology. 'It has become an area of concern because we could be on the brink of a rise of sea levels.' The staggering aspect of the research is the discovery of a potentially catastrophic phenomenon that had been totally unexpected. 'We're seeing the west ice sheet on its way out,' said Cameron. 'It seems to be doing something completely different than the east ice sheet. It has nothing to do with a warmer climate, just the dynamics of unstable ice'", and contains the soundbyte: "Mountain after mountain of [Antarctic] ice will fall into the sea, be swept northwards by the currents, and melt, thus bringing about, but at a much more rapid rate, the threatened inundation of the land by the rising of the sea to its ancient level."

In Aug. 1922 the 1922 China-Japan Heat Wave sees temperatures averaging 100F, with several days in Peking and Tientsin at 115F.

On Sept. 13, 1922 the highest temp. ever recorded on Earth (136.4 F) (58.0 C) is recorded in 'Aziziya (El Azizia) (Al-Azizyah), Libya (until ?) - get used to it?

On Nov. 2, 1922 The Washington Post pub. an AP article about a report relayed by the U.S. consul in Norway to the U.S. State Dept. in Oct. and pub. in the Monthly Weather Review, which begins: "The Arctic seems to be warming up. Reports from fisherman, seal hunters, and explorers who sail the seas about Spitzbergen and the eastern Arctic, all point to a radical change in climatic conditions, and hitherto underheard-of high temperatures in that part of the earth's surface.... Ice conditions were exceptional. In fact, so little ice has never before been noted. The expedition all but established a record, sailing as far north as 81° 29' in ice-free water. This is the farthest north ever reached with modern oceanographic apparatus... In connection with Dr. Hoel's report, it is of interest to note the unusually warm summer in Arctic Norway and the observations of Capt. Martin Ingebrigsten, who has sailed the eastern Arctic for 54 years past. He says that he first noted warmer conditions in 1918, that since that time it has steadily gotten warmer, and that to-day the Arctic of that region is not recognizable as the same region of 1868 to 1917. Many old landmarks are so changed as to be unrecognizable. Where formerly great masses of ice were found, there are now often moraines, accumulations of earth and stones. At many points where glaciers formerly extended far into the sea they have entirely disappeared" - what's CO2 got to do with it?

C.E.P. Brooks (1888-1957)

In 1922 English geologist-climatologist Charles Ernest Pelham "C.E.P." Brooks (1888-1957), later asst. dir. of the climatological div. of Britain's Meteorological Office pub. the book The Evolution of Climate, followed in 1926 by the std. textbook Climate Through the Ages, which attributes the onset of the ice ages to geographical changes incl. evolving continental shapes, denying any role for astronomical forces except for solar activity variations, which he relegates to fluctuations of 100K years or less, rejecting CO2 as a cause of climate change; it contains the humorous soundbyte: "There are at least nine and twenty ways of constructing a theory of climate change, and there is probably some truth in quite a number of them"; in 1951 he pub. the article Geological and Historical Aspects of Climate Change in Compendium of Meteorology (ed. Thomas F. Malone), pub. by the Am. Meteorological Assoc., containing the soundbyte about the CO2 Greenhouse Gas Warming Theory: "Arrhenius and Chamberlin saw in this a case of climatic changes, but the theory never widely accepted and was abandoned when it was found that all the long-wave radiation absorbed by CO2 is absorbed by water vapor."

On Apr. 4, 1923 The Advertiser pub. the article The North Pole, Causes of Change of Climate, which starts out: "Is the North Pole going to melt entirely? Are the Arctic regions warming up, with prospect of a great climatic change in that part of the world? Science (says 'Popular Science') is asking these questions. Reports from fishermen, seal hunters, and explorers who sail the seas around Spitzbergen and the eastern Arctic all point to a radical change in climatic conditions, with hitherto unheard-of high temperatures on that part of the earth's surface. Observations to that effect have covered the last five years during which the warmth has been steadily increasing. In August of this year the Norwegian Department of Commerce sent an expedition to Spitzbergen and Bear Island under the leadership of Dr. Adolf Hoel, professor of geology in the University of Christinia, the object in view to survey and chart areas productive of coal and other minerals. The expedition sailed as far north as 81 deg. 29 min. N. latitude in ice free water. Such a thing, hitherto, would have been deemed impossible. The United States Consul at Bergen, Norway, Mr. Ifft, also reports the recent extraordinary warmth in the Arctic. He quotes incidentally the statements of Captain Martin Ingebrigtsen, a mariner who has sailed those seas for 51 years. The captain says that he first noted an unusual warmth in 1918; and since then temperatures have risen steadily higher. Today the eastern Arctic is 'hardly recognisable as the same region of 1868 to 1917.' Many of the old landmarks are greatly altered, or no longer exist. Where formerly there were great masses of ice, these have melted away, leaving behind them accumulations of earth and stones such as geologists call 'moraines.' At many points where glaciers extended far into the sea half a dozen years ago they have now entirely disappeared. The change in temperature has brought great changes in the plant and animal life of the Arctic. Formerly vast shoals of whitefish were found in the waters round Spitzbergen, but last summer the fishermen sought them in vain. Seals, which used to be plentiful in those seas, have almost entirely disappeared. It would seem as if the ocean must have become uncomfortably warm for some of its denizens which formerly frequented those latitudes, causing them to flock northward towards the Pole. On the other hand, other kinds of fishes, hitherto unknown so far north, have made their appearance. Shoals of smelt have arrived, and immense schools of herring are reported by fishermen along the west coast of Spitzbergen. Formerly the waters about Spitzbergen have held an even summer temperature in the neighborhood of 5 deg. above freezing point. This year it rose as high as 28 deg. Last winter the ocean did not freeze over even on the north coast of Spitzbergen. This is on the authority of Dr. Hoel. This state of affairs is a cause of much surprise and even astonishment to scientists, who wonder whether the change is merely temporary or the beginning of a great alteration of climatic conditions in the Arctic, with consequent melting of the polar ice sheet."

On Aug. 9, 1923 The Chicago Tribune pub. the front page story Scientist Says Arctic Ice Will Wipe Out Canada.

On June 28, 1924 four tornadoes rock Ohio and Penn., killing 96 and causing $13M in property damage.

On Mar. 18, 1925 (Wed.) the F5 Tri-State Tornado Outbreak in SE Mo., S Ill., and SW Ind. kills 595 and injures 2,027, causing $1.6B damage, a record not broken until the Apr. 27, 2011 Super Tornado Outbreak.

In May 1925 the 1925 Summer Heat Wave in the E U.S. begins, with 94F temps on May 24 in Washington, D.C. (hottest for 56 years), peaking on June 5 with 104F max temps in Mich. and 100F temps from Tex. to N.Y.; every day in June is 90+F in the Midwest; in Sept. another heat wave sees 112F on Sept. 5 in Centreville, Ala. and 106F in Birmingham, Ala.; on Sept. 20 another heat wave sees 100F temps in most of the SE U.S., incl. 107F in Ga., with almost half of the U.S. over 90F. Watch video - Tony Heller.

In summer 1926 the Great Mississippi River Flood of 1927 begins after heavy summer rains swell the river to 60 mi. width below Memphis, Tenn. by next May, causing flooding over a 27K sq. mi. area that submerges towns and farmland up to 30 ft. depth, displacing 640K from La. to Ill. before subsiding in Aug. 1927, after which the 1928 U.S. Flood Control Act is passed on May 15, 1928, creating the world's longest system of levees; on Jan. 1-May 1, 1927 the Great Mississippi Flood strikes the Lower Mississippi Valley, killing 246, destroying 130K homes, causing $350M in property damage, and displacing 700K; similar to the 2005 flood only slower? Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Aug. 6-Sept. 25, 1925 the 1925 SE U.S. Heat Wave sees 100+ temps every day, peaking at 112F in Clarksville, Tenn. on Sept. 7.

On Sept. 11, 1926 the Category 4 (150 mph) 1926 Great Miami Hurricane forms in the C Atlantic Ocean, moving N of the Virgin Islands on Sept. 15, and reaching peak intensity on Sept. 16, hitting the Turks and Caicos Islands and the Bahamas before making landfall in Miami, Fla. on Sept. 18, traversing the Fla. Peninsula and emerging near Fort Myers, Fla. and hitting Ala., Miss., and La. before dissipating on Sept. 22 after killing 372-539 and causing $100M damage.

1927 is the Worst Year in Red Cross History in the U.S. (until ?), with 111 disasters incl. 29 tornadoes, 24 floods, 9 hurricanes, and 23 fires; the Mississippi River is flooded for more than 6 mo.

On July 6, 1928 in Potter, Neb. a hailstone is found measuring 17 in. (43.2 cm.) and weighing 1.51 lb. (680 g), becoming the world's largest (until ?).

On Sept. 6-21, 1928 the 1928 Okeechobee (San Felipe Segundo) Hurricane becomes the first known Category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic basin, killing 1.2K in Guadeloupe, 300 in Puerto Rico, and 2.5K in S Fla. after a storm surge from Lake Okeechobee floods hundreds of sq. mi. and destroys the tourist trade there; a total of 4,078 are killed, and $100M in damage is caused; the white dead are given a decent burial, while the nearly 700 black dead are dumped into a 1.5-acre mass grave in West Palm Beach.


On Feb. 7, 1930 the article Hobart's Variable Weather is pub. in The Mercury, starting out: "A fall of snow on Mt. Wellington closed a week of weather conditions in Hobart unprecedented in the memory of those who can go back 40 years. Early in the week the weather was hot and sultry, and the humidity was us unusual for Hobart as it was uncomfortable. On Thursday the humidity was more than 10 per cent, in excess of the average for this time of the year. Rain storms threatened on Friday morning, and between 3 p.m. and 9 a.m. today, 218 points of rain was registered and another 11 points by 3 p.m. Snow began to fall on the mountain last night, and continued during the early hours this morning. There was a white mantle about 2 inches thick on the mountain to-day. The minimum temperature was 34 degrees F [1.1°C]."

On Aug. 28, 1930 a heat wave in France sees 100F temps in Paris, and 122F in the Loire region, becoming the worse heat wave since 1870. Watch video - Tony Heller.

Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)

In 1930 English mathematician-geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) describes the photochemical mechanisms underlying the Earth's ozone layer; early in this decade he and his student V.C.A. Ferraro predict the existence of the magnetosphere.

In 1931-5 avg. winter temp in Spitsbergen: -8.6C; in 1900-15: -17.6C.

In July-Nov. 1931 the 1931 China (Yangtze-Huai River Floods) kill 422K-4M, becoming one of the most lethal natural disasters of the cent., and most deadly flood in known history; on Aug. 21 floods in Hankow spread over thousands of sq. mi. and make 30M homeless, causing the Communists to blame corrupt govt. officials of embezzlement of the dyke fund.

On May 2, 1932 the Jefferson City Post-Tribune of Jefferson City, Mo. pub. the article Melting Glaciers Could Flood Earth's Big Cities, which starts out: "Just raise the average temperature of the earth two or three degress and you can bid goodbye to all the cities on earth. Glaciers will melt, and oceans will rise, and --. But let the weather man get in on this. It took a weather man to think up the idea and a whole audience of weather men to listen to it with composure and without adopting a resolution or staging a demonstration. Dr. William J. Humphreys of the United States Weather Bureau took a lot of evidence to make up the painstaking ease, presented today to the American Meteorological Society, that the earth's glaciers if melted would raise the ocean level 150 feet, and that the aforementioned slight increase in warmth would do the melting."

On July 21, 1932 The Queenslander pub. the article A Warmer World, which starts out: "Some great world change is taking place on the Antarctic Continent. Its glaciers are shrinking. Commander L.A. Bernacchi, who visited the South Polar land 30 years ago, which from the continent with a wall of ice for 250 miles has receded at least 30 miles since it was first seen and surveyed... It might imply, unless it is offset by some increase of ice in of ice in another less explored part of the Antarctic, that the climate of the South Pole is changing and becoming warmer."

On Jan. 21, 1933 a newspaper article from Beirut titled Yo-Yo Banned in Syria. Blamed for Drought by Moslems contains the soundbyte: "Drought and severe cold is disastrously affecting the cattle in Syria, and the Moslem chiefs at Damascus have attributed the wrath of the heavens to the recent introduction of the yo-yo. They say that while the people are praying for the rain to come down from above the yo-yo goes down, and before reaching the ground springs up through the subtle pull of the string."

On Mar. 31, 1933 after FDR proposes it on Mar. 21, the U.S. Congress authorizes the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) AKA Roosevelt's Tree Army to give employment to 3.5M young people, which he establishes on Apr. 5 via Executive Ordr 6101, going on to build 125K mi. of roads, 13.1K mi. of foot trails, and 3B trees by 1942; camps incl. Camp Hadley in Madison, Conn. - make-work in the name of the environment beats war?

On June 7, 1933 a massive heat wave in the U.S. and Britain sees avg. max temps of 93F, with more than half above 95F, and causes "modified nudism" (skimpy bathing suits) in England; hundreds of horses and hogs die in Ill. Watch video - Tony Heller.

Joseph Burton 'J.B.' Kincer (1874-1954)

In Sept. 1933 Am. meteorologist Joseph Burton "J.B." Kincer (1874-1954), head of the climate and crop weather div. of the Weather Bureau in Washington, D.C. pub. the article Is Our Climate Changing? A Study of Long-Time Temperature Trends in Monthly Weather Review, which contains the soundbyte: "In concluding this study, other weather features directly related to general temperature conditions were examined such as the occurrence of frost in the fall and spring, the number of days in winter with certain low temperatures, the occurrence of freezing weather in the fall and spring se.asons, the length of the winters, as indicated by the first frost in fall and the last in spring, etc. All of these confirm the general statement that we are in the midst of a period of abnormal warmth, which has come on more or less gradually for many years. An example of this auxiliary evidence is shown in figure 12, in which the general trend of the number of days with freezing weather in fall and in spring at Washington, D.C., is charted for a period of 6O years (data in table 2). It will be noted that for the 20 years ending with 1892 there was for the spring months (after February) a total of 354 days with minimum temperature 32° or lower, and for the 20 years, ending with 1933, this had dropped to 237 days, a reduction of one third from the early total, or an average difference of 6 days a year." On Nov. 28, 1937 Herbert Hollander pub. an interview with Kincer in the Baltimore Sun, uttering the soundbyte: "Our study, based on authentic statistical data, definitely proves that the climate generally has been growing noticeably milder. The temperature and other records are supplemented by our knowledge of the accelerated melting of the polar ice caps. Those middle-aged and elderly folk who claim the winters today are decidedly less severe than when they were young are not deceived... As a matter of fact, this long-time trend is national and, indeed, international", never mentioning carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and adding: "It is quite possible that the trend will be in the other direction. When the infants of today become graybeards they may sit before some crackling fire and remember 'the nice, comfortable, open winters we used to have.'"

On Feb. 3, 1934 The Cairns Post pub. the article "World Heating Up", with the subtitles: "Ice Dissolving at Poles" and "Sea Will Rise 40 Feet", starting out: "The world is gradually becoming both warmer and drier. One day the great Polar icecaps may melt - raising the level of the oceans from 40 to 50 feet, and wiping half of England from the map. These suggestions were made by Sir Douglas Mawson (the famous Polar explorer) and Dr. C.E.P. Brooks (of the British Meteorological Office), who is a leading authority on the effect of Polar conditions on climate. "This warm-up process is slow," said Sir Douglas. "In fact, all we may expect is a rise in average temperatute of 2 or 3 degress Fahr. each 1000 years."

On Dec. 30, 1934 the Los Angeles Times pub. the article Cold, Heat, Drought and Floods Set New Marks, with the subtitles: "Whole World in Freak Weather Year of 1934", and "Unprecedented Extremes Recorded in Every Corner of the Earth: Even Climate Is Changed in Spots".

In 1934 the Great Drought begins in the U.S. (ends 1937), creating the Am.-Canadian Dust Bowl of 1935-8, covering 150K sq. mi. (75%) of the Great Plains, incl. parts of Okla., Tex., Kans., Colo., and N.M., becoming the worst drought in 1K years; caused by the planting of wheat during WWI on former grazing land to make a quick profit? On July 20, 1934 Keokuk, Iowa reaches a state temp record of 118F (48C). In July 1934 80% of the U.S. is in extreme or severe drought.

In 1934 the U.S. Nat. Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is established in New Orleans, La. to archive weather data, moving to Asheville, N.C. in 1951 and renamed to the Nat. Weather Records Data Center (NWRC), and the modern name in 1993; in 2015 it is merged with the Nat. Geophysical Data Center and the Nat. Oceanic Center into the Nat. Centers for Environmental Info. (NCEI), becoming part of the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) along with Ariz. State U. and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, which runs five Earth surface stations, 6K temperature stations, 7.5K precipitation stations, and 2K pressure stations, with the avg. temp record going back to the late 1950s, incl. data collected since 1697, with 1,650 records greater than 100 years, and 220 greater than 150 years.

In Mar. 1935 dust storms begin plaguing Kansas, and on Apr. 8 after the air in Washington D.C. turns copper from dust blowing in from the W end of the Okla. Panhandle, the U.S. Emergency Relief Appropriation Act is passed, appropriating $4B to be used at FDR's discretion, along with $880M in previously unspent appropriations; in Apr. Congress approves the Works Progress Admin. (WPA), which begins operating on May 6. On Apr. 14, 1935 (p.m.) Black Sunday, a terrific 200-mi.-wide dust storm begins in Cimarron County, Okla., crossing into Kansas, dropping the temp. 25 deg. in an hour, and permanently blinding many people; 4.7 tons of dust per acre are dumped on W Kan., denting cartops; the wind blows at 40 mph or greater for 100 straight hours, displacing 300M tons of topsoil from the prairies; later the southern plains are plagued by up to 14M grasshoppers per sq. mi. after natural predators are killed by the dust; in July 1940 Woody Guthrie releases his debut album Dust Bowl Ballads, becoming one of the first concept albums, featuring Great Dust Storm Disaster; "On the 14th day of April 1935,/ There struck the worst of dust storms that ever filled the sky./ You could see that dust storm comin', the cloud looked deathlike black,/ And through our mighty nation, it left a dreadful track./ From Oklahoma City to the Arizona line,/ Dakota and Nebraska to the lazy Rio Grande,/ It fell across our city like a curtain of black rolled down,/ We thought it was our judgment, we thought it was our doom./ The radio reported, we listened with alarm the wild and windy actions of this great mysterious storm." On Aug. 29-Sept. 10, 1935 the 1935 Labor Day U.S. Hurricane destroys Islamorada and Key West, Fla., causing $6M damage and killing 423, becoming the first known Category 5 Hurricane to hit the U.S. mainland, first and worst of three to hit the U.S. during the 20th cent. (1969 Hurricane Camille, 1992 Hurricane Andrew).

In Oct. 1935-Mar. 1936 the U.S. E of the Rocky Mts. experiences the 5th-coldest weather for the contiguous U.S.; in Dec. 1935-Feb. 1936 the 1936 North Am. Cold Wave is worse in the Midwest U.S. and the Canadian Prairies, missing the SW U.S. and Calif., becoming the worst in North Am. in cents.; Feb. is the coldest on record in the contiguous U.S., narrowly beating Feb. 1899.

In early 1936 record heat, floods, and tornadoes hit the U.S., setting almost 250 all-time max temp records, which isn't matched until ?; on Feb. 8-23 Ashland, Kan. warms 91 deg F from -7F to 84F; on Mar. 19 The Cincinnati Enquirer carries the headline: "Hunger and Disease Peril Pittsburgh as City's Most Disastrous Flood Ebbs: Crest to Be 58 or 60 Feet in City Monday"; on Mar. 20 The New York Daily News carries the headline: "All Eastern America Under Flood Waters: Terrible Duststorm Rages in West", along with a front page article titled "President Signs Appeal as Capitol Flooded: 100 Cities and 14 States Affected"; on Apr. 7 The New York News carries the headline: "Great Property Damage", with the opening paragraph: "A tornado - one of a series of storms which for several days has harassed six southern States - today struck three cities with great force, leaving behind it many dead. At least 200 have already been identified. Gainesville in Georgia, Tupelo in Mississippi, and Colombia in Tennessee were the hardest hit."

In June-Sept. 1936 after one of the coldest winters on record, the 1936 North Am. Heatwave becomes the hotest in U.S. history (until 2012?), with temps peaking on July 7-14, with every state over 90F and many over 100F, combining with drought to make the U.S. virtually unlivable, killing 5K incl. 1180 in Canada (esp. in urban areas sans air conditioning) and destroying massive amounts of crops. On July 25, 1936 The Bend Bulletin carries the headline: "Heat Wave Toll Over 12,000 in 86 Cities in Week", talking about "temperatures of 100 degrees and higher throughout a large part of the nation" - high atmospheric CO2 had nothing to do with it? On Aug. 25, 1936 the St. Louis Star-Times pub. the article Month Heat Toll Mounts to 33 in Prolonged Spell, with the subtitle "Mercury Stayed Below 100 Yesterday First Time in 13 Days".

Robert K. Merton (1910-2003)

In Dec. 1936 Philadelphia, Penn.-born sociologist (founder of the field of the sociology of science) Robert King Merton (Meyer Robert Schkolnick) (1910-2003) pub. the essay The Unanticipated Consequences of Social Action in Am. Sociological Review, which popularizes the Law of Unintended Consequences, incl. unexpected benefit, unexpected drawback, and perverse result; "The distinctive intellectual contributions of the sociologist are found primarily in the study of unintended consequences... of social practices as well as in the study of anticipated consequences."

G.S. Callendar (1898-1964)

In Apr. 1938 using 147 widespread land-based weather stations, Montreal, Canada-born British steam engineer Guy Stewart "G.S." Callendar (1898-1964) pub. the paper The artificial production of carbon dioxide and its influence on temperature (submitted May 19, 1937) in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, announcing the Callendar (Greenhouse) Effect ("sky radiation") caused by the burning of fossil fuels, assessing climate sensitivity at 2°C and claiming that it would be beneficial, delaying a "return of the deadly glaciers", with the soundbyte: "In conclusion it may be said that the combustion of fossil fuel, whether it be peat from the surface or oil from 10,000 feet below, is likely to prove beneficial to mankind in several ways, besides the provision of heat and power. For instance, the above-mentioned small increases of mean temperature would be important at the northern margin of cultivation, and the growth of favourably situated plants is directly proportional to the carbon dioxide pressure [Brown and Escombe, 1905]. In any case the return of the deadly glaciers should be delayed indefinitely"; too bad, his paper meets with widespread skepticism ("The temperature distribution of the atmosphere was determined almost entirely by the movement of the air up and down. This forced the atmosphere into a temperature distribution which was quite out of balance with the radiation") until 1950 then leading to attempts to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations in Hawaii in 1958; only about 60 stations are needed?; "By fuel combustion man has added about 150,000 million tons of carbon dioxide to the air during the past half century. The author estimates from the best available data that approximately three quarters of this has remained in the atmosphere. The radiation absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide and water vapour are used to show the effect of carbon dioxide on 'sky radiation.' From this the increase in mean temperature, due to the artificial production of carbon dioxide, is estimated to be at the rate of 0.003°C. per year at the present time. The temperature observations at 200 meteorological stations are used to show that world temperatures have actually increased at an average rate of 0.005°C. per year during the past half century." In 1958 Callendar pub. the paper On the Amount of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere, recognizing only 12 suitable data sets in the 20th cent. after rejecting almost all CO2 measurements made before 1870.

On Sept. 9-23, 1938 the Category 3 Great 1938 New England Hurricane AKA the Long Island Express and Yankee Clipper hits Long Island, N.Y. on Sept. 21, killing 682, damaging or destroying 57K homes and 6K fishing boats, and causing $306M property damage, becoming the most powerful hurricane in New England since the 1635 Colonial Hurricane; damaged trees and bldgs. are still seen as late as 1951.

On Oct. 9, 1938 The New York Times pub. the article Forest Fires, One Every 3 Minutes in 1937, Burned 21,980,500 Acres at $20,668,800 Loss.

On Jan. 13, 1939 after a stationary high pressure system over the Tasman Sea leads to a heat wave, the Black Friday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia burn 4.942K acres, kill 71, burn 1.3K homes, 3.7K bldgs., and 69 sawmills.

On Jan. 24-25, 1939 an 8.3 earthquake strikes Concepcion, Chile, killing 10K; heavy aftershocks follow on Jan. 30, killing 30K, with 50K sq. mi. razed.

Auschwitz Camp Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) Raphael Lemkin (1900-59)

On Sept. 1, 1939 - Sept. 2, 1945 the horrific $3.5T World War II results in 24M military and 49M civilian deaths, and features the low point of the Jewish Holocaust (Shoah) by the German Nazis - I guess it was the Jews' fault for not ransoming themselves to go to Israel before they could round them up for the camps? The whole experience turns Jews from lovers into fighters, ramping up the Zionist movement with full world sympathy and support by new world superpower U.S., which has its own guilt trip because on Nov. 24, 1942 Budapest-born Am. Zionist leader Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) announces in a press conference in Washington, D.C. that he was authorized by the U.S. State Dept. to confirm that the Nazis had murdered 2M Jews as part of a plan to exterminate all Jews in Europe; too bad, the nat. newspapers don't consider it front page news, and the U.S. govt. does nada. After the war ends and Americans tour the concentration camps in horror, Polish-born Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59), who single-handedly led an unsuccessful campaign to get the League of Nations to give internat. protections against genocide starting in 1933 finally gets what he wanted after his own people got it, namely the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Gen. Assembly Resolution 260), which doesn't come in force until Jan. 12, 1951, and which the U.S. still doesn't ratify until 1988.

On Sept. 29, 1939 the Wodonga and Towong Sentinel pub. the article What Is the World Coming To?, which starts out: "Scientists have confirmed the fact that the Arctic regions around Spitzbergen are warming up at the rate of approximately one degree in every two years. Since 1910, when observations first started in those regions, the cumulative rise of winter temperature has amounted to nearly 16 degrees. Such a profound change has been attended by new and strange phenomena over the whole area surrounding the Polar basin. It has been found that the Polar icefields are receding gradually northwards, while soil which at one time remained solidly frozen throughout the year now undergoes a partial thaw during the Arctic summers. In the Barents Sea area where, during earlier observations, only small patches became free from ice, large spaces of open water now occur at frequent intervals. Ice-breakers and other vessels which regularly make journeys to the far North are now able to penetrate with comparative ease into regions which could not be reached twenty years ago. There has been a gradual drift northward of several kinds of fish into areas once completely ice covered. The milder conditions have not been confined to areas north of the Russian coast. From parts of Greenland comes evidence of a higher winter temperature, with considerably less snow, than was the case in the early part of the twentieth century. When this warming-up process was first noticed, says a writer in the "Evening Standard," scientists were inclined to attribute it to a temporary increase in the volume of the North Atlantic Drift, or even to a change in the course of the river of warmth, but subsequent events point to this theory being only partially correct. Parts of the Polar regions not affected by the warm waters have grown decidedly warmer in the last 20 years, while temperatures have become higher in the far north-east of Siberia and well inland - remote from oceanic effects. In support of the belief that the Atlantic river of warmth cannot be wholly responsible for the widespread rise in temperature there are the trustworthy records obtained by Mr. J. B. Kincer, of the Weather Bureau at Washington, which show that the rise in temperature at places as far apart as Canada and Africa, South America and Asia, Bombay and Santiago (Chile) has been well marked since the middle of last century. It is possible that the world as a whole is becoming warmer. One scientist puts forward the theory that an increase in carbon dioxide (due to the huge amounts of coal being used) may be responsible for such a change, while astronomers look to the sun for an explanation. Quite apart from any fluctuations in the sun's actual output of radiative energy, it is possible that the warmth received from the sun may vary from time to time due to the earth passing through regions of space in which meteoric dust is unevenly distributed."

On Dec. 17, 1939 the Harrisburg Sunday Courier pub. the article Greenland's glaciers melting, says scientist, quoting Swedish geologist Hans Ahlmann, who recently visited the Arctic: "Everything points to the fact that the climate in that region has been growing warmer during recent years. It may without exaggeration be said that the glaciers, like those in Norway, face the possibility of a catastrophic collapse."

Carl-Gustaf Rossby (1898-1957)

In 1939 Swedish-born Am. meteorologist Carl-Gustaf Arvid Rossby (1898-1957) of the U.S. Weather Bureau and U. of Chicago discovers Rossby Waves in the Earth's atmosphere, due to the variation in the Coriolis effect with latitude, leading to large-scale meanders of the Jet Stream (which he also identifies) that cause masses of cold or warm air to detach and become low-strength cyclones and anticyclones, driving daily weathern patterns at mid-latitudes, making the E coast of the U.S. colder than the W coast at a given latitude.

George Rippey Stewart Jr. (1895-1980)

In 1939 Sewickley, Penn.-born historian-novelist George Rippey Stewart Jr. (1895-1980) pub. East of the Giants. In 1941 he pub. Storm, about a Pacific storm named Maria, causing the U.S. Nat. Weather Service to begin naming tropical storms after people, and inspiring Lerner and Loewe's song "They Call the Wind Maria" from "Paint Your Wagon" (1951). In 1948 Fire, about a forest fire in the Sierra Nevada Mts. of Calif. In 1949 he pub. Earth Abides, a post-apocalyptic sci-fi novel about Isherwood "Ish" Williams, Emma, and the community they found in Berkeley, Calif. after civilization is destroyed by a plague; wins the first Internat. Fantasy Award in 1951.


In 1940-70 the Earth's avg. temp. cools, according to NASA et al.

In the 1940s early signs of global warming are seen in SE Asia, Australia, and Africa?, appearing as increased avg. temps, followed by increased extreme temps?

On Mar. 13, 1940 the Australian newspaper ? pub. the article Record March Heat Wave: Six Consecutive Centuries, reporting 100F+ temps on Mar. 7-12.

On Oct. 13, 1940 the Hartford Courant Mag. pub. the article Ice in Arctic Melting Rapidly by Thomas R. Henry, which begins: "The ice of the Arctic Ocean is melting so rapidly that more than one-third of it has disappeared in 50 years"; too bad, it conflicts with NASA's global warming story, so no surprise, on Sept. 27, 2009 Tom Wigley of the Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) sends an email to Phil Jones of the the U. of East Anglia, with the soundbyte: "Here are some speculations on correcting SSTs to partly explain the 1940s warming blip. If you look at the attached plot you will see that the land also shows the 1940s blip (as I'm sure you know). So, if we could reduce the ocean blip by, say, 0.15 degC, then this would be significant for the global mean - but we'd still have to explain the land blip... It would be good to remove at least part of the 1940s blip, but we are still left with 'why the blip'." Watch video - Tony Heller.

Rupert Wildt (1905-76)

In 1940 German-born Am. astronomer Rupert Wildt (1905-76) proposes that the high surface temperatures of Venus are caused by a CO2-driven greenhouse effect, which is later popularized by astronomer Carl Sagan; they're really caused by the high surface pressure?

On Oct. 6, 1943 the Rabbis' March in Washington, D.C. sees 400 rabbis demonstrate in support of U.S. and Allied action to stop the destruction of Euro Jews.

In 1943 the free market small govt. think tank Inst. of Public Affairs (IPA) is founded in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia by 54 people, with close ties to the Australian Liberal Party, advocating deregulation and privatization, and opposing unions and climate change science.

On May 29, 1944 after a cold spell on May 4-9 that damages crops, temps in S England hit 32.8C (91F); too bad, a week later weather becomes extremely stormy, forcing the June 6 D-Day invasion.

On Oct. 23, 1944 Joel Stebbins, A.E. Whitford, and P. Swings of Mount Wilson Observatory and Washburn U. pub. the paper A Strong Infrared Radiation from Molecular Nitrogen in the Night Sky, claiming back radiation at a wavelength of 10.44 microns, claiming that nitrogen combined with oxygen are more potent greenhouse gases than methane, rivalling CO2.

Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) Vincent Joseph Schaefer (1906-93)

Long after the Indians showed them the Rain Dance? On July 14, 1946 after pioneering work by Am. chemist-physicist Irving Langmuir (assoc. dir. of research at Gen. Electric in 1932-50), his asst., self-taught Am. chemist-meteorologist Vincent Joseph Schaefer (1906-93) of GE Labs in Schenectady, N.Y. pioneers the principle of Cloud Seeding on Mt. Washington in N.H.; on Nov. 13 the first Artificial Snow is produced by seeding clouds with crushed dry ice at Mt. Greylock, Mass. in the Berkshire Mts., causing a major snowstorm; next Oct. 13 Project Cirrus is begun by the USAF, U.S. Office of Naval Research, and the U.S. Army Signal Corps to seed a hurricane with 180 lb. of crushed dry ice, after which the hurricane changes direction and makes landfall near Savannah, Ga., causing the public to blame them and the project to be canceled, with the govt. not admitting it had seeded it until 1959; in 1962 NOAA launches Project Stormfury to weaken cyclones by flying aircraft into them and seeding them with silver iodide; too bad, it doesn't work, and the last flight is flown in 1971, and the project canceled in 1983; in 2010 Pinhas Alpert et al. of Tel Aviv U. review past data and conclude that cloud seeding isn't very effective.

Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965)

In 1946 English physicist Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965) discovers that sunspots emit radio waves.

On Jan. 21-Mar. 21, 1947 the 1946-7 U.K. Winter sees cold spells hit on Jan. 21, bringing snowstorms that leave large snowdrifts that block the transport of coal to electric power stations, causing severe hardships incl. shutdown of businesses; in mid-Mar. warm weather returns, causing massive snow melting that brings widespread flooding affecting 100K bldgs., causing a 15% drop in industrial production along with a 15% reduction in cereal and potato crops and 35% of the sheep herds freezing to death, all causing the Labour Party to lose popularity and the English pound to be devalued from $4.03 to $2.80; meanwhile cold and famine in Berlin kills 150, businesses close in Ireland, and civil unrest rocks the Netherlands, contributing to the introduction of the Marshall Plan in Europe.

On May 31, 1947 the Warwick Daily News pub. the article Danger Seen in Mysterious Warming of Arctic Climate, about a speech at the U. of Calif. Geophysical Inst. by Swedish geophysicist Hans Ahlmann, who claims an increase in Arctic temps of 10F since 1900, threatening mass melting and floods of coastal regions, with the soundbytes: ""A mysterious warming of the climate is slowly manifesting itself in the Arctic, and if the Antarctica ice regions and the major Greenland ice caps should reduce at the same rate as the present rate of melting oceanic surfaces would rise in catastrophic proportions and people living in lowlands along the shores would be inundated"; "The Arctic change is so serious that I hope an international agency can speedily be formed to study conditions on a global basis."

In Dec. 1948 freaky weather begins in W Europe, starting with London, which has five straight days of fog, costing workers £3.750M/day, while the fog lasts for up to 10 days in other parts of W Europe; on Jan. 3, 1949 wild gales cause the English Midlands to freeze over, while gusts of 162 mph are reported by observers on top of the Eiffel Tower; in Feb. 1949 the English winter ends prematurely and is replaced by warm spring weather, causing village wells in Suffolk to run dry for the first time in Feb. and grass fires to break out on golf courses, while in Apr. England has its hottest Apr. night in 50 years, causing Londoners to sleep in parks; in spring a drought begins, causing the British Weather Bureau to declare a state of absolute drought in May after 15 days with no rainfall; in July parts of England suffer record temperatures; in Sept. reservoirs begin to run dry, threatening unemployment in NE England as houses are rationed at three bucks of water/day, a 20-mi. stretch of the Liverpool Leeds Canals dries up, throwing bargemen out of work for 2 mo., while London has freak 90-sec. thunderstorms; in Oct. two weeks of flooding rains along with the worst gale in living memory on the Sussex coast cause 5 ft. of water in Hastings; in Dec. England and Greece suffer Gales, Morocco suffers snow, and Normandy enjoys summerlike sunshine with spring flowers; in Jan. 1950 England enjoys one of its longest mild winter spells in memory, turning to gales of up to 102 mph in Feb., causing the Severn River to rise 8 ft. in 24 hours, and the Wye River to flood in Somerset; in Apr. 1950 a 92 mph gale hits Blackpool so suddenly that people have to cling to lamp posts; in Apr. 1950 England suffers its heaviest Apr. snowstorm in 31 years, causing power lines to fall and electricity to be rationed; in May 1950 freak storms ravage Bedfordshire, along with the first tornado in England in 22 years, lifting pets 50 ft. into the air; in June another heat wave causes 50 servicepersons to collapse while rehearsing a King's birthday parade; similar freaky weather spreads through W Europe, Sweden, Austria, Spain, Turkey, and the U.S.

Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) Jay Wright Forrester (1918-) Heinz von Foerster (1911-2002)

In 1948 Columbia, Mo.-born mathematician Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) pub. Cybernetics; or, Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine, defining Cybernetics (Gr. "steer", "navigate") as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine", anticipating the Computer Rev. His Anselmo, Neb.-born student Jay Wright Forrester (1918-) founds System Dynamics. His Vienna, Austria-born student Heinz von Foerster (1911-2002) comes up with the Doomsday Equation, predicting that world. pop. will become infinite on Nov. 13, 2026 (Fri.); the Soviet Union bans the book until the death of Joseph Stalin on Mar. 5, 1953, then does a 180 and begins embracing computers.

On Jan. 2-5, 1949 (Sun.-Wed.) the Notorious Blizzard (Great White Death) of 1949 kills 12 in Wyo. and 28 in W S. D., Colo., and Neb. with its high winds and hard sandlike snow, becoming known as the Storm of the Cent. for the Great Plains; on Mar. 1 the official U.S. govt. death toll for the region is 76; watch video.

On Sept. 24, 1949 the Sydney Morning Herald pub. the article The Earth Is Getting Warmer by Dr. Everhuis, with the subtitle: "Dr. Everhuis, a Dutch scientist, here reviews evidence which suggests that instead of cooling-off, the earth is growing warmer. One result of this is to change the climate of several countries, with potential benefit to some and disaster to others", continuing: "Scientists are gathering more and more proofs that a climatological revolution is going on around our globe. Very slowly but surely the earth is getting warmer. Until recently the scientific world has kept quiet about this, but now the phenomenon has even penetrated to the political field. Talking of Greenland, the largest island in the world, the Prime Minister of Denmark stated: 'During the past generation changes have taken place which will have a decisive influence on the entire social life. The climate is changing, and with that the economic outlook. This change has already been observed in several parts of the world...' The changes in Greenland have been very noticeable. About six centuries ago, at the time of a change for the worse often referred to as the 'small ice-period,' man and beast had to withdraw from the advancing masses of ice. Even the Eskimos had to give in when at the beginning of the 19th century - the height of the cold period - Greenland became practically uninhabitable. During the present century, however, this largest island of the world has become milder. Glaciers have retreated and the landscape has changed completely. For the first time for centuries some agriculture is possible while more and more species of fish are being caught. Following the warmer streams the cod has made its appearance off Greenland's shores and has become part of the island diet. During the past 27 years this fish has advanced about nine degrees to the north. Herrings also are moving northward, while Greenland now knows many birds which hitherto remained far to the south. These changes are of the greatest strategical importance. Norway's most northern harbour of Spitzbergen, where at the beginning of this century coal could be loaded only for a period of three months, is now ice free for seven months of the year. The average winter temperature of Russian harbours such as Kola and Archangel has risen steadily too. The entire Northern Ice Sea is becoming softer. When Fnedjor Nansen ploughed his way through the ice with the Fram towards the end of the last century, the average thickness of the ice was 145 inches. Members of the crew of the Soviet icebreaker Sedow not long ago found that the ice was only 85 inches thick and that floes have become considerably less. The greatest changes have taken place on the American side. The huge Muir glacier in Alaska has withdrawn 14 miles in the past half century - at the rate of about 409 yards a year. These changes would be of the greatest importance in a future war. Permanent ice-free harbours and a reasonable passage through the ice sea would, for instance, give the Soviet Union a tremendous advantage. Change of climate is not only noticeable near the poles. Near the equator conditions are becoming hotter. This may prove disastrous. For example it has been proved that the Sahara is creeping towards the south as well as towards the north at the rate of a mile a year. If this continues, the African natives will have to move to another continent eventually, for the coastal areas will become over-populated. It was the 'drying out' of Central Asia, after all, which moved Asiatic peoples in the past to invade Europe. And so it appears that the world is leaving the so-called small ice period, which started around 1300. In Holland, the first European country to register weather and climatological conditions at the beginning of the 18th century, it is shown by records that the average winter temperature has been rising continuously. The reason is that the sun has apparently opened a new 'warmth offensive.' It has been known for a long time that the sun has its whims. Otherwise it cannot be explained how under the masses of ice which cover Greenland and Spitzbergen, black coal should be found. Obviously there was a time when jungle forests grew in that zone."


On Apr. 29, 1950 the Advocate pub. the article World is Getting Warmer, Experts Claim, which starts out: "The World is getting warmer, but cooler temperatures will come again. This is the conclusion which emerges from a 100-odd page report on "recent climatic fluctuations" issued by the Danish Royal Geographical Association. Stating that the world's average temperature rose by 0.35 degrees centigrade in the period from 1910 to 1940, the report declares: 'The greatest temperature rise, of more than 3 degrees, has taken place in Greenland, but Spitsbergen, North Asia and northern parts of North America can also show appreciable rises of more than 2 degrees. Otherwise, the rises are in the neighborhood of 1 degree in the North Temperate Zone. It is remarkable that the temperature rises at the great lakes of North America are less than in the districts to the east, north and west of them. The most extensive fall appears to have taken place in East Asia and Australia.' The year 1934, the report continues, was particularly warm in central Europe and in Scandinavia - in several places it was the warmest year ever recorded. In 1947 there was a continuous severe winter in places in south Scandinavia, central Europe and England, but an unusually mild winter in South Greenland. In the Polar regions and mountains a considerable melting of glaciers has taken place, a process which has been particularly advanced by longer and warmer summers and shorter and milder winters, with more rain and less snow. Mild winters alone cannot cause the glaciers and Polar ice to dwindle. The precipitation, evaporation and temperature of the other seasons have also a decided significance for the reduction. Danish experts do not attempt to predict any date when the world's ice caps will be completely melted. Such an event is regarded as 'absolutely impossible'. Sooner or later, the experts believe, the present upward trend in world temperatures will stop, and the world will slowly revert to the climatic conditions which were normal at the turn of the century. 'White Christmases' will then return to those areas of the earth which at one time regarded snow at this time of the year as inevitable. There may even be skating again on a frozen Thames."

On Aug. 22, 1950 the Barrier Miner pub. the article The World's Weather Is Just Crazy by Carl Wallis, which starts out: "The floods and record rains that bedevilled the eastern States recently were part of a world cycle of unusual weather, said the chief meteorologist at Sydney's Weather Bureau (Mr. J. Hogan). The cause of this cycle was that bands of high and low pressure had shifted from their normal place on the earth's surface. No one knows yet why they shifted, but meteorologists all over the world are trying to find out. If and when they do find out, the secret of long range weather forecasting will be in their grasp. That's because the force and direction of the winds, which blow from high pressure to low pressure areas, depend on where those areas are. And the nature of the moving air - hot, cold, dry, moist - decides whether or not the winds will bring rain with them."

In May 1951 the Great Flood of 1951 of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers begins with 11 in. of rain in 2 hours that floods Big Creek (tributary of the Smoky Hill River)in Hays, reaching 4 ft. depths at Ft. Hays State U. ; in June more heavy rains causes 8-16 inc. of flooding on July 9-13, becoming the highest flood damage to date in the U.S. Midwest.

On Sept. 29, 1951 the Sydney Morning Herald pub. the article Glaciers, Icebergs Melt As World Gets Warmer by Gavin Souter, Air Mail From New York, which contains the soundbyte: "Summers are getting warmer and, despite the unusual temperatures this year along Australia's east coast, winters generally are not as cold as they used to be. This climatic fluctuation which began a century ago and has become more noticeable in the last 20 years has been discussed since the nineteen-twenties almost exclusively in scientific circles. Recently, however, it has become a subject of more than academic interest. The scientists hasten to assure the world that there is no immediate cause for alarm. The change is merely part of the endless cycle of heat and cold which started with the first ice age about one million years before the birth of Christ. There is not yet reason to assume, say the scientists, that the mercury in the world's thermometers will now rise any higher than it would have risen during two or three other unusually warm periods since the beginning of our calendar. These were not years which scorched the globe as fatally as the ice ages had frozen it. But they were years of mild winters and hard summers. In some parts of Central Europe, Africa and the Americas they brought drought."

In Nov. 1951 severe flooding in England, along with the Rhone and Po Valleys.

On Feb. 18, 1952 The Cairns Post pub. the article Polar Ice Thaw Increasing, which begins: "Dr. William S. Carlson, an Arctic expert, said to-night that the Polar icecaps were melting at an astonishing and unexplained rate and were threatening to swamp seaports by raising the ocean levels... 'The glaciers of Norway and Alaska are only half the size they were 50 years ago. The temperature around Spitsbergen has so modified that the sailing time has lengthened from three to eight months of the year,' he said."

In 1952 the term Tornado Alley is coined for areas of Tex., La., Okla., Kan., S.D., Iowa, and Neb.

Walt Disney's 'Our Friend the Atom', 1953

On Jan. 23, 1953 (Sun.) Walt Disney's TV series Disneyland debuts Our Friend the Atom, hosted by Heinz Haber, publicizing Pres. Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly in Dec. 1953; "I give you the magic fire of the atom…an almost endless source of heat… Here we are, burning up our coal and oil only to produce power. But now we have a new source of power: clean, silent, plentiful."

On Jan. 31-Feb. 1, 1953 the huge North Sea Flood of 1953, caused by winter storms kills 2,551 incl. 1,836 in SW Netherlands (esp. Zeeland) and Belgium, 307 in England, 28 in Belgium, 19 in Scotland, and 361 at sea, incl. 133 on the British ferry MV Princess Victoria (launched Aug. 27, 1946) in the Irish Sea on Jan. 31, becoming the deadliest maritime disaster in U.K. waters since WWII; 4K bldgs. are destroyed, and 70K are left homeless, causing the govt. to spend $8B over the next 30 years fortifying the coastline with a system of sophisticated dikes, incl. a 6-mi.-long movable hydraulic steel curtain that closes when the water rises 6 ft., after which there are no flood deaths in the Netherlands until ?; meanwhile London builds new flood gates on the Thames Estuary; it is found that gypsum (calcium sulfate) can undo the effect of seawater on flooded areas of Holland and Britain when spread on the ground to be later washed in by rainwater. On Aug. 24-Sept. 6, 1953 the Late Summer U.S. Heat Wave of 1953 sees the N.E. U.S. record 1,097 temps over 90F, 546 over 95F, and 129 over 100F, incl. 107F in Md. on Aug. 31. On Aug. 25-Sept. 1, 1953 Category 3 Hurricane Carol starts in the Bahamas and hits Long Island and Conn. on Aug. 30 at max strength at high tide 40 mi. from where the 1938 New England Hurricane made landfall, blowing down the steeple of Boston's historic Old North Church, killing 68 and causing $460M in damage; on Sept. 2-5 Hurricane Edna delivers a 2nd punch, and on Oct. 15 Hurricane Hazel makes it a threepeat, devastating N.C., killing 19, injuring 200, destroying 15K bldgs., and causing $136M in property damage.

Gilbert Norman Plass (1920-2004)

On May 25, 1953 Time mag. pub. the article Science: Invisible blanket, containing an interview with Toronto, Ont., Canada-born infrared physicist Gilbert Norman Plass (1920-2004) of Johns Hopkins U., who warns of increasing CO2 atmospheric concentrations, with the soundbytes: "This spreading envelope of gas around the earth... serves as a great greenhouse. Transparent to the radiant heat from the sun, it blocks the longer wave lengths of heat that bounce back from the earth", and "At its present rate of increase, the CO2 in the atmosphere will raise the earth's average temperature 1.5° Fahrenheit every 100 years... For centuries to come, if man's industrial growth continues, the earth's climate will continue to grow warmer"; in May 1956 after proving that the absorption bands of H20 and CO2 don't completely overlap, leaving CO2 with its own free band, Plass of Mich. State U. pub. the article The Carbon Dioxide Theory of Climatic Change in Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, becoming the earliest reference to the term "climate change"; the abstract starts out: "The most recent calculations of the infra-red flux in the region of the 15 micron CO2 band show that the average surface temperature of the earth increases 3.6° C if the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is doubled and decreases 3.8° C if the CO2 amount is halved, provided that no other factors change which influence the radiation balance. Variations in CO2 amount of this magnitude must have occurred during geological history; the resulting temperature changes were sufficiently large to influence the climate."

Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973)

In 1953 Wilton, N.H.-born astrophysicist Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) (former asst. of Charles Pierpont Langley), dir. since 1907 of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (inventor of the solar cooker, solar boiler, and solar still) discovers a link between sunspot cycles and Earth climate, claiming to be able to predict climate patterns 50 years in advance.

On Apr. 19, 1954 the Sydney Morning Herald pub. the article Expert Believes Our Weather Is Changing, with the soundbyte: "The thesis advanced by a majority of climatologists overseas - though not necessarily accepted by all - is that meridional interchange has been increasing over the last half-century or so. In seeking to explain this, scientific opinion tends to the belief that the output of heat from the sun is a variable, and that it is increasing to a measurable extent. An American astro-physicist, Dr. L. B. Aldrich, of the Smithsonian Institute, claims to have measured an increase of one quarter of one per cent, in the sun's radiation over the last 20 years. Mr. Deacon points out, in referring to climatic changes observed in the northern hemisphere, that 'glaciological studies... have demonstrated a notable retreat and thinning of glaciers in many areas, trends which have in most cases accelerated since about the beginning of the century.' The climatological evidence points to an increased transport of heat into high latitudes by the general circulation of the atmosphere during this period, with an appreciable increase particularly in the mean winter temperatures over large areas, mainly in high latitudes. 'A similar study for the southern hemisphere,' he adds, 'is handicapped by lack of data for high latitudes and by the shorter period of instrumental observations.'

On June 26, 1954 (Sat.) the 1964 Lake Michigan Meteotsunami sweeps people near Montrose Harbor into the water, drowning eight.

On July 11, 1954 Sedgwick, Colo. records a temp of 114F, becoming the hottest temp ever recorded in Colo. (until ?); Boulder, Colo. reaches a record 104F, part of four straight days over 100F; Neb. reaches 116F, Kan. 115F, Okla. 112F, and Mo. 110F.

On Aug. 25-Sept. 1, 1954 Category 3 Hurricane Carol starts in the Bahamas and hits Long Island and Conn. on Aug. 30 at max strength at high tide 40 mi. from where the 1938 New England Hurricane made landfall, blowing down the steeple of Boston's historic Old North Church, killing 72 and causing $462M in damage; on Sept. 2-15 Category 3 Hurricane Edna delivers a 2nd punch, killing 21 and causing $42.8M damage in New England, causing the heaviest rainfall in New York City in 45 years, and power outages affecting 260K incl. Cape Cod, becoming the costliest hurricane in Maine (until ?); on Oct. 15 after killing 400+ in Haiti, Category 4 Hurricane Hazel makes it a threepeat, devastating N.C., killing 95, injuring 200, destroying 15K bldgs., and causing $382M property damage in the U.S. followed by 81 deaths near Toronto, Canada after merging with a cold front.

On Oct. 6, 1954 Atlanta, Ga. sets a record high temp of 95F (35C).

'Dynamics of Climate', 1955

On Oct. 26-28, 1955 the Conference on the Application of Numerical Integration Techniques to the Problem of the Gen. Circulation (Dynamics of Climate) is held at Princeton U., led by big brain physicist John von Neumann, head of the Inst. for Advanced Study, discussing "radiation studies covering problems involved in introducing the long-wave radiative effects and the potential theory formulation of radiative-heat transfer", but not focusing on CO2 or the Greenhouse Effect?; the contributors become leading figures in atmospheric physics until the early 1980s.

In Oct. 1955 Giles Slocum of the U.S. Weather Bureau pub. the article Has the Amount of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Changed Significantly Since the Beginning of the Twentieth Century? in Monthly Weather Review, with the abstract: "In the light of the uncertainty of both physical knowledge and of statistical analysis, it is concluded that the question of a trend in atmospheric CO2 concentration remains an open subject."

Roger Revelle (1909-91) Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93)

On May 28, 1956 Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) pub. the article One Big Greenhouse in Time mag., containing the soundbyte: "As the air gets warmer, sea water will get warmer too, and CO2 dissolved in it will return to the atmosphere. More water will evaporate from the warm ocean, and this will increase the greenhouse effect of the CO2. Each effect will reinforce the other, possibly raising the temperature enough to melt the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland, which would flood the earth's coastal lands." In 1957 Revelle and and Vienna, Austria-born Am. chemist-physicist Hans Eduard Suess (1909-93) pub. the paper "Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades" in Tellus, which suggests that the rate of absorption of excess CO2 by Earth's oceans is lower than previously estimated, threatening a greenhouse effect leading to global warming, and proposing the Revelle Factor, the resistance to absorption of carbon dioxide by the ocean surface layer due to bicarbonate chemistry, which is higher in warm waters, leading to more anthropogenic CO2; Revelle goes on to help create the Internat. Geophysical Year in 1958, and the Committee on Climate Change and the Ocean (CCCO), help found the U. of Calif. San Diego (UCSD), and become Al Gore's professor and mentor at Harvard, becoming known as "the Father of Global Warming", later flopping and pub. the article What to do about Greenhouse Warming: Look Before You Leap in the summer 1991 ed. of Cosmos mag., expressing strong doubts that CO2 causes global warming, with the soundbyte "The scientific basis for a greenhouse warming is too uncertain to justify drastic action at this time", causing Gore to call him senile; Revelle never really flopped, and the Cosmos article was actually written by S. Fred Singer, who tricked him into allowing his name to be listed as co-author? "Human beings are now carrying out a large-scale geophysical experiment of a kind that could not have happened in the past nor be reproduced in the future." (Revelle)

Marion King Hubbert (1903-89)

In 1956 San Saba, Tex.-born geophysicist Marion King Hubbert (1903-89) pub. his Hubbert Peak Oil Theory, which claims that oil production for any given region will peak and decrease over time via a Bell Curve; in the 1970s U.S. oil production peaks at 10.2M barrels/day; too bad, fracking is discovered, causing it to reach 10M barrels/day in Nov. 2017. On Mar. 29, 2012 George Wuerthner pub. the article The Myth of Peak Oil in counterpunch, with the subtitle: "The Real Problem is Not Too Little Oil, But Too Much", blowing the lid off the Hubbert myth for some, resetting the depletion date foward for others. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

On Sept. 29, 1957 the Kyshtym (Mayak) (Ozyorsk) Disaster in the closed city of, Chelyabinsk, Russia sees radioactive contamination from a plutonium nuclear weapons site, spreading over 20K sq. mi. (52K sq. km), causing 10K to be evacuated, becoming the 2nd worst radioactivity released after the Chernobyl Disaster in 1986.

James Alfred Van Allen (1914-2006) Sydney Chapman (1888-1970)

On July 1, 1957-Dec. 31, 1958 the Internat. Geophysical Year (IGY) is participated in by 67 nations, who cooperate to sponsor research on the year's high solar sunspot activity; the idea was originated in 1950 by scientists James Alfred Van Allen (1914-2006) of the U. of Iowa, and British geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) of the U. of Alaska; the Antarctic is the initial focus of activity with Operation Deep Freeze (1955-6) using a network of 60 research stations; on Dec. 16 Vostok (Russ. "East") Station is founded near the South Pole; on Sept. 18, 1958 the ground temp. in the Antarctic reaches a record low of -102.1 F (-74.5 C), followed on July 21, 1983 by a new record low ground level temp of -89.2C (-128.6F) (until ?).

'The Unchained Goddess', 1958

On Feb. 12, 1958 Frank Capra's Meteora: The Unchained Goddess debuts on the Bell Science Hour, starring Richard Carlson and Dr. Frank C. Baxter, warning of CO2-driven global warming and melting of the polar ice caps, with the soundbyte: "An inland sea would fill a good portion of the Mississippi Valley. Tourists in glass-bottomed boats would be viewing the drowned towers of Miami through 150 feet of tropical water"; it goes on to be shown in U.S. middle school science classrooms for decades; watch video.

Charles David Keeling (1928-2005)

In Mar. 1958 Am. chemist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) begins measuring atmospheric CO2 on Mauna Loa, Hawaii for the Internat. Geophysical Year, obtaining an initial reading of 314 ppm, which grows to 387 ppm in 50 years, becoming known as the Keeling Curve; they never mention that Hawaii has active volcanoes?; it's a fraud because it ignores high 19th cent. values?

On Sept. 1, 1958 (midnight) after colder sea temps cause cod to migrate S and Iceland to expand its fishery zone from 4 to 12 nmi., the Cod Wars begin between Iceland and Britain over fishing rights in the North Atlantic (ends Mar. 11, 1961); followed by the Second Cod War (Sept. 1972-Nov. 1973), Third Cod War (Nov. 1975-June 1976), ending with a V for Iceland, with Britain conceding their 200-nmi. exclusive economic zone, which is adopted by the U.N. in 1982.

In Sept. 1958 Harper's Mag. pub. the article The Coming Ice Age: A true scientific detective story by Betty Friedan, starting out: "How a rising of the ocean waters may flood most of our port cities within the foreseeable future - and why it will be followed by the growth of a vast glacier which may eventually cover much of Europe and North America", and continuing: "This is the story of two scientists, who started five years ago - with a single radiocarbon clue from the ocean bottom and a wild hunch - to track down one of the earth's great unsolved mysteries: What caused the ancient ice ages? Their search led over many continents and seas, to drowned rivers and abandoned mountain caves, into far-removed branches of science. It took them down through recorded history, from the stone tablets of primitive man to contemporary newspaper headlines. These two serious, careful scientists - geophysicist Maurice Ewing, director of Columbia University's Lamont Geological Observatory, and geologist-meteorologist William Donn believe they have finally found the explanation for the giant glaciers, which four times during the past million years have advanced and retreated over the earth. If they are right, the world is now heading into another Ice Age. It will come not as sudden catastrophe, but as the inevitable culmination of a process that has already begun in northern oceans. As Ewing and Donn read the evidence, an Ice Age will result from a slow warming and rising of the ocean that is now taking place. They believe that this ocean flood - which may submerge large coastal areas of the eastern United States and western Europe - is going to melt the ice sheet which has covered the Arctic Ocean through all recorded history. Calculations based on the independent observations of other scientists indicate this melting could begin, within roughly one hundred years. It is this melting of Arctic ice which Ewing and Donn believe will set off another Ice Age on earth. They predict that it will cause great snows to fall in the north - perennial unmelting snows which the world has not seen since the last Ice Age thousands of years ago. These snows will make the Arctic glaciers grow again, until their towering height forces them forward. The advance south will be slow, but if it follows the route of previous ice ages, it will encase in ice large parts of North America and Europe. It would, of course, take many centuries for that wall of ice to reach New York and Chicago, London and Paris. But its coming is an inevitable consequence of the cycle which Ewing and Donn believe is now taking place."

On Oct. 19, 1958 The New York Times pub. the article The Changing Face of the Arctic, which starts out: "Some scientists estimate that the polar ice pack is 40 per cent thinner and 12 per cent less in area than it was a half-century ago, and that even within the lifetime of our children the Arctic Ocean may open, enabling ships to sail over the North Pole, as the submarines Nautilus and Skate recently sailed under it... Although the idea that a solid ice sheet covers the central Arctic has lingered stubbornly in the popular fancy, the northern cap of ice worn by our planet is actually a thin crust - on the whole, only about seven feet thick - over an ocean two miles deep in places."

On Mar. 17, 1959 USS Skate (SSN-578) becomes the first submarine to surface at the North Pole, committing the ashes of famed explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins (1888-1958) to the Arctic Ocean.

C.P. Snow (1905-80)

On May 7, 1959 Leicester, England-born physical chemist-novelist Charles Percy "C.P." Snow, Baron Snow (1905-80) delivers the speech The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution in the Senate House at Cambridge U., claiming that literary intellectuals and scientists don't understand or trust each other, and that there is an impassable gulf based on the problem that "the scientific mind was progressive and the literary mind was reactionary"; "A good many times I have been present at gatherings of people who, by the standards of the traditional culture, are thought highly educated and who have with considerable gusto been expressing their incredulity at the illiteracy of scientists. Once or twice I have been provoked and have asked the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The response was cold: it was also negative. Yet I was asking something which is the scientific equivalent of: Have you read a work of Shakespeare's? I now believe that if I had asked an even simpler question – such as, What do you mean by mass, or acceleration, which is the scientific equivalent of saying, Can you read? – not more than one in ten of the highly educated would have felt that I was speaking the same language. So the great edifice of modern physics goes up, and the majority of the cleverest people in the western world have about as much insight into it as their Neolithic ancestors would have had" - is there a way to reunite them with a 21st cent. historyscoping education, or did I get ahead of myself?

Edward Teller (1908-2003)

On Nov. 4, 1959 Hungarian-born Am. H-bomb physicist Edward Teller (1908-2003) gives a speech at Columbia U. in New York City for the Energy and Man Symposium commemorating the 100th anniv. of the founding of the oil industry, organized by the Am. Petroleum Inst. and attended by 300 oil execs, govt. officials, and academics, uttering the soundbyte: "Ladies and gentlemen, I am to talk to you about energy in the future. I will start by telling you why I believe that the energy resources of the past must be supplemented. First of all, these energy resources will run short as we use more and more of the fossil fuels... But I would... like to mention another reason why we probably have to look for additional fuel supplies. And this, strangely, is the question of contaminating the atmosphere... Whenever you burn conventional fuel, you create carbon dioxide... The carbon dioxide is invisible, it is transparent, you can't smell it, it is not dangerous to health, so why should one worry about it? Carbon dioxide has a strange property. It transmits visible light but it absorbs the infrared radiation which is emitted from the earth. Its presence in the atmosphere causes a greenhouse effect... It has been calculated that a temperature rise corresponding to a 10 per cent increase in carbon dioxide will be sufficient to melt the icecap and submerge New York. All the coastal cities would be covered, and since a considerable percentage of the human race lives in coastal regions, I think that this chemical contamination is more serious than most people tend to believe."


On Jan. 2, 1960 Oodnadatta, South Australia 542 mi. N of Adelaide reaches 50.7C (123.3F), becoming the highest temperature ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania (until ?).

On Feb. 29, 1960 (23:40 WET) the 5.8 shallow Agadir Earthquake in SW coastal Morroco kills 12K-15K out of 45K in Agadir and injures 12K, leaving 35K homeless and causing the city to have to be rebuilt, becoming the deadliest earthquake in Morocan history (until ?).

On June 15, 1960 (midnight) the town of Kopperl, Tex. experiences "Satan's Storm", in which a heat burst from a dying thunderstorm causes superheated air to compress and fall on the town, bursting thermometers at 140F (60C), with wind gusts of up to 75 mph (121 km/hr), popping corn on the stalks.

On July 4, 1960 Uruguay experiences its first heavy snowfall until ?.

John Hamilton Reynolds (1923-2000)

In 1960 Cambridge, Mass.-born physicist John Hamilton Reynolds (1923-2000) of UCB sets the age of the Solar System at 4.95B years based on an excess of xenon-129 in the Richardton Meteorite and other meteorites resulting from beta decay of iodine-129 to xenon-129 in its early years.

Walter Orr Roberts (1915-90) I.M. Pei (1917-2019) Mesa Lab, 1967

In 1960 the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is founded in the foothills of beautiful Boulder, Colo. by West Bridgewater, Mass.-born physicist-astronomer Walter Orr Roberts (1915-90), who becomes dir. #1 (until 1968), backing anthropogenic climate change and pub. The Climate Mandate in 1979 with Henry Lansford, which results in Greenhouse Glasnost being discussed at the 1989 Sundance Symposium on Global Climate Change. In 1967 the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Lab Bldg. in Boulder, Colo. (begun 1961) is completed, making a star of Guangzhou, China-born architect Ieoh Ming "I.M." Pei (1917-); situated in the foothills, you can walk out the door and greet deer.

In 1960 the JASON Group (named after Greek mythological figure Jason by Mildred Goldberger, wife of member Murph Goldberger to replace the lame name Project Sunrise) of independent elite scientists is founded by John Wheeler and Charles H. Townes of MITRE Corp. to advise the U.S. govt. on science and technological matters of a sensitive (classified) nature, growing to 30-60 members and pioneering the Vietnam war's McNamara Line of electronic barriers along with early work on global warming science and acid rain; members incl. Nobel Prize winners Luis Walter Alvarez, Val Fitch, Murray Gell-Mann, Donald Glaser, Henry Way Kendall, and Steven Weinberg; chairmen incl. Marvin Leonard Goldberger (1960-66), Harold Lewis (1966-73), William Happer (1987-90), Curtis Callan (1990-5), Gerald Joyce (2011-14), and Russell J. Hemley (2014-).

On Jan. 30, 1961 The New York Times pub. the article Scientists Agree World Is Colder by Walter Sullivan, with the subtitle: "But Climate Experts Meeting Here Fail to Agree on Reasons for Change"; it begins: "After a week of discussions on the causes of climate change, an assembly of specialists from several continents seems to have reached unanimous agreement on only one point: it is getting colder."

James Edward Hansen (1941-) Gavin A. Schmidt

In May 1961 the Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS) is founded by Robert Jastrow as a lab in the Earth Sciences Div. of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, located in the Interchurch Center in New York City; in July 1962 it is separated from the Theoretical Div.; in Apr. 1966 it becomes a unit of the Columbia U. Earth Inst., operating in Armstrong Hall (formerly the Ostend Apts. and the Oxford Residence Hotel) in Manhattan, N.Y. in a bldg. above a "Seinfeld"-type restaurant; Denison, Iowa-born astrophysicist James Edward Hansen (1941-) becomes the dir. in 1981-2013, followed in June 2014 by English mathematician Gavin A. Schmidt; too bad, Hansen is a leftist climate activist, getting arrested 4x during anti-fossil energy demonstrations while stinking up the institute with tampered temperature data?

On Nov. 17, 1961 The Twilight Zone episode #75 The Midnight Sun debuts, with Rod Serling narrating the introduction: "The word that Mrs. Bronson is unable to put into the hot, still, sodden air is 'doomed,' because the people you've just seen have been handed a death sentence. One month ago, the Earth suddenly changed its elliptical orbit and in doing so began to follow a path which gradually, moment by moment, day by day, took it closer to the sun. And all of man's little devices to stir up the air are now no longer luxuries - they happen to be pitiful and panicky keys to survival. The time is five minutes to twelve, midnight. There is no more darkness. The place is New York City and this is the eve of the end, because even at midnight it's high noon, the hottest day in history, and you're about to spend it in the Twilight Zone." "In an attempt to console Mrs. Bronson, Norma shows her an oil painting of a waterfall cascading into a lush pond. Mrs. Bronson deliriously claims that she can feel the coolness and delightfully splashes in the imaginary waters before dying from heat stroke. Norma sits in shock as the thermometer surges past 130 °F (54 °C) and shatters." The ending is a shocking plot twist: "The scene cuts to the apartment at night with heavy snow outside the windows. The thermometer reads -10 °F (-23 °C). Norma has been bedridden with a high fever, Mrs. Bronson and a doctor have been tending to her. The Earth moving closer to the sun is revealed to be only a fever dream. In reality, the Earth is moving away from the sun, and the world is freezing to death." Serling's closing narration: "The poles of fear, the extremes of how the Earth might conceivably be doomed. Minor exercise in the care and feeding of a nightmare, respectfully submitted by all the thermometer-watchers in the Twilight Zone." Watch clip.

'The Day the Earth Caught Fire', 1961

On Nov. 23, 1961 Val Guest's The Day the Earth Caught Fire (British Lion Films) (Universal-International) debuts, starring Edward Judd, Leo Mckern, and Janet Munro in an apocalyptic film about U.S.-Soviet nuclear weapons tests knocking the Earth out of orbit, causing it to move closer to the Sun; watch trailer.

In 1961 U. of Kan. psychology prof. (since 1925) Raymond A. Wheeler (1892-1961) dies after pub. The Key to Understanding Business Cycles, based on his research on weather cycles over 20 cents. and their influence on human behavior, claiming the existence of a 100-year cycle (+/-30 years) of climatic changes that occurs in four distinct phases, cold-dry, warm-wet, warm-dry, and cold-wet; in addition, there are 500-year and 1000-year cycles, all of which he uses to characterize whole civilizations, along with a 170-year cycle of civil war and a 510-year (515-year) cycle of drought, which intersect in 1999, after which the climax of a 1,000-year weather cycle will produce record high temperatures during the first half of the 21st cent. followed by a 170-year (172-year) cold-dry cycle; "Old civilizations collapse and new civilizations are born on the tide of climatic change. The turning points (between old and new civilizations) occur when cold-dry times reach their maximum severity."

On June 12, 1962 The Guardian pub. the article The ice age cometh, with the subtitle: "As glaciers start to advance again, evidence suggests that the Earth may be entering a new ice age".

In Dec. 1962-Mar. 1963 the Big Freeze of 1963 (English Winter of 1962-3) sees an avg. temp of 28.2F (-2.1C) in Jan. 1963, freezing the sea out 1 mi. from shore in Herne Bay, Kent, followed by a 36-hour blizzard in Mar. that bring 20 ft. snowdrifts and 81 mph winds (119 mph on the Isle of Man), becoming the coldest month in C England since Jan. 1814, and the coldest winter since records began to be kept in 1895; in 1985 Dream Academy releases the single Life in a Northern Town, with the lyrics: "In winter 1963/ It felt like the world would freeze/ With John F. Kennedy and the Beatles", referring to the winter of 1963-4 instead by mistake; watch video.

In 1962 the U.S. govt. launches Project Stormfury to attempt to weaken tropical cyclones by seeding them with silver iodide; too bad, in 1983 it is abandoned after it never works.

Reid A. Bryson (1920-2008)

In 1962 after observing dust clouds in India obscuring his view of the ground, U. of Wisc. climate scientist ("Father of Scientific Climatology") Reid A. Bryson (1920-2008) first proposes the idea of the "human volcano" increasing aerosol loading of the atmosphere and causing global cooling, with the soundbyte: "The continued rapid cooling of the earth since WWII is in accord with the increase in global air pollution associated with industrialisation, mechanisation, urbanisation and exploding population"; in 1973 Bryson testifies before Congress that anthropogenic global warming is unstoppable, with the soundbyte: "There is no way right now that we can control the climate to make it more benign. Even if we were to say 'let us stop using fossil fuels so that we do not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, because that impacts the world climate,' how on earth could you stop using fossil fuels? Even those countries that are most heavily impacted by the climatic change are the ones who say it is our turn to be affluent and it is in the use of fossil fuels that one gains affluence"; he goes on to dismiss the theory that climate change is anthropogenic, uttering the soundbyte: "All this argument is the temperature going up or not, it's absurd. Of course it's going up. It has gone up since the early 1800s, before the Industrial Revolution, because we're coming out of the Little Ice Age, not because we're putting more carbon dioxide into the air." On June 18, 2007 Bryson pub. an interview in the Capital Times of Wisc., dissing Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth", with the soundbytes: "Don't make me throw up. It is not science. It is not true"; "There is no question the earth has been warming. It is coming out of the Little Ice Age. However, there is no credible evidence that it is due to mankind and carbon dioxide. We've been coming out of a Little Ice Age for 300 years. We have not been making very much carbon dioxide for 300 years. It's been warming up for a long time"; "[CO2-driven warming is] like there is an elephant charging in [the room] and you worry about the fact that there is a fly sitting on its head. It's just a total misplacement of emphasis. It really isn't science because there's no really good scientific evidence"; "Why are so many thousands not concerned about it?" Bryson shot back. "There is a lot of money to be made in this. If you want to be an eminent scientist you have to have a lot of grad students and a lot of grants. You can't get grants unless you say, 'Oh global warming, yes, yes, carbon dioxide.'"

J.G. Ballard (1930-2009)

In 1961 Shanghai-born British New Wave writer James Graham "J.G." Ballard (1930-2009) pub. his first novel The Wind from Nowhere, about hurricanes destroying civilization. In 1962 he pub. the novel The Drowned World, set in flooded deserted London in 2145 after global warming causes the polar ice caps to melt; these two novels help found the genre of cli-fi (climate fiction), a term coined by Angela Evancie in an NPR broadcast on Apr. 20, 2013.

On Mar. 12, 1963 the Conservation Foundation of New York City hosts a conference, with top climate scientists attending incl. Gilbert Plass, Charles Keeling and Erik Eriksson, going on to pub. the report Implications of rising carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, warning of the danger to humanity from fossil fuel burning, starting out: "It is known that the carbon dioxide situation, as it has been observed within the last century, is one which might have considerable biological, geographical and economic consequences within the not too distant future. What is important is that with the rise of carbon dioxide, by way of exhaust gases from engines and other sources, there is a rise in the temperature of the atmosphere and oceans. It is estimated that a doubling of the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere would produce an average atmospheric temperature rise of 3.8 degrees Fahrenheit. This could be enough to bring about an immense flooding of the lower portions of the world's land surface, resulting from increased melting of glaciers. So far, the increase of carbon dioxide has been of the order of 10 percent, and the oceans are already experiencing some rise of temperature."

On July 1, 1963 F. Möller pub. the article On the influence of changes in the CO2 concentration in air on the radiation balance of the Earth's surface and on the climate in Journal of Geophysical Research, with the abstract: "The numerical value of a temperature change under the influence of a CO2 change as calculated by Plass is valid only for a dry atmosphere. Overlapping of the absorption bands of CO2 and H2O in the range around 15 µ essentially diminishes the temperature changes. New calculations give delta T = + 1.5° when the CO2 content increases from 300 to 600 ppm. Cloudiness diminishes the radiation effects but not the temperature changes because under cloudy skies larger temperature changes are needed in order to compensate for an equal change in the downward long-wave radiation. The increase in the water vapor content of the atmosphere with rising temperature causes a self-amplification effect which results in almost arbitrary temperature changes, e.g. for constant relative humidity delta T = +10° in the above mentioned case. It is shown, however, that the changed radiation conditions are not necessarily compensated for by a temperature change. The effect of an increase in CO2 from 300 to 3300 ppm can be compensated for completely by a change in the water vapor content of 3 per cent or by a change in the cloudiness of 1 per cent of its value without the occurrence of temperature changes at all. Thus the theory that climatic variations are effected by variations in the CO2 content becomes very questionable." - what downward long-wave radiation?

On July 18, 1963 The Canberra Times pub. the AAP-Reuter article Glaciers Grow in Norway on p. 44, which begins: "Norway's glaciers are in the process of becoming thicker again after a period of 200 years of gradually melting down, according to glaciologist, Mr. Olav Liestol. Last year nearly all glaciers increased by more than one metre - approximately four feet."

In Aug. 1963-Mar. 1966 Pres. Kennedy allegedly ordered the top secret Iron Mountain Study by an anon. 15-person Special Study Group on how to bring the U.S. into a socialist New World Order, done in an underground nuclear bunker called Iron Mountain in N.Y. ; in 1967 The Report from Iron Mountain on the Possibility and Desirability of Peace was pub. by Dial Press, becoming a NYT bestseller; its secret govt. panel concluded that war or a credible substitute is necessary for govts. to maintain power; the jury is still out as to whether it's genuine or a hoax?

Prior API (American Petroleum Institute) studies foresaw that as the world economies grew more and more fossil fuels would be burned causing unforeseen havoc to the world Eco-system and environment which would be irreparably destroyed in the process.This was known to the API going as far back to 1947, it wasn't till 1988 that the oil-and-gas executives begin to consider the issue's potential to hurt their profits. The only threat to the fossil fuel industry that presented itself starting back in the mid 70's and early 80's in this new Geo-political structure and the future wealth generated by oil was the advancement of alternate energy and at all costs it had to be stopped. This Second Report from Iron Mountain follows the controversial first Report of 1967. It summarizes the results of a two-and-a-half-year study started in 1987, of the broad problems to be anticipated in the event of a general transformation of American society to a condition lacking the most basic and critical understanding of the science of Climate Change and thereby reducing the public's capability and readiness to make changes when necessary for doing so as a matter of survival. This Report settles the broad question of population control for the political elites by using the chaos of Mother Nature as the instrument turbo-charged by global warming the ramifications of which were likened to nuclear war - could do the job - just as good as any major war, and the American public would never know the better of it. This will be judged necessary or desirable by the political leadership to insure survival of the rest of mankind. It is surely no exaggeration to say that a condition of general decline in the world environment will lead to changes in the social structures of the nations of the world of unparalleled and revolutionary magnitude. Political, sociological, cultural, and ecological changes would be equally far-reaching. What has motivated this study has been the growing sense of thoughtful men in and out of government that the world is totally unprepared to meet the demands of such a calamitous event as climate change situations slowly unfold.


Lyndon Baines Johnson of the U.S. (1908-73)

On Nov. 27, 1963 as Americans mourn the late Pres. Kennedy, Pres. Johnson delivers LBJ's First Address to Congress, calling for "the earliest possible passage of the Civil Rights Bill and a tax cut as the best way of honoring" him, with the soundbyte: "All I have I would have given gladly not to be standing here today. The greatest leader of our time has been struck down by the foulest deed of our time. Today, John Fitzgerald Kennedy lives on in the immortal words and works that he left behind. He lives on in the mind and memories of mankind. He lives on in the hearts of his countrymen", receiving a 2-min. ovation after 32 bursts of applause; Johnson mentions global warming, with the soundbyte that industrial emissions had "altered the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale". On Feb. 8, 1965 Johnson delivers his Special Message to Congress on Conservation and Restoration of Natural Beauty, containing the soundbyte: "Air pollution is no longer confined to isolated places. This generation has altered the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale through radioactive materials and a steady increase in carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels." In Nov. 1965 the president's Science Advisory Committee pub. the report Restoring the Quality of the Environment, recommending special taxes against polluters; a subcommittee chaired by Roger Revelle writes a chapter predicting a rise of "invisible pollutant" atmospheric CO2 by 30% by 2000, with the soundbyte: "Man is unwittingly conducting a vast geophysical experiment. Within a few generations, he is burning the fossil fuels that accumulated in the earth over the past 500 million years."

Kenneth Allison Roberts of the U.S. (1912-89)

On Dec. 17, 1963 after U.S. Rep. (D-Ala.) (1963-5) Kenneth Allison Roberts (1912-89) introduces it on July 9, Pres. Johnson signs the U.S. Clean Air Act, strengthening the 1955 Air Pollution Control Act by giving the federal govt. an active role, and incl. the first provision for citizen lawsuits; in 1967 the U.S. Air Quality Act is passed, followed by the U.S. Clean Air Extension Act in 1970, and more restrictive amendments in 1977 and 1990 - how long until the government taxes each breath?

Marcus Raskin (1934-) John Cavanaugh (1955-) Janet Redman

In 1963 the Inst. for Policy Studies (IPS) leftist progressive think tank is founded in Washington, D.C. by ex-JFK advisors Marcus Raskin (1934-) and religious anti-globalist Richard Jackson Barnet (1929-2004) after they get fed up with JFK's failure to unilaterally disarm the U.S.; it starts out opposing the Vietnam War, and becomes a magnet for far leftists after their paradise Soviet Union falls, going on to promote women's liberation and environmentalism incl. curbs on carbon dioxide to curb or eliminate the fossil fuel industry; the motto is "Ideas Into Action for Peace, Justice, and the Environment"; in 1998 Am. economist John Cavanaugh (1955-) becomes dir. (until ?); in ? the Climate Policy Program is created, dir. by Janet Redman, who in ? becomes exec dir. of Oil Change Internat.

Edward Norton Lorenz (1917-2008)

In 1963 after his 12-variable computer weather model gives grossly different weather patterns depending on minute variations in the initial values of the variables, Am. mathematician Edward Norton "Ed" Lorenz (1917-2008) pub. the paper Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow, in which he describes the Lorenz Attractor, and coins the term Butterfly Effect, issuing the soundbyte "One meteorologist remarked that if the theory were correct, one flap of a seagull's wings could change the course of weather forever", with Ray Bradbury's butterfly (from a 1952 short story) later substituted, becoming the beginning of Chaos Theory, the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions; "Chaos: When the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future." (Lorenz) Watch video.

On Apr. 11-12, 1965 the 1965 Palm Sun. Tornado Outbreak sees 47 tornadoes in the U.S. Midwest states of Ind., Ohio, Mich, Wisc., Ill, and Iowa, killing 271 and injuring 1.5K, incl. a record 137 killed and 1.2K injured in Ind., becoming the 2nd most active week in U.S. history, with 51 significant and 21 violent tornadoes, and 2nd biggest in the Midwest.

On Aug. 27-Sept. 13, 1965 Category 3-4 (155 mph) Hurricane Betsy begins in the Windward Islands and pummels below-sea-level New Orleans, killing 81 and causing $1.43B damage; the next big storm is in 2005 - proving there's no such thing as real psychics?

On Nov. 5, 1965 the President's Science Advisory Committee (SAC) sends a report to Pres. Johnson, warming, er, warning of the risk of CO2-driven global warming, claiming that it might melt polar ice, calling for efforts to forestall it; it is followed in 1966 by a report by the Nat. Research Council backing them up.

Syukuro Manabe (1931-)

In 1965 Japanese-born Princeton U. climatologist Syukuro "Suki" Manabe (1931-) develops the first computer climate model (CCM), which estimates the CO2 equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) as 2C.

On Nov. 4-5, 1966 the 1966 Arno River Flood in Florence, Italy kills 101, destroys 15K cars, leaves 20K homeless, and damages the Uffizi Gallery, destroying 1.5K works of art, and soaks 1.5M vols. at the Biblioteca Nazionale, causing celebs incl. Sen. Edward M. Kennedy and Richard Burton to pitch in to help; on Nov. 4 Venice is also flooded after the Po River overflows, killing 12 and making another 10K homeless.

On Feb. 7, 1967 (Black Tues.) after a wet spring leads to prolific grass growth, the 1967 Tasmanian Fires burn 653K acres, kill 62, injure 900, leave 7K homeless, destroy 1,293 houses, and cause Australian $101M damage, becoming the most deadly bushfires in Tasmania (until ?).

On May 1, 1967 Syukuro Manabe and Richard T. Wetherald pub. the paper Thermal Equilibrium of the Atmosphere with a Given Distribution of Relative Humidity, using a super-simplified climate model to propose the concepts of CO2 back radiation and CO2 climate sensitivity, taking the climate science world by er, storm.

Svante Odén (1924-86)

On Oct. 24, 1967 Swedish soil scientist Svant N.F. Oden (Odén) (1924-86) pub. a sensational article in Dagens Nyheter attributing forestry damage to a "chemical war" between Euro nations, causing the Acid Rain Scare after the Swedish Nat. Science Research Council pub. his report The Acidification of Air and Precipitation and Its Consequences on the Natural Environment in 1968, leading to a Swedish govt. committee headed by Swedish meteorologist Bert Bohlin to pub. a report in 1971 containing the conflicting soundbytes: "The [human] emission of sulfur into the atmosphere... has proved to be a major environmental problem", and "It is very difficult to prove that damage, such as reduced growth rates due to the acidification of the soil and related changes in the plant nutrient situation, has in fact occurred", leading to the 1972 U.N. Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm; environmentalists soon begin a successful marketing campaign to fight the fossil fuel industry, leading the U.S. Congress to launch a 10-year Nat. Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) in 1980, and the Reagan admin. to establish a 9-member panel to peer-reiew 3K+ scientific studies on the subject, concluding that "The vast majority of forests in the United States and Canada are NOT affected by decline", which doesn't stop the U.S. EPA from attempting to regular sulfur dioxide (SO2), and later Enron CEO Ken Lay to meet with Pres. Clinton and Vice-Pres. Al Gore on Aug. 4, 1997 to use the upcoming U.N. Kyoto Conference to launch a global carbon-trading market to allow Enron to profit from their natural gas pipeline at the expense of coal; too bad, it all turns out to be a hoax because sulfur dioxide (SO2) is actually a plant fertilizer?; the entire affair gives globalist Marxists a script for using CO2 as the next patsy for destroying the fossil fuel industry?

Charles Manson (1934-2017) The Manson Family Lynnette Alice 'Squeaky' Fromme (1948-) Sandra Collins Good (1944-)

In 1967 insane psychotic well-hung seductive Jesus Christ wannabe life criminal Charles Milles "Charlie" Mansion (nee Maddox) (1934-2017) sets up a commune at the deserted Spahn Ranch in the San Fernando Valley of the Santa Susana Mts. near Los Angeles, Calif., ending in the Tate-La Bianca Murders of seven people on Aug. 8/9, 1969; meanwhile his female sex slave groupies become environmentalists and eco-terrorists, setting an earth mover on fire in Death Valley after Manson promotes the environmentalist philosophy of ATWA (Air, Trees, Water, Animals) (All the Way Alive), with Manson uttering the soundbyte: "The atmosphere is dying. Anything that sins against the air is a sin against your life. Anybody that sins against the air should be considered a criminal, and any act that's done against the air in any way at all should be considered a crime. The crime is a war against anything anyone any shape or form that is a threat to your survival. he world order of the court in crime and punishment is the air is God. Without the air we cannot survive. Anything that's made in the law should be against the criminals that are destroying your air. The air is all you've got. If you don't come to the realization of your atmosphere, your atmosphere is dying faster every day, because everybody that is play-acting, crime, criminals, law, courts,and religions, are destroying the planet Earth in a holy war to destroy all life and hang it up on the cross with your dead god. You've got to stop all the pollution or there is no life on Earth. The real war against crime is against pollution crime. The new world order does not need a leader, it needs intelligent life forms who can simply understand the simple equations of one and one is two. Air is number one, United States Army Air Force, the sky is number one. Number two, the ground, the green, the trees, the trees. If we don't have the trees, and we don'[t have the green things that give the air, we're not going to have any air. We must consider everybody that's at war with the trees, and the animals, and the water, and the wildlife, they are criminals. It's not the people that are doing the simple little things that you're making into crimes so you can buy and sell it for movies, or buy and sell it for your personal attitudes and prejudices toward your own selves and your children paying the production cost of some silly ass little thing you sell fears by and sell trucks and things that are not really the problem. The problem is you're losing 3 billion trees every day for paper." On Sept. 5, 1975 (Fri.) (10:04 a.m.) Charles Manson sex slave disciple (who lived with him during the 1969 murders, and carved an X in her forehead with other supporters during his trial) Lynette Alice "Squeaky" Fromme (1948-) pulls a .45-cal. M1911 pistol from a thigh holster and stages a mock assassination attempt on Pres. Ford as he approaches the Calif. State Capitol in Sacramento, Calif., pointing but not firing because it has four bullets in the magazine but none in the chamber; after a zany trial where she tries to represent herself, tries to call Charles Manson as a witness, throws an apple at the judge and is removed for a violent outburst, she is convicted on Nov. 26, and sentenced to life on Dec. 17 in Sacramento federal court, then paroled from a Tex. prison on Aug. 14, 2009; in 1987 she escapes from a low security woman's prison in Alderson, W. Va. to be closer to her Charlie, but is recaptured two days later; she claims she did it for the cause of environmentalism in accordance with Manson's ATWA (Air, Trees, Water, Animals) (All the Way Alive) environmentalist philosophy, with the soundbyte: "I stood up and waved a gun (at Pres. Ford) for a reason, I was so relieved not to have to shoot it, but, in truth, I came to get life. Not just my life but clean air, healthy water and respect for creatures and creation." On Dec. 22, 1975 Manson family member Sandra Collins Good (1944-) (nicknamed Blue by Manson to represent clean air and water) and Manson devotee Susan Murphy are indicted for conspiracy to send threatening letters to 170 corporate execs to stop polluting the environment, with Good serving 10 years of a 15-year sentence and later leading a campaign against Internat. Paper Co. for polluting Lake Champlain.

On Jan. 12-18, 1968 Hurricane (Storm) Q in C Scotland kills 20 incl. 9 in Glasgow, and leaves 700 homeless, becoming the worst natural disaster in C Scotland in modern times; 134 mph wind gusts are recorded at Great Dun Fell in Cumbria, England, becoming the strongest wind gust recorded in the U.K. (until 1986 at Cairn Gorm).

Aurelio Peccei (1908-84) Alexander King (1909-2007)

In Apr. 1968 the Club of Rome think tank is founded at the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome, Italy by super-rich David Rockefeller and 30 brain people, incl. Italian industrialist Aurelio Peccei (1908-84) and Scottish scientist Alexander King (1909-2007), to discuss the long-term dismal future of overpopulated humanity using computerized predictions, going on to pub. the manifesto The Predicament of Mankind, followed by The Limits to Growth in 1972, followed by The First Global Revolution in 1991, containing the soundbytes: "The common enemy of humanity is man. In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill. All these dangers are caused by human intervention, and it is only through changed attitudes and behavior that they can be overcome"; "The resultant ideal sustainable population is hence more than 500 million people but less than one billion"; "The need for enemies seems to be a common historical factor. Some states have striven to overcome domestic failure and internal contradictions by blaming external enemies. The ploy of finding a scapegoat is as old as mankind itself - when things become too difficult at home, divert attention to adventure abroad. Bring the divided nation together to face an outside enemy, either a real one, or else one invented for the purpose. With the disappearance of the traditional enemy, the temptation is to use religious or ethnic minorities as scapegoats, especially those whose differences from the majority are disturbing"; "Every state has been so used to classifying its neighbours as friend or foe, that the sudden absence of traditional adversaries has left governments and public opinion with a great void to fill. New enemies have to be identified, new strategies imagined, and new weapons devised"; "We must find it to bring the divided nations together to face an outside enemy. It need not be a real one, but it can be one invented for the purpose"; future members incl. Henry Kissinger, Desmond Tutu, Ted Turner, Jimmy Carter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Bill Clinton, Al Gore, Bill Gates, Kofi Annan, Javier Perez de Cuellar, Gro Harlem Bruntland, and the Dalai Lama; "The Earth has cancer and the cancer is Man." - let's hope they only discuss stuff? Watch video - David Icke.

Gordon J.F. MacDonald (1929-2002)

On July 22, 1968 Viking pub. Unless Peace Comes: A Scientific Forecast of New Weapons, ed. by Nigel Calder, containing the article How to Wreck the Environment by Mexican-born UCLA geophysics prof. Gordon James Fraser "J.F." MacDonald (1929-2002) (member of JASON and Pres. Johnson's Scientific Advisory Committee) explaining how CO2 could be weaponized, going on to launch a JASON project in 1969 to model climate change, which causes him to believe that fossil fuel-burning will cause global warming that will overwhelm the cooling effects of industrial aerosols, going on The MacNeil/Lehrer Report in 1979 and People's Mag. in 1980 to warm, er, warn the public, followed on Apr. 8, 1980 by testimony to the 96th Congress U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (title: "Carbon Dioxide Building in the Atmosphere"), warning that a doubling of atmospheric CO2 would "probably have a profound effect on agriculture, on all aspects of energy use and generation, and on water and land use", adding" "The dilemma we face is of historic proportions. Economies around the world depend on the energy derived from carbon-based fuels. The continued use of these fuels will irreversibly change global climate, placing heavy stresses on societies around the world"; too bad, in 1964-7 he served on the Nat. Science Foundation Panel for Weather Modification that was attacked as "nonsense". Watch video.

Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-)

In 1968 Stanford U. biology prof. Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) pub. the bestseller (3M copies) The Population Bomb (rev. ed. 1971, 2nd ed. 1978), freaking at the news of the 200M U.S. pop., predicting that "The oceans will be as dead as Lake Erie in less than a decade", "America will be subject to water rationing by 1974 and food rationing by 1980, that 65M Americans will starve to death in the 1970s, that India is doomed, that "Sometime in the next 15 years the end will come... an utter breakdown of the capacity of the planet to support humanity", and that "England will not exist in the year 2000", calling current proposals for pollution control "Giving aspirins to cancer victims", and founding Zero Pop. Growth (ZPG) (Pop. Connection) with a Conn. atty. and a Yale forestry prof., advocating two children max per family; "The battle to feed all of humanity is over. In the 1970s and 1980s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now. At this late date nothing can prevent a substantial increase in the world death rate"; instead, grain farmers in the 1980s suffer economic losses from overproduction, and Ehlich's doom-and-gloom predictions prove a hoax? In Apr. 2012 Ehrlich issues the soundbytes: "How many you support depends on lifestyles. We came up with 1.5 to 2 billion because you can have big active cities and wilderness. If you want a battery chicken world where everyone has minimum space and food and everyone is kept just about alive you might be able to support in the long term about 4 or 5 billion people. But you already have 7 billion. So we have to humanely and as rapidly as possible move to population shrinkage"; "The question is: can you go over the top without a disaster, like a worldwide plague or a nuclear war between India and Pakistan? If we go on at the pace as we are, there's going to be various forms of disaster. Some maybe slow motion disasters like people getting more and more hungry, or catastrophic disasters because the more people you have the greater the chance of some weird virus transferring from animal to human populations, there could be a vast die-off." In July 2013 Ehrlich presents the lecture Avoiding a Collapse of Civilization: Our Chances, Prospects, and Pathways Forward. On July 10, 2017 Ehrlich, Gerardo Ceballos, and Rodolfo Dirzo pub. the article Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines, containing the soundbyte: "In the last few decades, habitat loss, overexploitation, invasive organisms, pollution, toxification, and more recently climate disruption, as well as the interactions among these factors, have led to the catastrophic declines in both the numbers and sizes of populations of both common and rare vertebrate species." Ehrlich also utters the anti-nuclear power soundbytes explaining why environmentalists are anti-nuclear power: "We contend that the position of the nuclear promoters is preposterous beyond the wildest imaginings of most nuclear opponents, primarily because one of the purported 'benefits' of nuclear power, the availability of cheap and abundant energy, is in fact a liability"; "Giving society cheap, abundant energy would be the equivalent of giving an idiot child a machine gun."

On Feb. 20, 1969 Walter Sullivan pub. the article Catastrophic Shifts in Climate Feared if Change Occurs in the New York Times, starting out: "Col. Bernt Balchen, polar explorer and flier, is circulating a paper among polar specialists proposing that the Arctic pack ice is thinning and that the ocean at the North Pole may become and open sea within a decade or two."

On Aug. 14-22, 1969 175 mph Category 5 Hurricane Camille strikes Cuba and the Gulf Coast (La., Miss., Ala.) (Aug. 17), killing 259, leaving 200K homeless and causing $1.43B in damage, becoming the 2nd known Category 5 hurricane to hit the U.S. mainland since the 1935 Labor Day Hurricane and the most severe storm since Hurricane Audrey in 1957.

Olof Palme of Sweden (1927-86)

On Oct. 1, 1969 Sven Olof Joachim Palme (1927-86) is elected leader of Sweden's Social Dem. Party, succeeding retiring Tage Erlander; on Oct. 14 he becomes PM of Sweden (until Oct. 8, 1976, then Oct. 8-1982-Feb. 28, 1986), backing the Green Party while saving nuclear power in 1980 by intervening in a referendum.

On Nov. 15, 1969 Science News pub. the article Danger: The Globe Is Cooling, quoting meteorologist J. Murray Mitchell Jr. with the soundbyte: "How long the current cooling trend continues is one of the most important problems of our civilization", adding that if the cooling continues for 200-300 years the Earth could be plunged into an ice age.

In 1969 Greenpeace (originally Don't Make a Wave Committee) is founded in Vancouver, B.C., Canada to fight for environmental causes, growing by 2019 to offices in 39 countries plus an internat. HQ in Amsterdam. Watch video - Willie Soon.

Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920-2001)

In 1969 after his 1956 book "Heat Balance of the Earth's Surface" transforms climatology into a quantitative physical science, Russian meteorologist (physical climatologist) Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920-2001) pub. the article The effect of solar radiation variation on the climate of the Earth in Tellus, proposing Arctic amplification, a larger temperature change at the poles than the equator because of ice-albedo feedback, possibly leading to runaway positive global temperature feedback, which is later independently derived by William D. Sellers of the U. of Ariz., resulting in the low-order Budyko-Sellers Global Climate Model incorporating ice-albedo feedback and equator-to-pole heat transport to show the possibility of an ice-covered Earth; in 1972 Budyko calculates that a few tenths of 1% increase in solar radiation or a 50% increase in atmospheric CO2 could melt the ice caps, while a 50% reduction of atmospheric CO2 could lead to a "complete glaciation of the Earth", predicting that the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean could completely melt by 2050; in 1974 he proposes Budyko's Blanket, the release of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere via balloons, aircraft, or artillery to cool the atmosphere.


In the early 1970s the far leftist Green Party arose for push environmental issues; in 1972 the Popular Movement for the Environment is founded in Neuchatel, Switzerland, becoming the first in Europe; in Feb. 1973 the PEOPLE Party is founded in Britain, becoming the first nat. green party in Europe; in 1980 the German Green Party is founded to oppose nuclear power, forming the Red-Green (Watermelon?) Alliance with the Social Dem. Party in 1998-2005, reaching an agreement in 2001 to end reliance on nuclear power; they eventually all coalesce around the globalist Marxist program of the U.N. and its IPCC that pushes CO2-driven global warming as the golden ticket to foisting global Marxism; the German Green Party has roots in the Nazi Party, which hated nuclear power and loved wind power?

In 1970 the U.S. press begins carrying articles predicting a new ice age caused by global cooling (ends 1979).

On Jan. 11, 1970 The Washington Post pub. the article Colder Winters Held Dawn of New Ice Age - Scientists See Ice Age in the Future by David R. Boidt, which starts out: "Get a good grip on your long johns, cold weather haters - the worst may be yet to come. That's the long-long-range weather forecast being given out by 'climatologists,' the people who study very long-term world weather trends. Some of them say the world is in a 'cold snap' that started in 1950 and which could last hundreds of years, even bringing on the start of another Ice Age. In the meantime, it would mean more snow, and more arctic freezes, like the one Washington is now shivering through"; actually, no peer-reviewed scientific journal in ths 1970s pub. an article predicting an imminent ice age?

Prince Charles of Wales (1948-)

On Feb. 19, 1970 (Feb. 10?) funny ears British Prince Charles of Wales (1948-) gives a speech on the environment, warming about pollution incl. chemical discharges, air pollution, and plastic waste, which he later says the press regarded as "completely potty". On Mar. 10, 2019 he gives a speech at a state dinner hosted by Chilean pres. Michelle Bachelet, attacking climate skeptics as "incomprehensible", and claiming that climate change must be tackled before world poverty - because that will make everybody poor? On July 8, 2009 he gives a speech to industrialists and environmentalists at St. James's Palace in Westminster, claiming that we have just 96 mo. [8 ears, er, years] left to save Earth from "irretrievable climate and ecosystem collapse and all that goes with it", hence must give up capitalism and consumerism along with the "age of convenience" via "coherent financial incentives and disincentives", with the soundbytes: "We face the dual challenges of a world view and an economic system that seem to have enormous shortcomings, together with an environmental crisis – including that of climate change - which threatens to engulf us all", and "But for all its achievements, our consumerist society comes at an enormous cost to the Earth and we must face up to the fact that the Earth cannot afford to support it. Just as our banking sector is struggling with its debts – and paradoxically also facing calls for a return to so-called 'old-fashioned', traditional banking – so Nature's life-support systems are failing to cope with the debts we have built up there too. If we don't face up to this, then Nature, the biggest bank of all, could go bust. And no amount of quantitative easing will revive it." In July 2019 Prince Charles warns Commonwealth leaders that they only have 18 mo. to "decide our ability to keep climate change to sustainable levels". On Feb. 19, 2020 Prince Charles utters the soundbyte that we've got only 10 years left to save the Earth. On Sept. 20, 2020 Prince Charles releases a recorded message at the virtual opening of Climate Week, claiming that "swift and immediate action" is needed, a "military-style campaign" like the Marshall Plan, and that the COVID-19 pandemic provides a "window of opportunity" to reset the economy for a more "sustainable and inclusive future", calling it "a wake-up call we cannot ignore"; he finishes with the soundbyte: "The [environmental] crisis has been with us for far too many years - decried, denigrated, and denied. It is now rapidly becoming a comprehensive catastrophe that will dwarf the impact of the coronavirus pandemic." Watch video - Prince Charles.

Nimbus 4, 1970

On Apr. 8, 1970 the NASA Nimbus 4 weather satellite is launched from Vandenberg AFB in Lompoc, Calif., sending data until Sept. 30, measuring the infrared emission spectra of the Earth's atmosphere, along with vertical temperature profiles and water vapor, solar UV radiation, and atmospheric ozone, revealing a V-shaped notch in the outgoing longwave radiation spectrum at 13-17 microns, caused by the 325 ppm CO2 content, which only cuts 2/3 of the way into the surface radiation spectrum, allowing 1/3 of the energy to escape into space?; the notch is saturated, meaning that higher CO2 concentrations can't increase the so-called Greenhouse Effect?

On Apr. 16, 1970 the Boston Globe pub. the article Scientist predicts a new ice age by 21st century, with the soundbyte: "Pollution expert... James P. Lodge Jr. at the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. also warned that if the current rate of increase in electric power generation continues, the demands for cooling water will boil dry the entire flow of the rivers and streams of continental United States. Looking into his 'smoggy crystal ball', Lodge also warned that by the next century 'the consumption of oxyben in combustion processes, world-wide, will surpass all of the processes which return oxygen to the atmosphere."

Gaylord Anton Nelson of the U.S. (1916-2005) John McConnell (1915-2012) Denis Hayes (1944-)

On Apr. 22, 1970 (Lenin's birthday) the U.S. environmental movement is born with the first Earth Day, proposed in 1969 by UNESCO and founded by U.S. Sen. (D-Wisc.) (1963-81) and former Wisc. gov. #35 (1959-63) Gaylord Anton Nelson (1916-2005), organized by the Earth Week Committee of Philadelphia, Penn., and celebrated in the U.S. by 22M people with demonstrations against pollution of Spaceship Earth (coined by Adlai E. Stevenson) amid herds of massive leaded-gas-slurping V8 sedans, a nation filled with smoky industrial smokestacks, and a coverup of a fuel rod meltdown at the Savannah River Nuclear Plant near Aiken, S.C. (acknowleged in 1988); the idea was first proposed in 1969 by Davis City, Iowa-born John McConnell (1915-2012) (designer of the Earth Flag) to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, then coordinated by environmental activist Denis Allen Hayes (1944-), and supported by U Thant, Margaret Mead et al.; meanwhile on Jan. 14-23 Nelson goes for a double and holds the Nelson Hearings on the safety of combined oral contraceptive pills, resulting in the first side-effect disclosure for a pharmaceutical drug in the U.S.; too bad, zany incorrect predictions are made, incl. "Population will inevitably and completely outstrip whatever small increases in food supplies we made, the death rate will increase until at least 100-200 million people per year will be starving to death during the next ten years (Stanford U. biologist Paul Ehrlich); "Air pollution... is certainly going to take hundreds of thousands of lives in the next few years alone" (Ehrlich); "Civilization will end within 15 or 30 years unless immediate action is taken against problems facing mankind" (Harvard biologist George David Wald); "In a decade urban dwellers will have to wear gas masks to survive air pollution... By 1985 air pollution will have reduced the amount of sunlight reaching Earth by one half" (Life mag.); "By the year 2000, if present trends continue, we will be using up crude oil at such a rate... that there won't be any more crude oil. You'll drive up to the pump and say, 'Fill 'er up, buddy', and he'll say, 'I am very sorry, there isn't any'." (ecologist Kenneth Watt)

On July 18, 1970 The New York Times pub. the article U.S. And Soviet Press Studies of a Colder Arctic by Walter Sullivan, which begins: "The United States and the Soviet Union are mounting large-scale investigations to determine why the Arctic climate is becoming more frigid, why parts of the Arctic sea ice have recently become ominously thicker and whether the extent of that ice cover contributes to the onset of ice ages."

On July 20, 1970 after drought in Afghanistan becomes the worst in known history, an urgent request is sent to the U.S. for 100K tons of wheat which isn't approved until Aug. 1971, by which time the request is upped to 250K tons; it ends in 1971; the next worst is in 2000.

William Doyle Ruckelshaus of the U.S. (1932-)

On Oct. 2, 1970 after Pres. Nixon delivers a Special Message to Congress on July 9, with the soundbyte: "Our national government today is not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants which debase the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land that grows our food. Indeed, the present governmental structure for dealing with environmental pollution often defies effective and concerted action", the U.S. Clean Air Extension (Muskie) Act is passed, amending the 1963 U.S. Clean Air Act; on Dec. 2 Congress creates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to monitor and protect the public from airborne contaminants, along with the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) on Oct. 3, growing to the largest U.S. regulatory agency by 1975, with 9K employees and a budget of $700M a year; on Dec. 12 William Doyle Ruckelshaus (1932-) becomes dir. #1 of the EPA (until Apr. 1973); after legislative pressure, on Dec. 31 Pres. Nixon signs amendments to the act, giving automakers six years to develop engines that are 90% emission-free; too bad, existing smokestack plants are grandfathered, and pollution standards only apply to new plants, causing greedy owners to extend the life of the smoky old plants as long as they can for decades to come - takes my breath away?

On Nov. 3-13, 1970 the 150 mph 1970 Bhola Cyclone in E Pakistan and W Bengal results in a storm surge that floods the low-lying islands of the Ganges Dleta, killing 500K and causing $86.4M damage, becoming the deadliest tropical cyclone in history (until ?).

In winter 1970/1 a drought in North China becomes the worst since records began to be kept in 1951, until one in winter 2010/11.

John Hamilton Adams (1936-) Richard E. Ayres John E. Bryson (1943-) Gus Speth (1942-) Edward L. Strohbehn Jr.

In 1970 after Adams became disgusted seeing raw sewage floating by on the Hudson River as he sat on a bench in Battery Park eating a liverwurst sandwich, the Nat. Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is founded in New York City by attys. John Hamilton Adams (1936-) (exec. dir.), Richard E. Ayres, John E. Bryson (1943-), James Gustave "Gus" Speth (1942-) (senior atty. until 1977), and Edward L. Strohbehn Jr. to fight for environmental causes, becoming the first nat. environmental advocacy group in the U.S. focusing on bringing change through the courts, growing to 3M members and a staff of 700 lawyers, scientists, and policy experts by 2019, feeding its climate and clean air program, save the bees program, anti-nuclear weapons program, water quality program et al.; no surprise, starting in 2017 they begin soliciting donations to help them fight Pres. Trump. Watch video.

On Jan. 18, 1971 due to warm Santa Ana winds, Palm Springs and Los Angeles, Calif. reach 95F, becoming the highest recorded temp for Jan. (until ?).

In Jan. 1971 after heavy monsoon rains the 1971 Kuala Lumpur Floods in Malaysia kill 32 and affect 180K, becoming the worst in Malaysia since 1926, causing a flood control project to be set up.

On Feb. 20, 1971 (eve.) the 1971 Okla. Blizzard in NW Okla. brings a record 36 in. of snow (until ?), leaving 20 ft. snowdrifts; it also hits the Tex. Panhandle.

On Feb. 21, 1971 the 33-hour 15-min. Feb. 1971 Mississippi Delta Tornado Outbreak sees 19 tornadoes reported, killing 123 in three states, incl. the first F5 tornado in La. (until ?), causing $45.9M damage, becoming the 2nd deadliest tornado outbreak in Feb. after the 1884 Enigma tornado outbreak, later followed by the 2008 Super Tues. tornado outbreak.

On Feb. 21, 1971 after 30 hours of torrential rain incl. 11.4 in. (.29m) in 24 hours, New Plymouth, Taranaki, New Zealand experiences its largest flood ever, after which dams are built on the Huatoki, Waimea, and Mangaotuku Rivers.

On Mar. 3-5, 1971 the E Canadian Blizzard of Mar. 1971 sees the worst 24-hour snowfall on record in Montreal, Quebec (17 in.) (.43m), killing 30 incl. 17 in Montreal and becoming known as "Quebec's Storm of the Century".

On Mar. 14, 1971 The New York Times pub. an article about drought in Argentina causing a beef crisis; the next worst drought happens in 2009.

On Apr. 5, 1971 The New York Times pub. an article reporting the worst drought in S Fla in 15 years, incl. in the Everglades, with less than 5 in. of rainfall in Miami since Oct. (vs. 23 in. the previous year), causing scientists to resort to cloud seeding, which doesn't stop 400K acres of the Everglades from burning.

On Apr. 9, 1971 the NBC Evening News, hosted by Frank McGee issues the soundbyte that Tex. is experiencing its worst drought since the 1950s.

On July 9, 1971 The Washington Post pub. the article U.S. Scientist Sees New Ice Age Coming by Victor Cohn, with the lead: "The world could be as little as 50 or 60 years away from a disastrous new ice age", quoting an article in Science by S.I. Rasool and S.H. Schneider of NASA, with the soundbyte: "In the next 50 years, the fine dust man constantly puts into the atmosphere by fossil fuel-burning could screen out so much sunlight that the average temperature could drop by six degrees", adding that this were sustained over "five to 10" years, "such a temperature decrease could be sufficient to trigger an ice age." Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Aug. 1, 1971 the Red River Delta Flood in North Vietnam kills 100K and affects 2.7M, getting called a "250-year flood".

In early Aug. 1971 heavy rainfall and floods in N England bring below freezing temps in Lanarkshire on Aug. 8.

The Sept. 1971 issue of Scientific American contains the soundbyte: "If ever an energy source can be said to have arrived in the nick of time, it is nuclear energy"; there are 20 nuclear power plants operating in the U.S., with 100+ more being built (30 in operation, 51 under construction and 72 on order next year), plus 90+ operating outside the U.S.

In Dec. 1971 the 1971 Iraq Poison Grain Disaster sees methylmercury-treated seed grain imported from Mexico and the U.S. to fight the drought ending up being consumed despite the telltale pink color, killing 459-4.5K by next Mar.

Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97)

In 1971 the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the U. of East Anglia in Norwich, England is founded by climatologist Hubert Horace "H.H." Lamb (1913-97) (known as the Ice Man for predicting a coming ice age before switching to global warming after the hot summer of 1976), and supported by Sir Graham Sutton, Lord Solly Zuckerman et al., with financial support from British Petroleum (BP), Royal Dutch Shell, the Nuffield Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and later the Wolfson Foundation, pioneering the idea of the variability of the climate; in the late 1970s it begins contracting with the U.S. Dept. of Energy; in the mid-1980s British PM Margaret Thatcher becomes a strong backer; in 1950 Lamb pub. a paper attempting to classify weather types, which evolves into the pan-European Grosswetterlagen scheme; in 1964 Lamb pub. the book The English Climate, followed in 1977 by Climatic History and the Future (rev. 1985), showing how studies of fossil pollen point to "great rapidity of climate change", but concluding "On balance, the effects of increased carbon dioxide on climate is almost certainly in the direction of warming but is probably much smaller than the estimates which have commonly been accepted." In 1982 he pub. Climate, History and the Modern World (2nd ed. 1995), with the ad blurb: "We live in a world that is increasingly vulnerable to climatic shocks - affecting agriculture and industry, government and international trade, not to mention human health and happiness. Serious anxieties have been aroused by respected scientists warning of dire perils that could result from upsets of the climatic regime", reviewing the Piora Oscillation (-13K), the Holocene Climate Cycle (-1.3K), the Medieval Warming Period, the Little Ice Age (1300-1850), and the modern era of 1700-1950, followed by global cooling along with local warming, claiming it might be CO2-induced but is expected to peak about 2100, with the next age by 2K years.

In 1971 Environment Canada (EC) is founded as part of the Canadian Dept. of the Environment; in 1991 after passage of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, it becomes the leading federal dept. in charge of cleaning up hazardous waste and oil spills; in ? it changes its name to Environment and Climate Change Canada, or Environment Canada.

Jay Wright Forrester (1918-2016)

In 1971 after meeting with the Club of Rome, Anselmo, Neb.-born computer-systems engineer (System Dynamics founder) Jay Wright Forrester (1918-2016) pub. World Dynamics, which attempts to model the complex interactions of the world economy, pop., and ecology, founding the field of Global Modeling.

John Paul Holdren (1944-) Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-)

In 1971 Sewickley, Penn.-born, San Mateo, Calif.-raised environmental scientist John Paul Holdren (1944-) and Philadelphia, Penn.-born ecologist Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) (author of the 1968 bestseller "The Population Bomb", predicting global famine and proposing a One World Govt. with sweeping powers to set up a "Planetary Regime") (hardcore Malthusians) pub. the essay Overpopulation and the Potential for Ecocide in the book Global ecology: Readings toward a rational strategy for man, warming, er, warning of a coming ice age caused by industrial soot, farm dust, deforestation, and urbanization, containing the soundbytes: "It seems, however, that a competing effect has dominated the situation since 1940. This is the reduced transparency of the atmosphere to incoming light as a result of urban air polution (dust), and volcanic ash. This screening phenomenon is said to be responsible for the present world cooling trend - a total of about .2 deg C in the world mean surface temperature over the past quarter century. This number seems small until it is realized that a decrease of only 4 deg C would probably be sufficient to start another ice age"; "The effects of a new ice age on agriculture and the supportability of large human populations scarcely need elaboration here. Even more dramatic results are possible, however; for instance, a sudden outward slumping in the Antarctic ice cap, induced by added weight, could generate a tidal wave of proportions unprecedented in recorded history"; "If man survives the comparatively short-term threat of making the planet too cold, there is every indication he is quite capable of making it too warm not long thereafter. For the remaining major means of interference with the global heat balance is the release of energy from fossil and nuclear fuels. As pointed out previously, all this energy is ultimately degraded to heat. What are today scattered local effects of its disposition will in time, with the continued growth of population and energy consumption, give way to global warming... Again, the exact form such consequences might take is unknown; the melting of the ice caps with a concomitant 150-foot increase in sea level might be one of them"; no mention of greenhouse gases?; on Aug. 11, 1975 Holdren pub. the article Too much energy, too soon, a hazard in The Windsor Star, containing the soundbyte: "The United States is threatened far more by the hazards of too much energy, too soon, than by the hazards of too little, too late. The hazards of too much, which have been as widely underestimated as the liabilities of too little have been exaggerated, including diverting financial resources from compelling social needs, making hasty commitments to unproved technologies, and generating environmental and social costs that harm human welfare more than the extra energy improves it"; on Mar. 19, 2009 - Jan. 20, 2017 Holdren becomes Pres. Obama's dir. #9 of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; in 2009 Holdren gives an interview to CBS, with the soundbyte: "If you lose the summer sea ice, there are phenomena that could lead you not so very long thereafter to lose the winter sea ice as well. And if you lose that sea ice year round, it's going to mean drastic climatic change all over the hemisphere", causing IPCC critics to characterize Holdren as a "doom peddler". In 1977 Holdren, Paul R. Ehrlich, and Anne H. Ehrlich pub. the book Ecoscience, containing the soundbyte: "A transnational 'Planetary Regime' should assume control of the global economy and also dictate the most intimate details of Americans' lives - using an international police force."

Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010)

In 1971 New York City-born climate scientist Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010) of NCAR pub. the paper "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aerosols: Effects of Large Increases on Global Science" in Science mag., containing the soundbyte: "[I]t is projected that man's potential to pollute will increase six- to eightfold in the next 50 years. If this increased rate of injection of particulate matter in the atmosphere should raise the present background opacity by a factor of 4, our calculations suggest a decrease in global temperature by as much as 3.5 °K. Such a large decrease in the average temperature of Earth, sustained over a period of few years, is believed to be sufficient to trigger an ice age. However, by that time, nuclear power may have largely replaced fossil fuels as a means of energy production"; in 1974 after deciding that he underestimated the warming effect of CO2 by a factor of three, Schneider pub. a retraction, and in 1976 he pub. the book The Genesis Strategy: Climate and Global Survival, discussing the balance between short-term cooling due to aerosols and long-term warming due to CO2, deciding that CO2 wins and going on to become a major advocate of global warming and the Greenhouse Theory; on Jan. 8, 1979 the New York Times pub. an article in which Schneider is quoted as saying "If the West Antarctic ice sheet slips into the sea, as some glaciologists believe is possible, boats could be launched from the bottom steps of the Capitol in Wshington, and a third of Florida would be under water"; in Oct. 1989 Schneider pub. an article in Discovery Mag., containing the soundbyte: "On the one hand, as scientists we are ethically bound to the scientific method. On the other hand, we are not just scientists, but human beings as well. And like most people, we'd like to see the world a better place, which in this context translates into our working to reduce the risk of potentially disastrous climatic change. To do that, we need to get some broad-based support, to capture the public's imagination. That, of course, entails getting loads of media coverage. Or we have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements, and make little mention of any doubts we may have. This 'double ethical bind' we frequently find ourselves in cannot be solved by any formula. Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest. I hope that means being both"; too bad, climate skeptics take to misquoting him by taking out all the parts about fairness, causing him to write the soundbyte: "[N]ot only do I disapprove of the 'ends justify the means' philosophy of which I am accused, but, in fact have actively campaigned against it in myriad speeches and writings." In 1989 Schneider pub. Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century?; on Nov. 3, 2009 he and Tim Flannery pub. Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save the Earth's Climate; in Oct. 2010 he and Michael D. Mastrandrea pub. Preparing for Climate Change, advocating big-buck projects. Watch video.

On Jan. 15, 1972 due to a Chinook wind, Loma, Mont. experiences the biggest known 24-hour temperature change, from -54F to +49F (103F) (-48C to 9C).

George J. Kukla (1930-2014)

On Jan. 26-27, 1972 42 Am. and Euro scientists led by Czech-born Columbia U. climate scientist (Quaternary geologist) George J. Kukla (1930-2014) and Am. geologist Robert K. Matthews hold the conference titled The Present Ingerglacial, How and When Will It End? at Brown U., going on to pub. a summary on Oct. 13 in Science; on Dec. 3 they send a letter to Pres. Nixon warning of a coming global cooling, with the soundbyte: "It could not be excluded however that the cooling now under way in the Northern Hemisphere is the start of the expected shift. The present rate of the cooling seems fast enough to bring glacial temperatures in about a century, if continuing at the present pace", warning of the potential for "floods, snowstorms and deadly frosts, as well as 'substantially lowered' food production" and "warned that the Soviet Union was probably already considering a response"; Kukla utters the soundbyte: "I feel we're on pretty solid ground in interpreting orbit around the sun as the primary driving force behind ice-age glaciation. The relationship is just too clear and consistent to allow reasonable doubt"; in 1973 after this kick in the pants the U.S. State Dept. forms a Panel on the Present Interglacial, while Congress holds hearings on the state of U.S. climate research and U.S. preparedness, causing a series of bills to create a nat. climate program to be introduced, which backfires on them when they are barnstormed by the global warming lobby, spreading to the U.N.; in 1974 BBC-TV debuts The Weather Machine, starring Kukla; 2000 Kukla leads a symposium at Columbia U. where he moves the coming ice age to 5K years from now, and utters the soundbyte: "What I think is this: Man is responsible for a part of global warming. Most of it is still natural." Watch video - George J. Kukla.

Maurice Strong of Canada (1929-2015) Elaine Dewar (1948-)

On June 5-16, 1972 after 152 experts from 58 countries submit data for the report "Only One Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet", the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment, reps. from 114 nations (with the slogan "Only One Earth"), meets in Stockholm, Sweden, and agrees on 200 points regarding environmental improvement, proclaiming a declaration of 26 principles on June 16, and agreeing to a Global Governance Agenda, with a plan for a permanent secretariat to coordinate progress; China insists that pop. is not a world problem; China and France insist on the right to stage atmospheric nuclear tests; the U.S. refuses to spend money on internat. environmental problems; the U.N. founds the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi, Kenya (first U.N. agency with HQ in the Third World), with Socialist (globalist Marxist) Canadian oil exec ("Father of the Global Environmental Movement") Maurice Frederick Strong (1929-2015) (member of the Malthusian Club of Rome) as dir. #1 (until 1976), who utters the soundbytes: "Isn't the only hope for the planet that the industrialized civilizations collapse? Isn't it our responsibility to bring that about?", "It is the responsibility of each human being today to choose between the force of darkness and the force of light. We must therefore transform our attitudes, and adopt a renewed respect for the superior laws of Divine Nature", and "Current lifestyles and consumption patterns of the affluent middle class - involving high meat intake, use of fossil fuels, appliances, air-conditioning, and suburban housing - are not sustainable"; too bad, he was framed by climate skeptics eager to gain adherents because what he was really doing was talking about a novel he wanted to write?; too bad, Strong's real agenda was pop. reduction via abortion et al., fueled by his devotion to New Age pagan religion, run from the New Age Manitou Centre on the 200K-acre Baca Ranch near Crestone, Colo. (founded 1978), which spawns several other pagan centers; in 1992 Strong became chmn. of Ontario Hydro, going on to destroy Ontario's economy, taking it from the top performer among Canada's provinces to the bottom; the UNEP went on to underpin the U.N. effort to use CO2-driven global warming as the excuse for massive transfer of wealth from wealthy to poor countries; "What's truly alarming about Maurice Strong is his actual record. Strong's persistent calls for an international mobilization to combat environmental calamities, even when they are exaggerated (population growth) or scientifically unproven (global warming), have set the world's environmental agenda" (Neil Hrab); In 1995 after meeting with Maurice Strong, Canadian journalist Elaine Ruth Dewar (1948-) pub. Cloak of Green: The Links between Key Environmental Groups, Government and Big Business, revealing how the Canadian govt. has been using environmental groups to influence domestic policy and take over other nations for U.N. Agenda 21, and Strong's role in it; "Strong was using the U.N. as a platform to sell a global environment crisis and the Global Governance Agenda." Video - Maurice Strong Video - Elaine Dewar.

On June 30, 1972 Mount Copeland in British Columbia reports 964 in. of snowfall in the 1971/2 season (began July 1), becoming the greatest snowfall in Canada in one season (until ?).

On July 5-30, 1972 Category 5 Typhoon Rita (Gloring) starts SE of Guam, intensifies on July 9 W of the Mariana Islands, and reaches a peak intensity on July 11, hitting the Philippines, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, China, and Mongolia and causing 377 deaths and $445M damage; in July 1972 the 1972 Philippines Flood sees the Philippines have its rainiest mo. since Aug. 1919; Manila receives almost 62 in. of monsoon rains, and floods kill 775, cause 60M in damage, and leave thousands homeless.

On July 9, 1972 Russia's Kola Peninsula reaches a record high temperature of 32.9C (91.2F) (until ?); meanwhile forest fires rage across Arctic Norway.

On July 15, 1972 Furnace Creek, Calif. records the world record ground surface temp of 201F (93.9C).

On Aug. 4, 1972 the largest solar flare ever recorded knocks out cable lines in the U.S., and continues high levels of activity until Aug. 10; luckily the Apollo launch isn't scheduled until Dec; the solar storms set off of dozens of U.S. mines in Hai Phong Harbor, North Vietnam; in the preceding few weeks 4K more detonated.

On Dec. 3, 1972 a collection of 42 top climate experts at Brown U. sign a letter to Pres. Nixon, warning of a new ice age ("glacial temperatures") within a century.

Donella Meadows (1941-2001) and Dennis L. Meadows (1942-)

In 1972 MIT scientists Donella H. "Dana" Meadows (1941-2001), her husband Dennis L. Meadows (1942-), Jorgen (Jørgen) Randers (1945-), and William W. Behrens III pub. the bestseller (30M copies) The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind, using primitive computer programs to predict a polluted depleted overpopulated planet, ramping up the environmentalist movement by giving it a religious mission; "If the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resource depletion continue unchanged, the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. The most probable result will be a rather sudden and uncontrollable decline in both population and industrial capacity"; too bad, the predictions fail to materialize by 1990, but time is on their side, and they pub. new eds. in 1992 and 2002; "The scarcest resource is not oil, metals, clean air, capital, labour, or technnology. It is our willingness to listen to each other and learn from each other and to seek the truth rather than seek to be right." (Donella Meadows)

Carl Sagan (1934-96) Jim Kasting (1953-) Minik Rosing

In 1972 Am. astronomers Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) and George Mullen propose the Faint Early (Young) Sun Paradox (Problem), that the Earth's climate has been fairly constant for the last 4B years yet the Sun's radiation has increased by 35%-30%; in 1993 Am. scientist Jim Fraser Kasting (1953-) concludes that CO2 was 30% of the Earth's atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect; in 2010 Danish scientist Minik Rosing et al. propose that the cloud layer was thinner in the past, allowing more rays to reach the Sun, and that the CO2 levels were only 0.1%.

In 1972 British meteorologist John Stanley Sawyer (1916-2000) pub. the study Man-made Carbon Dioxide and the "Greenhouse" Effect in Nature, summarizing the known science and accepting the theory of CO2-driven anthropogenic global warming, with the brilliant conclusion: "The increase of 35% CO2 expected by the end of the century therefore corresponds to an increase of 0.6°C in the world temperature - an amount somewhat greater than the climatic variation of recent centuries."

Paul M. Weyrich (1942-2008) Ed Feulner (1941-) Kay Coles James (1949-)

On Feb. 16, 1973 the right-wing Heritage Foundation in Washington, D.C. is founded with financial backing by Colo. Coors beer magnate Joseph Coors and Philly banking heir Richard Mellon Scaife, headed by Wisc.-born Paul M. Weyrich (1942-2008), a Roman Catholic turned Greek Orthodox religious zealot, whose 180-employee think tank begins grinding out studies against gay rights, abortion, marijuana, gun control, and big govt., gaining support from evangelicals, helping found the Moral Majority with Rev. Jerry Falwell, and growing into the largest public policy research inst. in the U.S. in 1977 Chicago, Ill.-born climate skeptic Edwin John "Ed" Feulner Jr. (1941-) becomes pres. until Apr. 3, 2013, when he is succeeded by former U.S. Sen. Jim DeMint, who resigns on May 2, 2017, when Feulner becomes pres. again until Jan. 1, 2018; on Jan. 10, 2018 Feulner pub. the article Al Gore Blames the 'Climate Crisis' for Cold Weather. But Actually, It's Just January. On Dec. 5, 2018 in response to the 2018 Nat. Climate Assessment Feulner pub. the article Warming Up to the Cold Facts About Climate. On Jan. 1, 2018 2018 Kay Coles James (nee Madeline Kay Coles) (1949-), former dir. of the U.S. Office of Personnel Mgt. (2001-5) and Va. secy. of health and human resources #6 (1994-6) becomes pres. #6 of the Heritage Foundation (until ?), the first African-Am. woman. Watch video - Paul M. Weyrich. Watch video - Ed Feulner. Watch video - Kay Coles James.

'Soylent Green', 1973

On Apr. 19, 1973 Earth in the year 2022 suffers from uncontrolled global warming, incl. pollution, overpopulation, and worldwide food, water, and housing shortages, causing the govt. to turn people into food - 1973 MGM film Soylent Green.

Michael E. Mann (1965-) and Warren M. Washington (1936-)

In 1973 the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement is founded at USC by John and Alice Tyler; no surprise in 1974 the first prizes are given to Canadian globalist Marxist Maurice Strong et al.; after the climate change hoaxers take over the environmental movement, the 2019 prizes are awarded to you-guessed-it-CO2-greenhouse-warming-proponents Michael Evan Mann (1965- and climate modeler Warren M. Washington (1936-), while pressure builds to add climate change science to the Nobel Prizes - one prize Al Gore isn't qualified for?

James Lovelock (1919-) Veerabhadran Ramanathan (1944-) Mario J. Molina (1943-2020) Frank Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012) Susan Solomon (1956-)

In 1973 English environmentalist scientist James Ephraim Lovelock (1919-) of Dorset, known for proposing the Gaia Hypothesis that Earth functions as a self-regulating system proposes that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have a global warming effect; in 1975 Indian atmospheric scientist Veerabhadran Ramanathan (1944-) finds that a CFC molecule is 10,000x more effective than a CO2 molecule in absorbing infrared radiation, with the soundbyte: "The effect of greenhouse gases on global warming is, in my opinion, the most important environmental issue facing the world today", causing climate scientists to eventually conclude that CFCs along with methane and other trace gases can have almost as important a climate effect as CO2. On June 28, 1974 Mexican-born Am. chemist Mario J. Molina (Jose Mario Molina-Pasquel Henriquez) (1943-2020) and Delaware, Ohio-born chemist Frank Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland (1927-2012) pub. a paper in Nature claiming that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants are accelerating the depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, with one chlorine molecule able to destroy up to 100K ozone molecules, winning them the 1995 Nobel Chem. Prize; meanwhile high acidity in lakes in NE U.S. and E Canada are traced to coal-burning plants in the U.S. Midwest; on Sept. 25 Susan Solomon (1956-) and other scientists warn that continued use of aerosol sprays will cause ozone depletion, leading to an increased risk of skin cancer and global weather changes; in 1976 the Nat. Academy of Science warns against fluorocarbons in spray cans. On Sept. 13, 1976 after DuPont is first confronted with evidence that their product is destroying the stratospheric ozone layer in 1974, the U.S. Nat. Academy of Sciences reports that Freon (CFCs) used in spray cans is depleting the ozone layer of the atmosphere, increasing deadly UV radiation on the ground; in 1978 the U.S. bans CFC-based aerosols in spray cans. Watch video - Tony Heller.

In 1973 NASA begins pub. NASA Historical Data Book, which contains the tabular data collected between 1958-68; in 1988 they reissue it along with two more vols., followed by vol. 4 in 1994, vol. 5 in 1999, vol. 6 in 2000, vol. 7 in 2008, and vol. 8 in 2012; in 2003 it pub. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Strategy, followed in 2006 by NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook, which asks a series of questions about Earth's climate, incl. 2) What are the primary forcings of the Earth system? a) What trends in atmospheric constituents and solar radiation are driving global climate? b) What are the motions of Earth's interior, and how do they directly impact our environment? 3) How does the Earth system respond to natural and human-induced changes? a) What are the effects of clouds and surface hydrologic processes on Earth's climate? b) How do ecosystems, land cover, and bioggeochemical cycles respond to and affect global environmental change? c) How can climate variations induce changes in the global ocean circulation? d) How do atmospheric trace constituents respond to and affect global environmental change? e) How is global sea level affected by natural variability and human-induced change in the Earth system? In ? NASA pub. the article WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY FORCINGS OF THE EARTH SYSTEM?, which starts out: "The Sun is the primary forcing of Earth's climate system. Sunlight warms our world. Sunlight drives atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. Sunlight powers the process of photosynthesis that plants need to grow. Sunlight causes convection which carries warmth and water vapor up into the sky where clouds form and bring rain. In short, the Sun drives almost every aspect of our world's climate system and makes possible life as we know it", and concludes: "Other important forcings of Earth's climate system include such 'variables' as clouds, airborne particulate matter, and surface brightness. Each of these varying features of Earth's environment has the capacity to exceed the warming influence of greenhouse gases and cause our world to cool." Too bad, they delete it from their Web site around 2010.

George J. Kukla (1930-2014)

On Jan. 29, 1974 The Guardian pub. the article Space satellites show new Ice Age coming fast by Anthony Tucker, which begins: "Worldwide and rapid trends towards a mini Ice Age are emerging from the first long term analyses of satellite weather pictures.... A preliminary analysis carried out at Columbia University, New York by European climatologists George and Helana Kukla (1930-2014) indicates that snow and ice cover of the earth increased by 12 per cent during 1967-1972. This appears to be in keeping with other long-term climatic changes, all of which suggest that after reaching a climax of warmth between 1935 and 1955, world average temperatures are now falling. But the rate of increase of snow and ice cover is much faster than would be expected from other trends."

On Mar. 4, 1974 the Corpus Christi Times pub. the article Imagine this global scenario by Peter J. Bernstein, containing the soundbyte: "To consider some of the urgent questions that a changing climate poses for the world, several of America's most prominent meteorologists gathered here last week for discussions at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. What emerged was a grim forecast for the future. It was generally agreed that the extraordinary warmth of the early 20th century is drawing to a close, and that a global cooling trend has been under way since about 1940. But the scientists cannot explain why."

The original Xenia Onatop? On Apr. 3-4, 1974 the the 1974 Super Tornado Outbreaks sees 148 tornadoes (incl. 30 F4/F5) in 13 U.S. states and the province of Ont., Canada incl. Ill., Ind., Ky., Mich., Ala., Miss., Ga., N.C. Va., W. Va., Tenn, and N.Y., causing $843M damage, killing 336 and injuring 5K, becoming the worst tornado outbreak in U.S. history (until ?), and the first tornado outbreak in history with 100+ tornadoes in a 24-hour period until the 1981 U.K. Tornado Outbreak and the 2011 U.S. Super Tornado Outbreak; on Apr. 4 Xenia, Ohio (founded 1803) (a suburb of Dayton) is hit by a F5 tornado and half destroyed along a quarter-mi. swath, killing 34 and injuring 1,150 and leaving 10K homeless, with $500M property damage; 10 states are declared nat. disaster areas, incl. Ala. (87 killed), Ga. (17), Ill. (2), Ind. (31), Ky. (88), Mich. (3), N.C. (7), Ohio (45), Tenn. (53), and W.V. (1) after Pres. Nixon signs the U.S. Disaster Relief Act on May 22, allowing U.S. presidents to declare disaster areas; in 1988 it is amended and named after U.S. Rep. (R-Vt.) (1961-71) and U.S. Sen. (R-Vt.) (1971-89) Robert Theodore Stafford (1913-2006), who goes on to become known for backing the 2000 Vt. law legalizing same-sex civil unions.

On June 12, 1974 the Greeley (Colo.) Tribune pub. the article Boulder scientists see end of period of favorable weather by Bill Jordan, which starts out: "Observers of the global climate at the National Center for Atmospheric Research believe the favorable weather of the past 15 years is about to give way to a period of unstable climate, crop losses, food shortages and death by starvation for millions. Underlying Schneider's ideas on food shortages i the knowledge that the world is moving into a period of cooler temperatures." About the same time NCAR dir. Walter Orr Roberts pub. the article Climate Change and Its Effect on World Food, which starts out: "In February of 1972 earth-orbiting artificial satellites revealed the existence of a greatly increased area of the snow and ice cover of the north polar ice cap as compared to all previous years of space age observations. Some scientists believe that this may have presaged the onset of the dramatic climate anomalies of 1972 that brought far-reaching adversities to the world's peoples. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that the bad climate of 1972 may be the forerunner of a long series of less favorable agricultural crop years that lie ahead for most world societies. Thus widespread food shortages threaten just at the same time that world populations are growing to new highs. Indeed, less favorable climate may be the new global norm. The Earth may have entered a new "little ice age". Perhaps this future period will not be extreme as that around 1700 AD, but it seems likely, at least, to be a cooler period resembling the hemispheric climatic regimes of the period from 1880-1920."

On June 24, 1974 Time mag. pub. the article Another Ice Age?, containing the soundbyte: "As they review the bizarre and unpredictable weather pattern of the past several years, a growing number of scientists are beginning to suspect that many seemingly contradictory meteorological fluctuations are actually part of a global climatic uphead. However widely the weather varies from place to place and time to time, when meteorologists take an average of temperatures around the globe they find that the atmosphere has been growing gradually cooler for the past three decades. The trend shows no indication of reversing. Climatological Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age." Watch video.

Mario J. Molina (1943-2020) Frank Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012)

On June 28, 1974 Mexican-born Am. chemist Mario J. Molina (Jose Mario Molina-Pasquel Henriquez) (1943-2020) and Delaware, Ohio-born chemist Frank Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland (1927-2012) pub. a paper in Nature claiming that chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants are accelerating the depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, with one chlorine molecule able to destroy up to 100K ozone molecules, winning them the 1995 Nobel Chem. Prize; meanwhile high acidity in lakes in NE U.S. and E Canada are traced to coal-burning plants in the U.S. Midwest; in 1978 the U.S. bans CFC-based aerosols in spray cans.

Richard Feynman (1918-88)

In June 1974 Queens, N.Y.-born Caltech physicist Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-88) gives his commencement address Cargo Cult Science, explaining the difference between real science and pseudoscience as "a kind of leaning over backwards" to make sure scientists don't fool themselves or others, using transparent methods that give transparent results so that others may verify them, with the soundbyte: "There is one feature I notice that is generally missing in cargo cult science... It's a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty - a kind of leaning over backwards. For example, if you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid - not only what you think is right about it; other causes that could possibly explain your results; and things you thought of that you've eliminated by some other experiment, and how they worked - to make sure the other fellow can tell they have been eliminated. Details that could throw doubt on your interpretation must be given, if you know them. You must do the best you can - if you know anything at all wrong, or possibly wrong - to explain it. If you make a theory, for example, and advertise it, or put it out, then you must also put down all the facts that disagree with it, as well as those that agree with it. There is also a more subtle problem. When you have put a lot of ideas together to make an elaborate theory, you want to make sure, when explaining what it fits, that those things it fits are not just the things that gave you the idea for the theory; but that the finished theory makes something else come out right, in addition. In summary, the idea is to try to give all of the information to help others to judge the value of your contribution, not just the information that leads to judgment in one particular direction or another."

In June-July 1974 the 1974 Ariz. Heatwave sees 116F temps in Buckeye (near Phoenix), Ariz. on 12 days out of 13 on June 11-July 6. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Aug. 27, 1974 the Christian Science Monitor pub. the article Earth Seems to be Cooling Off Again, containing the soundbyte that the North Atlantic is "cooling down about as fast as an ocean can cool", glaciers have "begun to advance", and "growing seasons in England and Scandinavia are getting shorter."

In Aug. 1974 the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) secretly pub. A Study of Climatological Research as it Pertains to Intelligence Problems, which starts out: "The western world's leading climatologists have confirmed recent reports of a detrimental global climatic change. The stability of most nations is based upon a dependable source of food, but this stability will not be possible under the new climatic era. A forecast by the University of Wisconsin projects that the earth's climate is returning to that of the non-boreal era (1600-1850) - an era of drought, famine, and political unrest in the western world"; "Climate has not been a prime consideration of intelligence analysis because, until recently, it has not caused any significant perturbations to the status of major nations. This is so because during so of the last 60 years the Earth has, on the average, enjoyed the best agricultural climate since the eleventh century. An early twentieth century world food surplus hindered U.S. efforts to maintain and equalize farm production and incomes. Climate and its effect on world food production was considered to be only a minor factor not worth consideration in the complicated equation of country assessment. Food production, to meet the growing demands of a geometrically expanding world population, was always considered to be a question of matching technology and science to the problem"; "The climate change began in 1960, but no one including the climatologists recognized it. Crop failures in the Soviet Union and India during the first part of the sixties were attributed to the natural fluctuation of the weather. India was supported by massive U.S. grain shipments that fed over 100 million people. To eat, the Soviets slaughtered their livestock, and Premier Nikita Khrushchev was quietly deposed"; "Scientists are confident that unless man is able to effectively modify the climate, the northern regions, such as Canada, the European part of the Soviet Union, and major areas in northern China, will again be covered with 100 to 200 feet of ice and snow. That this will occur within the next 2,500 years they are quite positive; that it may occur sooner is open to speculation." It is not declassified and released until Dec. 2, 2015.

In mid-Dec. 1974 the 1974-75 Central Australian Bushfires begin with the Moolah-Corinya Bushfires in Far West NSW, and end in 1975 with 11M acres burned.

On Dec. 21-26, 1974 125 mph Cyclone Tracy devastates Darwin, Australia, killing 71 and causing A$837M in damage while destroying 70%+ of its bldgs. and 80% of its houses, leaving 25K of 47K inhabitants homeless, requiring the evacuation of 30K, leaving it deserted for a year. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Dec. 29, 1974 The New York Times pub. the article Forecast For by Alan Anderson Jr., which features the soundbyte about climate cooling that it will result in "mass deaths by starvation and probably anarchy and violence."

Ed Crane (1944-) Koch Brothers Charles G. Koch (1935-) and David H. Koch (1940-2019) Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95) James Mahoney

In 1974 Edward Harrison Crane III (1944-), a leader in the U.S. Libertarian Party (quits in 1983) founds major corp.-backed conservative-libertarian think tank Cato Inst. (originally the Charles Koch Foundation) along with rich Wichita, Kan.-based Koch Industries CEO Charles de Ganahi Koch (1935-) and Austrian libertarian economist Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95), which goes on to oppose environmental groups and back climate change/global warming denial, work to eliminate the U.S. depts. of agriculture, commerce, educate, energy, interior and labor, and propose privatizing Social Security, with Crane uttering the soundbyte: "I think Franklin Roosevelt was a lousy president. What he did, which is to impose this great nanny state on America, was a great mistake"; after the Cocks, er, Kochs start a war to replace its stockholders with a 12-member board subservient to themselves, Crane retires as pres. on Oct. 1, 2012 after building it to a staff of 127 and a $21M/year budget. Charles Koch and his brother David Hamilton Koch (1940-2019) become major backers of climate skepticism. James Mahoney is hired by Koch Industries Inc. in 1988, rising to vice-pres. for operations excellence and compliance and serving as chmn. of the Nat. Petrochemical and Refineries Assoc. (NPRA) (later the Am. Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers) in 2007-8, whose official position on greenhouse gas regulations is: "AFPM believes that using this 40-year-old law [the Clean Air Act] to control of[sic] greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions threatens our nation's economic and energy security." The Koch brothers are accused of setting up the Kochtopus of think tanks, foundations, lobbyists, and kept politicians to oppose any environmental regs threatening their profits, incl. Calif. Prop 23, becoming the #1 funder of climate change denial ahead of ExxonMobil; see list.

Kenneth P. Green Joel Wood (1981-)

In 1974 the Fraser Inst. (named after the Fraser River) libertarian-conservative public policy think tank is founded in Vancouver, B.C., Canada by Canadian economist Michael Walker (1945-) et al., going on to pub. the annual Economic Freedom Index, Human Freedom Index, Survey of Mining Cos., School Report Cards, and Tax Freedom Day et al. while backing climate change skeptics Ross McKitrick et al. and influencing the Canadian Conservative Party to deny climate change; of course, critics put their donor list under the microscope, striking pay dirt with the Charles G. Koch Foundation, Sarah Scaife Foundation, Exxon Mobil et al.; senior dir. of natural resource studies is environmental scientist Kenneth P. "Ken" Green; senior research economist for their Centre for Environmental Studies and Centre for Risk and Regulation is Joel Wood (1981-). On Feb. 5, 2007 after the IPCC releases its "Summary for Policy Makers" as part of its Fourth Assessment Report on Climate Change (AR4), the Fraser Inst. releases the report Independent Summary for Policymakers, written by Ian D. Clark, Joseph D'Aleo, Christopher Essex, Wibjorn Karlen (Vibjörn Karlén) (1937-2021) , Madhav Khandekar, William Robert Kininmonth, Tad S. Murty et al., with the ad blurb: "An independent review of the latest United Nations report on climate change shows that the scientific evidence about global warming remains uncertain and provides no basis for alarmism", and "There will remain an unavoidable element of uncertainty as to the extent that humans are contributing to future climate change, and indeed whether or not such change is a good or bad thing." In 2000 Karlen pub. the soundbyte: "One of the big problems with trying to determine long-term temperature changes, is that weather records only go back to about 1860. By relying on statistical reconstruction of the last 1000 years, using only the temperature patterns of the last 140 years instead of actual temperature readings, the IPCC report and Summary missed both a major cooling period as well as a significant warming trend during that millennium"; he also slams the mainstream media for "spreading the exaggerated views of a human impact on climate." In 2005 Murty utters the soundbyte that global warming is "the biggest scientific hoax being perpetrated on humanity. There is no global warming due to human anthropogenic activities." In June 2007 Essex writes the soundbyte: "There is no such thing as global temperature. And if there is no global temperature, how can there be global warming?" In 2007 Clark utters the soundbyte: "Solar activity of the last hundred years, over the last several hundred years correlates very nicely on a decadal basis, with sea ice and Arctic temperatures." In 2009 Khandekar utters the soundbyte: "A very intense debate is going on. Most of the skeptics like me feel that the warming that we saw during the 80's and 90's was most possibly due to the natural variability of the climate, just as there was a cooling of the earth's climate from 1945 to about 1977. More importantly many skeptics and solar scientists feel that this warming and cooling is possibly driven by the variability of the total radiation received at the top of earth's atmosphere. So the problem is much more complex than what the IPCC has projected to us." Watch video - Kenneth P. Green.

Frank Wentz (1947-) Carl Mears (1963-)

In 1974 Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) is founded in Northern Calif. by Frank Wentz (1947-) to process microwave data from NASA satellites, going on to work with Carl A. Mears (1963-) to develop a satellite temperature record; in June 2017 version 4 revises the global warming trend from 1979 from .135K/decade to .184K/decade by tampering with the data?

Iben Browning (1918-91) Evelyn Browning-Garriss

In 1974 the Browning Newsletter is founded by Edna, Tex.-born self-proclaimed climatologist Iben Browning (1918-91) and James Fraser; in 1975 Browning and Nels Winkless III pub. the book Climate and the Affairs of Men, which denies manmade climate change and claims that the Earth's long warm period is ending and will be replaced by a dangerous cooling phase; too bad, he makes a notorious failed prediction of a major earthquake on the New Madrid fault on Dec. 2-3, 1990, stinking himself up before dying on July 18, 1991 in Albuquerque, N.M.; in 1991 Iben's daughter Evelyn Browning-Garriss takes over the newsletter, later uttering the soundbyte: "We had a Medieval warm period. We had a little ice age. Now the little ice age is over and it's getting warming. It's not surprising; you end an ice age, temperatures do get warmer. Climate change is standard. The concern should really be: in the past, mankind adjusted to climate change. We need to adjust to the change in climate... We need to be thinking in terms of shifting with the climate, because the climate shifts. The climate changes."

On Jan. 1, 1975 S. Manabe and R.T. Wetherald pub. the paper The Effects of Doubling the CO2 Concentration on the climate of a General Circulation Model in Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, describing their simplified 3-D gen. climate model based on circulation rather than radiation and convection, which when CO2 is increased raises the temperature of the troposphere (lowest level) while lowering that of the stratosphere, resulting in a 2C temp rise when CO2 is doubled.

On Mar. 1, 1975 Science News pub. the article The Ice Age Cometh!, containing the soundbyte: "The threat of a new ice age must now stand alongside nuclear war as a likely source of wholesale death and misery for mankind"; the cover shows glaciers crushing a city.

On Mar. 2, 1975 the Chicago Tribune pub. the article B-r-r-r-r: New ice age on way soon, containing the soundbytes: "In the last decade, the Arctic ice and snow cap has expanded 12 per cent, and for the first time in this century, ships making for Iceland ports have been impeded by drifting ice"; "Many climatologists see these signs as evidence that a significant shift in climate is taking place - a shift that could be the forerunner of an Ice Age like that which gripped much of the Northern Hemisphere before retreating 10,000 years ago"; on Mar. 16, 1986 they flip-flop and pub. the article "The Rising Seas", predicting massive floods.

Peter Gwynne (1942-)

On Apr. 28, 1975 Newsweek pub. the 9-paragraph article The Cooling World by England-born science ed. Peter Gwynne (1942-), which claims that evidence of a coming ice age is accumulating "so massively that meteorologists are hard-pressed to keep up with it", and that "The drop in food output could begin quite soon, perhaps only ten years from now", spawning copycat articles by Nat. Geographic and The New York Times and becoming a hit with global warming skeptics incl. Forbes, U.S. Sen. James Inhofe, Sean Hannity, Lou Dobbs, Rush Limbaugh, and Donald Trump; on Jan. 10, 2014 Scientific American pub. the article How the "Global Cooling" Story Came to Be, with the subtitle: "Nine paragraphs written for Newsweek in 1975 continue to trump 40 years of climate science. It is a record that has its author amazed", claiming that Gwynne now believes in CO2-driven global warming, although his story "was accurate at the time".

On May 21, 1975 The New York Times pub. the article Scientists Ask Why World Climate is Changing: Major Cooling May Be Ahead by Walter Sullivan, containing the soundbytes: "Sooner or later a major cooling of the climate is widely considered inevitable. Hints that it may already have begun are evident. The drop in mean temperatures since 1950 in the Northern Hemisphere has been sufficient, for example, to shorten Britain's growing season for crops by two weeks"; "The first half of this century has apparently been the warmest period since the 'hot spell' between 5,000 and 7,000 years ago immediately following the last ice age. That the climate, at least in the Northern Hemisphere, has been getting cooler since about 1950, is well established - if one ignores the last two winters."

On July 17-18, 1975 the Black Frost (Helada Negra) (worst of the cent.) destroys 1.5B Brazilian coffee trees, over half of Brazil's total, causing other countries to halt exports until retail coffee prices jump 20 cents a lb. within two weeks.

Wallace Smith Broecker (1931-)

On Aug. 8, 1975 Chicago, Ill.-born Columbia U. geophysicist Wallace Smith "Wally" Broecker (1931-) pub. the paper Climate Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming? in Science mag., coining the terms "global warming" and "climate change", predicting an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 403 ppm by 2010 along with a global temp increase of 1.10C, with the soundbyte: "If man-made dust is unimportant as a major cause of climatic change, then a strong case can be made that the present cooling trend will, within a decade or so, give way to a pronounced warming induced by carbon dioxide. By analogy with similar events in the past, the natural climatic cooling which, since 1940, has more than compensated for the carbon dioxide effect, will soon bottom out. Once this happens, the exponential rise in the atmospheric carbon dioxide content will tend to become a significant factor and by early in the next century will have driven the mean planetary temperature beyond the limits experienced during the last 1000 years"; he goes on to utter the soundbyte: "Climate is an angry beast and we are poking at it with sticks", becoming known as "the Godfather of Global Warming". Watch video - Wallace Broecker. Watch video - Wallace Broecker. Watch video - Wallace Broecker.

Margaret Mead (1901-78) William Welch Kellogg (1917-2007) Stephen Schneider (1945-2010) George M. Woodwell (1930-) John Holdren of the U.S. (1944-)

On Oct. 26-29, 1975 Philly-born anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-78), pres. of the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and climate scientist William Welch Kellogg (1917-2007) of the RAND Corp. organize the Endangered Atmosphere Conference at the Nat. Inst. of the Environment in Research Triangle Park, N.C., declaring that "the whole planet may be endangered" by anthropogenic global warming, leading to the destruction of human life, blaming it ultimately on pop. growth, proclaiming a new Law of the Atmosphere where clean nuclear power is taboo, with the soundbyte: "It is inevitable that there will be clash between those concerned with immediate problems and those who concern themselves with long-term consequences"; attendees incl. New York City-born climate scientist Stephen Henry Schneider (1945-2010) (close friend of Paul Ehrlich), George M. Woodwell (1930-) (founder of the Environmental Defense Fund in 1967 and Woods Hole Research Center in 1985), and John Paul Holdren (1944-) (co-author of several books with Paul Ehrlich); in 1976 Mead and Kellogg pub. The Atmosphere: Endangered and Endangering, promoting the idea that each nation "should control carbon dioxide emissions", making the conference into the place where the global warming hoax was born?

In 1975 the U.S. Committee for the Global Atmospheric Research Program of the Nat. Research Council pub. the report Understanding Climatic Change: A Program for Action, which talks about a recent round of global cooling and barely mentions CO2 AGW warming as a factor; it contains the soundbytes: "There is ample evidence, summarized in Appendix A of this report, that climate does change, and there is more than ample evidence from past history and even recent events that changes in climate can profoundly affect human activities and even life itself. Indeed, as a growing population places ever greater demands on food and fiber resources, man's sensitivity to variations in climate will increase. We have an urgent need for better information on global climate. Unfortunately, we do not have a good quantitative understanding of our climate machine and what determines its course. Without this fundamental understanding, it does not seem possible to predict climate - neither in its short-term variations nor in its larger long-term changes. There are some who believe that important variations in climate can occur with changes in the controlling factors that are so small they are difficult to measure. With such barriers to be overcome, is there any assurance of success? We believe so"; "A striking feature of the instrumental record is the behavior of temperature worldwide. As shown by Mitchell (1970), the average surface air temperature in the northern hemisphere increased from the 1880's until about 1940 and has been decreasing thereafter. Starr and Oort (1973) have reported that, during the period 1958-1963, the hemisphere's (mass-weighted) mean temperature decreased by about 0.6 °C. In that period the polar and subtropical arid regions experienced the greatest cooling. The cause of this variation is not known, although clearly this trend cannot continue indefinitely." "During the global warming of the first part of this century, for example, the average length of the growing season in England (as measured by the duration of temperatures above 42 °F) increased by two to three weeks and during the more recent cooling trend since the 1940's has undergone a comparable shortening." "A variety of meteorological indices have been used to characterize the climate and its temporal variations during the past century or more of extensive observations. Global- or hemisphere-averaged indices such as the surface temperature index shown in Figure A. 6 are often used for this purpose. This index clearly suggests a worldwide warming beginning in the 1880's, followed by a cooling since the 1940's. The warming may be recognized as the last part of a complex but recognizable trend that has persisted since the end of the seventeenth century." "In summary, we may say that observational data at the earth's surface show that during the period 1900 to 1940 the northern hemisphere as a whole warmed, although some areas (mainly the Atlantic sector of the Arctic and northern Siberia) warmed far more than the global average, some areas became colder, and others showed little measurable change (Mitchell, 1963). In the time since 1940, an overall cooling has occurred but is again characterized by a geographical structure; cooling since 1958 has occurred in the subtropical arid regions and in the Arctic (Starr and Oort, 1973). There is also some evidence that the northern hemisphere oceans are cooling (Namias, 1972b), although the oceanic data base necessary to confirm this has not yet been assembled." "One may still ask the question: When will the present interglacial end? Few paleoclimatologists would dispute that the prominent warm periods (or interglacials) that have followed each of the terminations of the major glaciations have had durations of 10,000 ±2000 years. In each case, a period of considerably colder climate has followed immediately after the interglacial interval. Since about 10,000 years has elapsed since the onset of the present period of prominent warmth, the question naturally arises as to whether we are indeed on the brink of a period of colder climate. Kukla and Matthews (1972) have already called attention to such a possibility. There seems little doubt that the present period of unusual warmth will eventually give way to a time of colder climate, but there is no consensus with regard to either the magnitude or rapidity of the transition. The onset of this climatic decline could be several thousand years in the future, although there is a finite probability that a serious worldwide cooling could befall the earth within the next hundred years." "These climatic projections, however, could be replaced with quite different future climatic scenarios due to man's inadvertent interference with the otherwise natural variation (Mitchell, 1973a). This aspect of climatic change has recently received increased attention, as evidenced by the smic report (Wilson, 1971). A leading anthropogenic effect is the enrichment of the atmospheric C02 content by the combustion of fossil fuels, which has been rising about 4 percent per year since 1910. There is evidence that the ocean's uptake of much of this C02 is diminishing (Keeling et al., 1974), which raises the possibility of even greater future atmospheric concentrations. Man's activities are also contaminating the atmosphere with aerosols and releasing waste heat into the atmosphere, either (or both) of which may have important climatic consequences (Mitchell, 1973b). Such effects may combine to offset a future natural cooling trend or to enhance a natural warming. This situation serves to illustrate the uncertainty introduced into the problem of future climatic changes by the interference of man and is occurring before adequate knowledge of the natural variations themselves has been obtained. Again, the clear need is for greatly increased research on both the nature and causes of climatic variation."

On Jan. 29, 1976 The Guardian pub. the article Space satellites show new Ice Age coming fast by Anthony Tucker, with the soundbyte: "A preliminary analysis carried out at Columbia University, New York, by the European climatologists Doctors George and Helena Kukla indicates that snow and ice cover of the earth increased by 12 percent during 1967-1972. This appears to be in keeping with other long-term climatic changes, all of which suggest that after reaching a climax of warmth between 1935 and 1955, world average temperatures are now falling."

On June 13, 1976 severe thunderstorms in Iowa spawn several tornadoes, incl. an F-5 that destroys the town of Jordan, Iowa.

On June 23-July 8, 1976 the 1976 Great Britain and Ireland Heat Wave sees the hottest avg. summer temperatures in the U.K. since records began, accompanied by a severe drought and constant blue skies from May until Sept., becoming the driest summer until 1995; on June 28 Southampton, England sets a June temp record at 35.6C (96.1F) (until ?).

On July 28, 1976 (3:42 a.m.) the 7.6 Great 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Tangshan, Hebei, N China kills 242K+ and causes 10B Chinese renminbi damage, becoming the worst earthquake in Chinese history (until ?).

On Sept. 13, 1976 after DeuPont is first confronted with evidence that their product is destroying the stratospheric ozone layer in 1974, the U.S. Nat. Academy of Sciences reports that Freon (CFCs) used in spray cans is depleting the ozone layer of the atmosphere, increasing deadly UV radiation on the ground.

On Dec. 10, 1976 J.D. Hays, John Imbrie, and N.J. Shackleton pub. the paper Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages in Science mag., using Milkankovitch Cycles to defnitively prove that "changes in the earth's orbital geometry are the fundamental cause of the succession of Quaternary ice ages", and that "A model of future climate based on the observed orbital-climate relationships, but ignoring anthropogenic effects, predicts that the long-term trend over the next seven thousand years is toward extensive Northern Hempisphere glaciation."

Klaus Hasselmann (1931-)

In Dec. 1976 German oceanographer Klaus Hasselmann (1931-) pub. the Hasselmann Stochastic Climate Model, linking weather variability to climate fluctuations by regressing fluctuations in top-of-atmosphere radiation against near-surface air temperature, which unfortunately fails to explain year-to-year observation variability; the model is improved by Cristian Proistosescu et al. in an article pub. on May 14, 2018 in Geophysical Research Letters, eliminating random atmospheric and oceanic processes such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, and reducing the data to three driving or forcing sources with different feedbacks and timescales.

Sir Nicholas Shackleton (1937-2006)

In Dec. 1976 English geologist-paleoclimatologist Sir Nicholas John Shackleton (1937-2006) (great-nephew of explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton) et al. pub. the paper Variations in the Earth's orbit: Pacemaker of the ice ages in Science, correlating climate oscillations over the past few million years with variations in the orbital and positional relationship of the Earth and Sun (100K-year Milankovitch Cycles) despite the slight change in sunlight, proving that feedbacks susceptible to small changes drive the climate system.

In 1976 after being elected to Congress from Tenn., Dem. rep Al Gore holds the first Congressional hearings on global warming.

Lowell Ponte (1946-)

In 1976 Am. journalist Lowell Ponte (1946-) pub. the book The Cooling: Has the Next Ice Age Already Begun? Can We Survive It?, with foreword by U.S. Sen. Claiborne Pell and preface by U. of Wisc. climatologist Reid A. Bryson, which becomes a hit and goes through five printings; it warns that global cooling is going to be "the primary cause of world food shortages" as a new ice age lasting from 200-10K years results in "rivers of solid ice again as far south as Yosemite in California and Cincinnati, Ohio", claiming that scientists have proposed 60 theories to explain it; he proposes a manmade space heater pointed toward Earth in order to "convert the American southwestern deserts into verdant green valleys" and "stave off world famine".

On Jan. 9, 1977 the Chicago Tribune pub. the article Flood threat from polar ice, which starts out: "'We're doing about the most we can do right now to study the possible collapse of the west ice sheet,' said Dr. Richard Cameron, NSF program manager for glaciology. 'It has become an area of concern because we could be on the brink of a rise in sea levels.' The staggering aspect of the research is the discovery of a potentially catastrophic phenomenon that had been totally unexpected. 'We're seeing the west ice sheet on its way out,' said Cameron. 'It seems to be doing something completely different than the east ice sheet. It has nothing to do with a warmer climate, just the dynamics of unstable ice.'"

On Jan. 16-21, 1977 the Jan. 1977 Cold Wave brings snow to the greater Miami, Fla. area for the first time ever (until ?), damaging citrus crops and causing $350M damage; on Jan. 28-Feb. 1 the Blizzard of 1977 hits W New York and S Ontario, bringing 100 in. of snowfall and snowdrifts of 40 ft.; 1976/7 and 1976/8 become the coldest and snowiest winters in the U.S. until ?.

On Jan. 19, 1977 it snows in Miami, Fla. for the 1st time (until ?), becoming the southernmost U.S. snowfall outside Hawaii.

U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter (1924-)

On Jan. 20, 1977 leftist nutcase James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr. (1924-) becomes Dem. U.S. pres. #39 (until Jan. 20, 1980), creating the 13-member Nat. Commission on Air Quality (NCAQ), with its mission incl. the stabilizing of climate; it is terminated upon pub. of its final report on Mar. 3, 1981; Carter also establishes the Office of Carbon Dioxide Effects in the U.S. Dept. of Energy, which disburses $200M in 1980; meanwhile Carter's EPA dir. assembles a climate science squad that immediately begins pub. reports linking coal burning to catastrophic CO2 emissions; by 1979 the U.S. federal govt. is employing several dozen full-time global warming scientists.

On Jan. 31, 1977 Time mag. pub. the cover story The Big Freeze, reporting that some scientists are reporting a 20F global avg. temp. drop caused by humans.

On Jan. 5, 1978 The New York Times pub. the article International Team of Scientists Finds No End in Sight to 30-Year Cooling Trend in Northern Hemisphere by Walter Sullivan, which begins: "An international team of specialists has concluded from eight indexes of climate that there is no end in sight to the cooling trend of the last 30 years, at least in the Northern Hemisphere... In almost all cases it has been found that the year-to-year variations in climate are far more marked than the long-term trend. The long-term trend often becomes evident only when data from a number of years are displayed. The report, prepared by German, Japanese and American specialists, appears in the Dec. 15 issue of Nature, the British journal. The findings indicate that from 1950 to 1975 the cooling, per decade, of most climate indexes in the Northern Hemisphere was from 0.1 to 0.2 degrees Celsius, roughly 0.2 to 0.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Data from the Southern Hemisphere, particularly south of latitude 30 south, are so meager that reliable conclusions are not possible, the report says. The 30th parallel of south latitude passes through South Africa, Chile, and southern Australia. The cooling trend seems to extend at least part way into the Southern Hemisphere but there have been indications of warming at high southern latitudes."

On Jan. 25-27, 1978 the Great Blizzard of 1978 strikes the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes region incl. Ill., Ind., Ky., Mich., Ohio, and SE Wisc. (40 in. of snow) along with SW Ont., Canada, with atmospheric pressure dropping 40 millibars in 24 hours accompanyed by wind gusts of up to 100 mph and wind chills of -51C (-60F), becoming the worst blizzard in U.S. history (until ?) and the worst in Ohio history (until ?) (51 killed), with the 3rd lowest non-tropical atmospheric pressure in mainland U.S. history (until ?), reaching 956.0 millibars (28.23 in. Hg) on Jan. 26 in Mount Clemens, Mich., doing $73M damage and killing 71+.

John H. Mercer (1922-87)

On Jan. 26, 1978 Cheltenham, England-born glaciologist John H. Mercer (1922-87) of Ohio State U. pub. the article West Antarctic ice sheet and CO2 greenhouse effect: a threat of disaster in Nature mag., predicting a rapid deglaciation of West Antarctica and a 5m (16 ft.) rise in sea level after atmospheric CO2 doubles in 50 years, resulting in a collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet, causing NASA's James Hansen to coin the term "Mercer Effect".

In May 1978 the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Office of Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment pub. a Plan for Research into the Global Climate Cycle and Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide, which spawns more papers incl. The Long-Term Impact of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Climate, pub. in Apr. 1979 by JASON scientists Gordon MacDonald et al., and culiminating with The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States in Dec. 1989.

On Oct. 15, 1978 the U.S. bans the use of fluorocarbons in aerosol sprays to halt destruction of the ozone layer; Sweden joins on June 30, 1979; too bad, the U.S. law is full of loopholes and exemptions.

On Oct. 17-29, 1978 140 mph Super Typhoon Rita (Kading) begins E of the Marshall Islands, growing to typhoon strength on Oct. 20 and hitting the Philippines on Oct. 26, killing 300+ (354 missing) and causing $100M damage.

In 1978 the U.S. Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act is passed, prohibiting construction of natural gas-fired power plants and restricting new oil-fired power plants; in 1982 provisions mandating conversion of existing gas-fueled plants to coal are repealed; the act is repealed in 1987, with new power plants required to be convertible to coal, although land set-asides for coal yards are often ignored; in 1978-88 natural gas's share of U.S. electrical power generation shrinks from 14% to 9%, while coal's share grows from 44% to 57%.

In 1978 Prof. Bragi Arnason of the Univ. of Iceland proposes that Iceland become a Hydrogen Society, and the country begins the conversion to hydrogen power (fuel cells), attempting to become the Kuwait of the North.

In 1979 Leonard Nimoy narrates the TV show In Search of The Coming Ice Age, with the soundbytes: "In 1977 the worst winter in a century struck the United States. Arctic cold ripped the Midwest for weeks on end. Great blizzards paralyzed cities in the Northeast. One desperate night in Buffalo, eight people froze to death in marooned cars"; "Climate experts believe the next ice age is on its way. According to recent evidence, it could come sonner than anyone expected. According to climatologists, within a lifetime we might be living in the next ice age."

Douglas Vogt

In 1978 Am. geologist Douglas "Doug" Vogt and Gary Sultan pub. the book Reality Revealed: The Theory of Multidimensional Reality, with the ad blurb: "The first information theory of existence explains many of the hardest phenomena in the Universe such as: the causes of the ice ages, polar reversals, mass extinctions, gravity, light, pyramid energy, kirlian photography, psychic phenomena, and more!" In 1997 Vogt founds the Diehold Foundation in Jacksonville, Fla. to do research on the cause of the Ice Ages, with the soundbytes: "The purpose for the Foundations' research is to see if global warming is caused by a collapsing magnetic field on the Earth and the Sun which will eventually culminate in a geomagnetic reversal then an ice age on the Earth. Reports and videos will be made as the research progresses"; "We believe we can determine what side of the earth will be facing the sun when it novas during the next geomagnetic reversal (polar reversal)." In 2007 Vogt pub. the book God's Day of Judgment: The Real Cause of Global Warming, explaining why he's obsessed with sudden geomagnetic reversals, viz., belief in the Bible, giving his critics ammo for calling him a religious kook - he'll prove God right on Judgment Day? Watch video - Douglas Vogt. Watch video - Douglas Vogt.

On Feb. 11, 1979 The Observer pub. an article reporting that some climatologists want to spred soot over the Arctic to melt the ice and stop global cooling.

On Feb. 12-23, 1979 the First World Climate Conference is held in Geneva by the World Meteorological Org. and attended by scientists from 50 nations, who unanimously demand urgent action to stop CO2-induced global warming, resulting in the establishment of the World Climate Programme (WCP) and the World Climate Research Programme, which lead to the creation of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 after the conference pub. the conclusion: "It appears plausible that an increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can contribute to a gradual warming of the lower atmosphere, especially at higher latitudes... It is possible that some effects on a regional and global scale may be detectable before the end of this century and become significant before the middle of the next century."

On Feb. 18, 1979 snow falls in the Sahara Desert in Ain Sefra, NW Algeria ("Gateway to the Desert") for the first time in recorded history; it lasts for 30 min.; next time Jan. 20, 2017.

On Mar. 11, 1979 the Lawrence Journal World pub. the article Experts assess world's changing climate on p. 8, which contains the soundbyte: "One thing is indisputable: The world has been cooling off since World War II, something like one degree Fahrenheit. But that may be only a temporary swing in climate. Dr. J. Murray Mitchell, of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says the world has been cooling off in the long run. "On an average it's cooled down by something like one degree Fahrenheit or half-a-degree Celsius, that that cooling began around World War II."

On Mar. 26, 1979 Edward Garvey, Henry Shaw, Wallace Broecker, and Taro Takahashi of Exxon makes a proposal to help NOAA assess the greenhouse effect, actually wanting to assess the impact on Exxon's business and enhance its public relations image, acknowledging that increased atmospheric CO2 levels could be the result of fossil fuel combustion; on Nov. 19 Exxon's Henry Shaw sends a memo to H.N. Weinberg on Exxon's research on the "potential greenhouse effect", urging that Exxon participate to "influence possible legislation on environmental controls" while starting a "very aggressive defensive program"; on Jan. 29, 1980 Exxon's Walt Eckelmann sends a memo to Morey O'Loughlin, reporting that Exxon's Science and Technology Dept. views the build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere as a "potentially serious problem requiring the results of a huge world-wide research effort", detailing ongoing research efforts incl. the $600K/year program to determine whether the primary cause of atmospheric CO2 buildup is fossil fuels or forest clearing; on June 9, 1980 Exxon's H.N. Weinberg sends a memo to H. Shaw and N.R. Werthamer about Exxon's Greenhouse Program, detailing an argument over whether the oceans can act as a global carbon sink, with Weinberg claiming that the oceans can release CO2 at "the upwelling zones"; on Dec. 18, 1980 Exxon's Henry Shaw sends a memo to T.K. Kett reporting that forests are a CO2 sink, hence deforestation is partly responsible for increased atmospheric CO2 levels, and that another CO2 sink must be found, citing disputes over climate sensitivity, with the soundbyte: "General concensus [sic] will not be reached until such time as a significant temperature increase can be detected above the natural random temperature fluctuations in average global climate. The earliest that such discreet signals will be able to be measured is after the year 2000"; on Sept. 2, 1982 Exxon's Roger Cohen sends a memo to Al Natkin summarizing company climate model research, with the soundbyte that a "clear scientific consensus has emerged regarding the effects of increased atmospheric CO2." The Exxon Knew Movement that "Exxon knew about climate change" is born, although only a few of their scientists believed in it, and only a few govt. scientists? Watch video - Tony Heller.

Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81)

In May 1979 the Office of Science and Technological Policy requests the Nat. Research Council to assess the CO2 global warming issue, causing Am. meteorologist Jule Gregory Charney (1917-81) of MIT to assemble a collection of oceanographers, meteorologists and climate modelers in a mansion in Woods Hole, Mass. joined by officials from the EPA, NOAA, and the U.S. Depts. of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, and State; on July 23-27, 1979 the Ad Hoc Study Group on Carbon Dioxide and Climate is held in Woods Hole, Mass., going on in 1979 to pub. the report Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment (The Charney Report) to the Climate Research Board of the U.S. Nat. Research Council, containing the conclusion: "When it is assumed that the CO2 content of the atmosphere is doubled and statistical thermal equilibrium is achieved, the more realistic of the modeling efforts predict a global surface warming of between 2°C and 3.5°C, with greater increases at high latitudes... We estimate the most probable global warming for a doubling of CO2 to be near 3°C with a probable error of ± 1.5°C... We have tried but have been unable to find any overlooked or underestimated physical effects that could reduce the currently estimated global warmings due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 to negligible proportions or reverse them altogether"; too bad, it never mentions the Greenhouse Gas Theory of Svante Arrhenius, although it relies heavily on his work, giving him instant legitimacy?

In 1979 the Manifesto Research Group (MRG) is founded, turning into the Comparative Manifesto Project in 1989, which analyzes the climate views of 13 right-wing Euro political parties.


1980 is the first year when global warming effects become noticeable?; this year the yearly number of wildfires in Calif. reaches a peak, bottoming-out in ?

On Jan. 15-31, 1980 Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe forms NE of Mauritius and moves W-SW, passing N of Reunion and S of E Madagascar, dropping 3.3 ft. (1m) of rain on Reunion, and 239.5 in. (6.083m) of rainfail on Commerson's Crater, becoming the wettest tropical cyclone on record (until ?), destroying 2K houses and causing $167M damage.

On Feb. 14, 1980 the Solar Maximum (SolarMax) satellite is launched by NASA to monitor the Sun and its flares at an orbit of 400 mi. above the Earth; in Nov. its attitude control system fails, but it is repaired and launched by the Space Shuttle in Apr. 1984, then is destroyed by a massive solar flare on Dec. 2, 1989.

Mt. Saint Helens, Mar. 27, 1980

On Mar. 27, 1980 (Thur.) Mount St. Helens in Washington State (dormant for 123 years) erupts with ash and steam at 1.1K F; a crater forms at the summit and the N flank begins to bulge; on May 18 (8:32 a.m.) it explodes with the force of 500 A-bombs, losing over 1.3K ft. of elevation (9,677 to 8,364) and gaining a 2-mi.-long 1-mi.-wide crater; 57 people are killed or missing; 51M cu. yds. of debris is dumped into the Columbia River.

On Apr. 3, 1980 U.S. Sen. (D-Mass.) Paul Tsongas convenes the first Congressional hearing on the Greenhouse Effect (Effects of Carbon Dioxide Buildup in the Atmosphere); Gordon J.F. MacDonald (1929-2002) recommends a coordinated U.S.-U.N. energy policy, but doesn't endorse synfuels, recommending nuclear and solar; CBS-TV Evening News host Walter Cronkite makes a report on it, emphasizing alarmist fears.

In June-Sept. 1980 the 1980 U.S. summer heat wave cooks the Midwest and Southern Plains, causing massive drought that causes $20B agricultural damage and kills 1.7K; the Dallas/Fort Worth, Tex. area sees 100F+ temps a total of 69x incl. 42 straight days from June 23-Aug. 3, and 113F (45C) on June 26-28; on July 5 the More Trees Down Derecho blows in E Neb. to Va. for 15 hours, killing six and injuring 70; on July 15 the Western Wisc. Derecho kills three and causes $240M damage, becoming the largest storm damage total in Wisc. to that point. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Oct. 29-31, 1980 a 3-day conference in St. Petersburg. Fla. of 24 experts invited by the Nat. Commission on Air Quality at the request of Congress is attended by David H. Slade, dir. of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Div. of the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the U.S. Dept. of Energy, along with reps from the nuclear industry, environmental movement, and EPA, with all attendees provided copies of Charney's report; attendees agree on the need to transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, but disagree on the transition's timeline, the basic urgency of the problem, with Slade believing that evidence of anthropogenic warming might not manifest within the lifetimes of the assembled, while environmentalists argue that by the time humans detect anthropogenic warming it could be too late; the group fails to agree on a wording for the opening paragraph of their joint statement, and the war is on?

On June 30, 1980 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Energy Security Act, consisting of six major acts incl. synthetic fuels corp., biomass energy and alcohol fuels, renewable energy resources, solar energy and energy conservation, solar energy and energy conservation bank, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conservation acts, directing the Nat. Academy of Science (NAS) to fund analyses of climate change.

In 1980 the anti-nuclear energy Oko-Inst. ( Öko-Institut) of Applied Ecology of Brisgau, Germany (founded in 1977) pub. Energiewende, which calls for nuclear and fossil fuel energy to be completely abandoned; too bad, Germany bites bigtime, with the Federal Environment Ministry hosting a symposium in Berlin on Feb. 16 titled Energiewende - Nuclear Phase-Out and Climate Protection; in 1991 Germany passes a feed-in tariff, providing for payment above the market rate for using renewable energy, guaranteeing the renewable energy industry a profit, with an avg. German household paying $171 in 2011; in Sept. 2010 the German govt. pub. a key policy document outlining the plan, which is passed by the Bundestag the same month; on June 6, 2011 after Fukishima gives them a kick in the pants, the govt. takes nuclear power out of its policy's list of bridging technologies; after the 2013 federal elections bring a coalition of the CDSU/CSU and SPD, they introduce a target of a 55%-60% share of renewable energy by 2035, and greenhouse gas reductions of 80%-95% by 2050, resulting in high electricity prices.

William Nierenberg (1919-2000)

In 1980 after Congress requests the Nat. Academy of Science to review the science of climate change, Pres. Carter commissions a $1M analysis of the CO2 problem, with Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), Roger Revelle's successor at the Scripps Inst. of Oceanography as chmn. of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, and economists William D. Nordhaus of Yale U. and Thomas Schelling of Harvard U. joining major physical scientists; on Oct. 19, 1983 it announces their 500-page report Changing Climate at a gala in the Nat. Academy of Science's Great Hall, backing up the Charney conclusions of a likely global warming of 1.5C-4.5C after a doubling of CO2, greater by 2x-3x over the poles than over the tropics, with a sea level rise of 70 cm over a cent., along with massive ice melts, famines, and cannibalism, concluding that while rising CO2 is a cause for concern, no action should be taken without more study and a careful program of monitoring and analysis; global warmists later claim that climate change denier Nierenberg slanted the conclusions toward inaction, and "in doing so arguably launched the climate change debate, transforming the issue from one of scientific concern to one of political controversy." On July 25, 2017 Nordhaus and Andrew Moffat pub. the study A Study of Global Impacts of Climate Change: Replication, Survey Methods, and a Statistical Analysis, which finds that a 2C increase in avg. global temps would only damage the world economy by up to 1% by 2100, while doubling the warming would only up that to 3%.

In 1980 the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and the Internat. Council for Science (ICSU); in 1993 it is sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO; in 1989 the U.S. establishes the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), composed of 13 federal agencies with the task of issuing periodic reports about U.S. climate called the Nat. Climate Assessment; in 1995 the Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) of WCRP establishes the Coupled model intercomparison project to coordinate research on Climate models incl. Gen. circulation models (GCMs). Watch video.

Gus Speth (1942-)

On Jan. 13, 1981 UPI carries the article A Report from President Carter's environmental advisers warned Tuesday...; about a report from Pres. Carter's Council on Environmental Quality to Pres. Carter warning that CO2-driven global warming might melt Antarctice ice, raising sea levels by 5m-8m, and forcing agriculture toward the poles, with council chmn. James Gustave "Gus" Speth (1942-) uttering the soundbyte: "The carbon dioxide problem is too important and too close upon us to be safely neglected in the making of energy policy. We must begin to take the CO2 problem seriously in charting our energy future", calling the consequences of a climate change in the next 40 years "much too risky" to ignore; the report says that fossil fuel use will have to peak in the early decades of the next cent. to forestall critical changes that could come from a doubling of atmospheric CO2, but Speth adds that the obvious solution of nuclear energy is "too risky"; the report calls on the U.S. as the world's biggest energy consumer to take the lead in energy planning and develop a "philosophical and ethical perspective"; the article carries the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere permits sunlight to enter, but prevents heat from escaping into space."

On Feb. 22, 1981 UPI carries the story Global warming trend 'beyond human experience' by Edward Roby, talking about the new U.S. Dept. of Energy report Environmental and Societal Consequences of a Possible CO2-Induced Climate Change: A Research Agenda; on Feb. 23 he follows with Warming trend could 'pit nation against nation', with the soundbyte: "Future coal use by the United States, China and the Soviet Union will have an important effect on the so-called greenhouse effect."

On Aug. 22, 1981 The New York Times pub. a front-page story by Walter Sullivan titled Study Finds Warming Trend That Could Raise Sea Levels, about NASA'a James Edward Hansen and his forthcoming global warming paper in Science, conceding that the past century's warming lays within the range of historical averages but predicting the emergence of an anthropogenic global warming signal, with the soundbytes: "A team of Federal scientists says it has detected an overall warming trend in the earth's atmosphere extending back to the year 1880. They regard this as evidence of the validity of the 'greenhouse' effect, in which increasing amounts of carbon dioxide cause steady temperature increases."; "The seven atmospheric scientists predict a global warming of 'almost unprecedented magnitude' in the next century. It might even be sufficient to melt and dislodge the ice cover of West Antarctica, they say, eventually leading to a worldwide rise of 15 to 20 feet in the sea level. In that case, they say, it would 'flood 25 percent of Louisiana and Florida, 10 percent of New Jersey and many other lowlands throughout the world' within a century or less"; "Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is primarily a result of mankind's burning of fuels, is thought to act like the glass of a greenhouse. It absorbs heat radiation from the earth and its atmosphere, heat that otherwise would dissipate into space. Other factors being equal, the more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere, the warmer the earth should become, according to the theory"; "Dr. Hansen and his colleagues cite the observed surface temperatures of Mars and, particularly, Venus as support for their predicted greenhouse effect. The surface of Venus, with an atmosphere formed largely of carbon dioxide, is at about 900 degrees Fahrenheit"; "The possibility that the greenhouse effect could alter the earth's temperature has long been debated. Scientists have agreed that carbon dioxide is increasing, but disagree on whether temperatures are also increasing . The major difficulty in accepting the greenhouse theory 'has been the absence of observed warming coincident with the historic carbon dioxide increase,' the scientists wrote"; "Researchers were further confounded by an apparent cooling trend since 1940. As a result, many atmospheric scientists concluded that the climatic effects of increased carbon dioxide might not become detectable for many decades. But the Government scientists say they see clear evidence that carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution has already warmed the climate"; "Their conclusion that the climate has warmed by almost one degree in the last century is based on a re-analysis of global observations, paying special attention to the Southern Hemisphere. 'The common misconception that the world is cooling,' they say, 'is based on Northern Hemisphere experience to 1970.'" Too bad, they don't mention that the Northern Hemisphere has the most and best temperature measurement stations, and those for the Southern Hemisphere are patchy and faulty, allowing any prejudiced scientist to read-in one degree of warming in the last century.

James Edward Hansen (1941-)

On Aug. 28, 1981 after starting out in astronomy and deciding that Venus' high temperatures are due to high CO2, seeing it as a prophecy of coming doom for Earth, NASA Goddard climate scientist James Edward Hansen (1941-) et al. pub. the study Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Science, with the abstract: "The global temperature rose 0.2°C between the middle 1960s and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4°C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980s. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage"; no surprise, it recommends abandoning fossil fuels; within a few mo. Hansen is promoted to dir. of NASA's Inst. of Space Studies at Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Md. On Oct. 27, 1998 Hansen et al. pub. the paper Climate forcings in the industrial era in Proceedings of the Nat. Academy of Sciences, discussing perceived flaws in the CO2 greenhouse warming narrative and claiming to handle them, with the abstract: "The forcings that drive long-term climate change are not known with an accuracy sufficient to define future climate change. Anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are well measured, cause a strong positive (warming) forcing. But other, poorly measured, anthropogenic forcings, especially changes of atmospheric aerosols, clouds, and land-use patterns, cause a negative forcing that tends to offset greenhouse warming. One consequence of this partial balance is that the natural forcing due to solar irradiance changes may play a larger role in long-term climate change than inferred from comparison with GHGs alone. Current trends in GHG climate forcings are smaller than in popular 'business as usual' or 1% per year CO2 growth scenarios. The summary implication is a paradigm change for long-term climate projections: uncertainties in climate forcings have supplanted global climate sensitivity as the predominant issue"; "Sometimes it is argued that climate forcing due to solar variability is negligible because it is much smaller than the GHG forcing. However, a more relevant comparison is with the net forcing by all other known mechanisms. Fig. 2 suggests that this net forcing may be only ˜1 W/m2, with considerable uncertainty. Thus a solar forcing of even 0.4 W/m2 could have played a substantial role in climate change during the Industrial era. If solar irradiance is now at a relatively high level, as some evidence suggests (39), solar forcing could be negative in the coming century, thus tending to counteract GHG forcing rather than reinforcing it (Fig. 2). This emphasizes our need to monitor and understand solar variability."

On Nov. 22-24, 1981 the 1981 U.K. Tornado Outbreak sees a record 104 confirmed tormadoes touch down across England and Wales in 5 hours 26 min., becoming the largest tornado outbreak in Euro history (until ?); in Dec. 1981 the 1981-2 U.K. Cold Wave (Big Snow of 1982) begins (ends Jan.); on Jan. 10, 1982 the temperature in Harper Adams U., Edgmond, Shropshire records a low temp of -26.1C (-14.98F), becoming the lowest temperature ever recorded in England (until ?), also recrded in Newport, Telford, and Wrekin; on Jan. 10 Braemar, Aberdeenshire, Scotland records a record -27.2C (-17.0F), becoming the lowest temperature ever recorded in the U.K. (until ?);

In 1981 the CLIMAP project uses fossil plankton species to estimate ocean temps during the last Ice Age, finding that the equators remained warm.

Julian Lincoln Simon (1932-98)

In 1981 Newark, N.J. U. of Md. business admin. prof. Julian Lincoln Simon (1932-98) pub. the book The Ultimate Resource, which challenges the Malthusians, arguing that as intelligent beings, humans are capable of innovating their way out of shortages, which proves true (until ?); rev. ed. pub. in 1996 under title "The Ultimate Resource 2"; on Sept. 29, 1980 he makes the Simon-Ehrlich Wager with biologist Paul Ehrlich, betting that the prices of five metals would decrease over a decade; on Sept. 29, 1990 (payoff date) Ehrlich loses after all five commodities decline in price.

On Apr. 20, 1982 Cal Tech's Jet Propulsion Lab. pub. the article Link Between Sun's Energy Output and Earth's Weather, advancing the common sense notion that the Sun is Earth's master climate control knob, not CO2; the U.N. IPCC hadn't been established yet to hijack climate science?

John Coleman (1934-2018)

On May 2, 1982 (8:00 p.m. ET) Landmark Communications' The Weather Channel debuts on cable TV after a proposal by Alpine, Tex.-born Good Morning America weathercaster John Coleman (1934-2018) to CEO Frank Batten, with the motto "You need us for everything you do", losing $10M this year and not becoming profitable for several years; in 2007 Coleman becomes an outspoken critic of global warming, calling it the "greatest scam in history". Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - John Coleman. Watch video - anti-John Coleman.

'Blade Runner', starring Harrison Ford (1942-), 1982 Daryl Hannah (1960-) in 'Blade Runner'

On June 25, 1982 Ridley Scott's Blade Runner debuts, the first sci-fi film noir, based on the 1968 Philip K. Dick story "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep"; stars Harrison Ford and Edward James Olmos as Nov. 2019 climate-fucked LA cops Rick Deckard and Gaff, who must track down pesky "replicants", humanoid robots Daryl Hannah ("Pris"), Joanna Cassidy ("Zhora"), Brion James ("Leon Kowalski"), led by Rutger Hauer ("Roy Batty"), who are programmed to die in days and are searching for their maker Eldon Tyrell (Joe Turkel), finally getting to him through his asst. J.F. Sebastian (William Sanderson), only to discover he's a replicant too; meanwhile Deckard falls for replicant Rachael (Sean Young), and has to decide between eloping or terminating her; Deckard is a replicant?; score by Vangelis features Rachel's Song, End Theme; watch trailer; view clip; TLW's favorite sci-fi flick other than Star Trek and Star Wars; should have been set in Nov. 2049 not Nov. 2019?

Paul Jozef Crutzen (1933-)

In 1982 Dutch atmospheric scientist Paul Jozef Crutzen (1933-) and John Birks pub. The Atmosphere after a Nuclear War: Twilight at Noon, becoming the first paper to propose a possible Nuclear Winter, with the soundbyte: "Nuclear war could easily mean the destruction of not only our race, but most of the planetary life as well." In Jan. 1991 Crutzen pub. an article in the Baltimore Sun predicting nuclear winter-like effects from the Kuwait oil fires. In 1995 Crutzen shares the Nobel Prize for his work on the hole in the ozone layer, going on to become a big believer in the CO2 greenhouse warming theory and call for radical actions incl. geoengineering. In Jan. 2008 Crutzen pub. a paper announcing that nitrous oxide (N20) emissions emitted during the production of biofuels contribute more to global warming than the fossil fuels they replace.

Sherwood B. Idso (1942-)

In 1982 after claiming that climate sensitivity is only about 0.3C, and that NASA's global warming predictions are "about 10 times too great", and that global warming will have a beneficial effect on agriculture, Thief River Falls, Minn.-born physicist Sherwood B. Idso (1942-) pub. Carbon Dioxide: Friend or Foe? An inquiry into the climatic and agricultural consequences of the rapidly rising CO content of Earth's atmosphere, highlighting CO2's benefits, becoming the first anti-global warming (AGW) book; the next one doesn't appear until July 1, 1989, his Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: Earth in Transition. In 1997 he pub. Global Warming: The Science and the Politics, which contains the soundbyte: "I find no compelling reason to believe that the earth will necessarily experience any global warming as a consequence of the ongoing rise in the atmosphere's carbon dioxide concentration"; in 1998 he pub. the paper "CO2-induced global warming: a skeptic's view of potential climate change", containing the soundbyte: "Several of these cooling forces have individually been estimated to be of equivalent magnitude, but of opposite sign, to the typically predicted greenhouse effect of a doubling of the air's CO2 content, which suggests to me that little net temperature change will ultimately result from the ongoing buildup of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere." On Jan. 7, 2011 Sherwood and his son Craig Idso pub. The Many Benefits of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video.

In summer 1983 the U.S. Summer 1983 Heat Wave sees 100F+ temps in the drought-stricken Corn Belt and Upper Midwest states of Iowa, Mo., Ill., Mich., Wisc., Ind., Ohio, Minn., Neb., and Ky., along with the SE and Mid-Atlantic states; the city of St. Louis, Mo. sets up cooling centers for people without air conditioning.

On July 21, 1983 the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica records a record low ground level temp of -89.2C (-128.6F) (until ?).

On Aug. 18, 1983 small powerful 115 mph Hurricane Alicia(formed Aug. 15) hits the Tex. coast, killing 21 and causing $3B in damage, becoming the worst Tex. hurricane since Hurricane Carla in 1961; the last hurricane to hit mainland U.S. was Hurricane Allen in Aug. 1980.

In 1983 the Oak Foundation is founded in Chapel Hill, N.C. to support torture victims and single mothers, going on to fund climate change activists incl. Greenpeace, the World Resources Inst., the Environmental Law Inst., World Wildlife Fund, Oil Change Internat. et al.

Fred L. Smith Jr.

On Mar. 9, 1984 the libertarian think tank Competitive Enterprise Inst. (CEI) in Washington, D.C. is founded by lobbyist Fred L. Smith Jr. to fight against big govt., going on to lead climate change skeptics. Watch video - Fred L. Smith Jr..

On Oct. 5, 1984 the NASA Ball Aerospace Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) is launched by Space Shuttle Challenger, which can measure the greenhouse effect without relying on climate models, showing that clouds have a large cooling effect; it is deactivated on Oct. 14, 2005.

Michael G.L. Baillie

In 1984 Michael G.L. ""Mike" Baillie et al. of Queen's U. in Belfast, Northern Ireland use Irish oak trees to establish an unbroken tree-ring chronology back 7,272 years.

David H. Padden (1927-2011) Joseph Lee 'Joe' Bast (1958-)

In 1984 the libertarian-conservative think tank Heartland Inst. is founded in Arlington Heights (near Chicago), Ill. by Chicago investor David H. Padden (1927-2011), becoming known for backing free market policies before working for Philip Morris to question the health risks of second-hand smoke in the 1990s, going on in 2008 to back climate change/global warming denial, holding regular conferences and back the Tea Party; Kimberly, Wisc.-born Joseph Lee "Joe" Bast (1958-) becomes pres.-CEO #1 (until 2017), building it up to 8.3K supporters by 2015 incl. 160+ elected officials who serve on its legislative forum. Watch video - The Heartland Inst. Watch video - anti-Heartland Inst. Watch video - Joseph Bast. Watch video - Joseph Bast.

Robert Jastrow (1925-2008) Frederick Seitz (1911-2008) William Nierenberg (1919-2000)

In 1984 the George C. Marshall Inst. (GMI) is established in Arlington, Va. as a conservative think tank with a focus on science and public policy issues (esp. to back Pres. Reagan's Star Wars program AKA Strategic Defense Initiative) by NASA astronomer Robert Jastrow (1925-2008), Am. solid state physicist Frederick "Fred" Seitz (1911-2008), and Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), later becoming a major critic of climate change science; in 2015 it morphs into the CO2 Coalition.

On Jan. 1, 1985 Michael Howard "Mickey" Glantz of the U. of Colo. and Thomas R. Stewart of the NYSU Albany, working for the Nat. Defense U. pub. Expert judgment and climate forecasting: A methodological critique of “climate change to the year 2000”; "One could effectively argue that in the early 1970s the prevailing view was that the earth was moving toward a new ice age. Many articles appeared in the scientific literature as well as in the popular press speculating about the impact on agriculture of 1-2 deg C of cooling."

On Feb. 1, 1985 the town of Maybell, Moffatt County, Colo. sets a state low temp record of -61F (-51.7C).

On Mar. 22, 1985 the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is signed by 28 nations, becoming effective on Sept. 22, 1988 after ratification by 20 states, growing to 197; it doesn't contain legally binding CFC reduction goals, but creates the Meeting of Ozone Research Mgrs. to assess ozone depletion and climate change research and produce reports for the Conference of Parties.

On May 16, 1985 British scientists Joe Farman, Brian Gardner, and Jonathan Shanklin studying the South Pole pub. an article in Nature announcing the finding of an "ozone hole" the size of the U.S. in the ozone layer of the atmosphere over Antarctica, with depletion as much as 70% in austral spring, allowing dangerous UV radiation to reach the Earth's surface; too bad, "The urgency of the alarm seemed to have everything to do with the phrase 'a hole in the ozone layer', which charitably put, was a mixed metaphor. For there was no hole and there was no layer... In satellite images colorized to show density the darker region appeared to depict a void. When F. Sherwood Rowland... spoke of an 'ozone hole' in a university slide lecture in November 1985, the crisis had found its catchphrase. The New York Times used it the same day in its article about the British team's findings, and while scientific journals initially refused to use the term within a year it was unavoidable." (Nathaniel Rich)

Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) Bert Bolin (1925-2007) Gordon McBean

On Oct. 9-15, 1985 the Internat. Conference of the Assessment of the Role of Carbon Dioxide and of Other Greenhouse Gases in Climate Variations and Associated Impacts is held by the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP), the Internat. Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), and the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) in Villach, Austria, led by Canadian climatologist Fredrick Kenneth Hare (1919-2002) and Swedish meteorologist Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (1925-2007), and chaired by Canadian climatologist Gordon McBean, after which the U.N. Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases is founded by the U.N. Environment Programme, the World Meteorological Org. (WMO), and the Internat. Council of Scientific Unions, holding its last meeting in 1990 after being replaced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (founded 1988); to make sure that it wasn't completely controlled by global warming scientists, the Reagan admin. requires govt. reps to be on the panel, which ends up backfiring as it becomes a body of politicians ordering scientists what conclusions to reach? In 1975 Bolin helped the Swedish govt. pass a bill on future energy policy containing the soundbyte: "It is likely that climatic concerns will limit the burning of fossil fuels rather than the size of the natural resources", earning him a rep as the man who got the world to agree on climate. In ? McBean becomes asst. deputy minister of Environment Canada (EC), increasing the funding of climate change research (esp. climate models) so much ($6.8B in 1997-2005) that the Canadian Auditor Gen. (CAG) investigates them. On Nov. 15, 2007 Bolin pub. the semi-autobio. book A History of the Science and Politics of Climate Change: The Role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

On Dec. 10, 1985 astronomer Carl Sagan testifies before Congress, pushing the fabled greenhouse effect, with all the future IPCC talking points.

John Englander

In 1985 Am. oceanographer John Englander carries the flag of the Explorers Club on a diving expedition under the High Arctic Ice Cap, going on to become a global warming activist warning of the dangers of sea level rise, which never comes but he thinks is around the corner? On Oct. 22, 2012 he pub. the book High Tide On Main Street: Rising Sea Level and the Coming Coastal Crisis, which predicts a superstorm hitting Atlantic City, N.J. and New York City one week before Hurricane Sandy, making it a bestseller. Watch video - John Englander. Watch video - Willie Soon.

Sylvan Harold Wittwer (1917-2012) Boyd Ray Strain

In 1985 Am. agronomist Sylvan Harold Wittwer (1917-2012) and Am. biologist Boyd Ray Strain pub. the paper Carbon dioxide levels in the biosphere: Effects on plant productivity in Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, touting the benefits of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), with the soundbyte: "An increase in plant growth due to 'fertilization' of extra CO2 has not been measured, but a 5 to 15% increase may already have occurred. Current data indicate that plants growing at higher than normal CO2 levels are more tolerant of water, temperature, light, and atmospheric pollutant stresses. There are effects on carbon metabolism, plant growth and development, microbial activity, and terrestrial and aquatic plant communities." On Sept. 1, 1987 Wittwer pub. Feeing a Billion: Frontiers of Chinese Agriculture, followed by Food, Climate, and Carbon Dioxide: The Global Environment and World Food Production (Oct. 30, 1995).

On June 11, 1986 The Milwaukee Journal pub. the AP article Greenhouse effect is speeding up, with NASA's head liar, er, climate scientist James Hansen uttering the soundbyte: "The fact that the greenhouse effect is real is proven", claiming that avg. U.S. temps have risen 1-2F since 1958, and will rise 3F-4F more by 2020.

John Chafee of the U.S. (1922-99) Sir Robert Watson (1948-) Dennis A. Tirpak Joel B. Smith

On June 10-11, 1986 after Chafee utters the soundbyte: "Ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect can no longer be treated solely as scientific questions. They must be seen as critical problems facing the nations of the world, and they are problems that demand solutions", the House Subcommittee on Pollution of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee chaired by liberal U.S. Sen. (R-R.I.) (1976-99) John Lester Hubbard Chafee (1922-99) holds back-to-back hearings on CFCs and CO2, the Greenhouse Effect and its implications for public policy, featuring British atmospheric chemist Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) of NASA for CFCs, and James E. Hansen, George Woodwell, and Al Gore for CO2, after which Chafee urges the U.S. State Dept. to negotiate an internat. solution to "global warming", making the term immediately popular; the subcommittee requests the U.S. EPA to undertake studies, and in May 1989 after it commissions 55 studies by govt. and academic scientists, Dennis A. Tirpak (deputy dir. of the EPA Global Climate Change Div. in 1984-92) and Joel B. Smith of the U.S. EPA present Congress with the report The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States, which is pub. by the EPA in Dec. 1989; it concludes that warmer weather "could have an enormous impact upon human health through the 21st century", even if people acclimatize; Tirpak goes on to become a lead author of the 2007 Fourth IPCC Assessment Report; Smith goes on to become a lead author of the 2001 Third, 2007 Fourth, and 2014 Fifth IPCC Assessment Reports.

Killer lake farts? On Aug. 21, 1986 a lethal cloud of 100K-1.6M tons of invisible CO2 gas erupts from under Lake Nyos in NW Cameroon, killing 1,746 people plus 3.5K livestock, becoming the strangest disaster of the 20th cent.?; a smaller release from Lake Monoun in 1984 killed 37.

The year 1987 is the warmest on record based on studies by NASA's Goddard Inst. for Space Studies in New York, and by a team at the U. of East Anglia in Britain led by Thomas Wigley; starting this year CO2 emissions go on to constitute 50% of all atmospheric CO2 by 2014; 40% since 1990; 30% since 2000.

Joseph Robinette 'Joe' Biden of the U.S. (1942-)

On Jan. 29, 1987 U.S. Sen. (D-Del.) (1973-2009) Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden (1942-) introduces the Global Climate Protection Act for creation of a nat. climate strategy, becoming the first Senate bill dealing with climate change, directing the U.S. pres. to establish a Task Force on Global Climate to do R&D and implement a nat. strategy on global climate and deliver a U.S. Strategy on Global Climate to the U.S. pres. within a year, which he is required to report to specified members of Congress, while appointing an ambassador at large to coordinate U.S. govt. efforts in multinat. efforts to fight global warming, also requiring the U.S. pres. to give climate protection top priority in his agenda of U.S.-Soviet relations; the U.S. secy. of state is directed to promote an Internat. Year of Global Climate Protection; too bad, it doesn't pass.

On Aug. 26, 1987 the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is signed by 46 nations, effective Aug. 26, 1989, calling for a 50% reduction in the use of all substances responsible for ozone layer depletion esp. chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000; 197 U.N. members eventually ratify it; the ozone layer depletion stops by 1995, and is projected to return to 1980 levels in 2050-2070.

On Oct. 15-16, 1987 the Great Storm of 1987 rakes the U.K., France, and Channel Islands, with 135 mph winds at Pointe Du Rock, Granville, France, and 120 mph winds at Shoreham, killing 22+ in England and France.

John C. Topping

On Oct. 27, 1987 Rockefeller Repub. John C. Topping, (former EPA official under Pres. Reagan), 1986 founder of the Climate Inst. in Washington, D.C. (first NGO with the word "climate" in its name) hosts the First North Am. Conference on Preparing for Climate Change: A Cooperative Approach in Washington, D.C., backed by Big Oil fossil fuel cos. incl. BP, G.E., and the Am. Gas Assoc., featuring the usual suspects Gordon J.F. MacDonald, George M. Woodwell, and Stephen H. Schneider of NCAR (known for calling the CO2 Greenhouse Effect "one of the best established theories in atmospheric science"), becoming the largest gathering so far on the climate change subject, and the first time that climatologists and climate impact scholars meet with a broad array of policy makers from industry and govt., recruiting 250 business and environmental lobbyists to the global warming hoax, er, cause; on Dec. 6-8, 1988 the 2nd North Am. Conference on Preparing for Climate Change is held in Washington, D.C. In 1988 Topping ed. the book Preparing for Climate Change, followed in 1989 by Coping with Climate Change. In 2008 Topping, Michael C. MacCracken, and Frances Moore ed. the book Sudden and Disruptive Climate Change: Exploring the Real Risks and how We Can Avoid Them, with the killer ad blurb: "While changes in emissions and atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are projected to be slow and smooth, the intensity and impacts of climate change on the environment and society could be abrupt and erratic. Surprising and nonlinear responses are likely to occur as warming exceeds certain thresholds, inducing relatively rapid and disruptive changes in the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets, precipitation intensity and patterns, coastal inundation, the occurrence of wildfire, the ranges of plant and animal species and more."

Tim Wirth of the U.S. (1939-)

In Nov. 1987 after the U.S. Congress holds eight days of climate hearings by three committees and both chambers, U.S. Sen. (D-Colo.) (1987-93) Timothy Endicott "Tim" Wirth (1939-) (backer of Al Gore's agenda) unveils a package of legislation aimed at "converting the science of climate change into a new national energy policy".

In Dec. 1987 Time mag. names the Endangered Earth the Planet of the Year, signalling all-out acceptance of the global warming position; in Dec. 2019 it names Greta Thunberg their Person of the Year.

Maurice Strong of Canada (1929-2015) Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union (1931-) Steven Clark Rockefeller (1936-)

In 1987 the Earth Charter is created by Club of Rome members Maurice Strong (1929-2015) of Canada and Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (1931-) (Supreme Soviet chmn. in 1989-90 and Soviet Union pres. in 1990-1) to declare the fundamental values and principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society by building a global partnership, which is eventually endorsed by orgs. representing millions of people; in 1994 it becomes a civil society initiative with help from the govt. of Netherlands; in Mar. 2000 the final 2.4K-word text is approved by the Earth Charter Commission, chaired by Steven Clark Rockefeller (1936-) (later the oldest member of the trillionaire Rockefeller family) at the UNESCO HQ in Paris, and officially launched on June 29, 2000 at the Peace Palace in The Hague, with Queen Beatrix of Netherlands attending the ceremony.

In 1987 the Environmental Change Inst. is founded by Oxford U. "to organize and promote interdisciplinary research on the nature, causes and impact of environmental change and to contribute to the development of management strategies for coping with future environmental change", going on to found the U.K. Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP,, "the world's largest climate modelling experiment for the 21st century", with 350K people running climate simulations to better understand regional climate patterns, and the Global Ecosystems Monitoring Network (GEM) program in remote forest locations in South Am., Asia, and Africa.

In 1987 the Social Venture Network is founded by Joshua Mailman and Wayne Silby to network business leaders who are into environmentally sustainable business.

Yuri Izrael (1930-2014) Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920-2001) Paul Jozef Crutzen (1933-) Eugene F. Stoermer (1934-2012)

In 1987 Russian meteorologist Yuri Antonovich Izrael (1930-2014), dir. of the Russian Academy of Sciences' Inst. of Global Climate and Ecology and Russian meteorologist Mikhail Ivanovich Budyko (1920-2001), dir. of the State Hydrological Inst.'s Div. for Climate Change Research pub. the study Anthropogenic Climate Change, concluding that parts of the Northern Hemisphere would benefit from some climate change; on Oct. 30, 1998 Budyko gives the speech Global Climate Warming and Its Consequence, with the soundbyte: "On balance, it is very difficult to conclude with higher accuracy whether the projected global warming would be globally beneficial to human society or not." In 2000 Dutch atmospheric chemist Paul Jozef Crutzen (1933-) and Am. biologist Eugene F. Stoermer (1334-2012) (who coined the term in the early 1980s) pub. a paper proposing the term "anthropocene" for the current geological epoch, with the soundbyte: "To assign a more specific date to the onset of the 'anthropocene' seems somewhat arbitrary, but we propose the latter part of the 18th century, although we are aware that alternative proposals can be made (some may even want to include the entire holocene). However, we choose this date because, during the past two centuries, the global effects of human activities have become clearly noticeable. This is the period when data retrieved from glacial ice cores show the beginning of a growth in the atmospheric concentrations of several 'greenhouse gases', in particular CO2 and CH4. Such a starting date also coincides with James Watt's invention of the steam engine in 1784."

Peter Wadhams (1948-)

In 1987 British physicist Peter Wadhams (1948-) becomes dir. of the Scott Polar Inst. at Cambridge U. (until 1992), winning the W.S. Bruce Medal in 1977 and the Polar Medal in 1987 before becoming prof. of ocean physics at Cambridge U. in 1992-2015, making 40+ expeditions to the polar regions, revealing that the thick icecap covering the Arctic Ocean is beginning to thin and shrink, calling sea ice the "canary in the mine" of global climate change; on Sept. 26, 2016 he pub. the article The Global Impact of Rapidly Disappearing Arctic Sea Ice, containing the soundbytes: "Few people understand that the Arctic sea ice 'death spiral' represents more than just a major ecological upheaval in the world's Far North. The decline of Arctic sea ice also has profound global climatic effects, or feedbacks, that are already intensifying global warming and have the potential to destabilize the climate system. Indeed, we are not far from the moment when the feedbacks themselves will be driving the change every bit as much as our continuing emission of billions of tons of carbon dioxide annually"; "The most worrisome feedback involves the release of seabed methane from the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean"; "These changes represent a spiritual impoverishment of the earth, as well as a catastrophe for humanity." In Sept. 2016 he pub. the book Farewell to Ice, claiming that the retreat of sea ice in the Arctic generates feedbacks that impact the entire global climate system, accelerating the rate of warming, the rate of sea level rise, the emission of methane from the Arctic, and the occurrence of weather extremes affecting food production, arguing that catastrophic consequences cannot be avoided without making an all-out effort to develop ways of directly capturing carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere; he goes on to predict the disappearance of summer Arctic sea ice for the first time in 10K years, not in 2050 but in 2016, 2017, 2018, ... Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Peter Wadhams. Watch video - Tony Heller.


On Apr. 21-22, 1988 the U.S. House of Reps holds hearings on scientific fraud, "In which Congress takes notice, bureaucrats squirm, and scientists unwisely8 delay getting their house in order" - only to see it up close and personal on June 23 from James Hansen?

S. Ichtiaque Rasool (1930-2016) James Edward Hansen (1941-) James Edward Hansen (1941-) Tim Worth of the U.S. (1939-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-)

On June 23, 1988 after the first Goddard Inst. for Space Studies (GISS) Global Temperature Analysis is pub. in 1981, and his mentor S. Ichtiaque Rasool (1930-2016) announces a new NASA CO2 research program, with the soundbyte: "No respectable scientist would say that you already have a signal", and foreign diplomats and environmental activists get U.S. Sen. (D-Colo.) (1987-93) Timothy Endicott "Tim" Wirth (1939-) to call it, profusely sweating top NASA Goddard climate scientist James Edward Hansen (1941-) addresses a U.S. Senate subcommitee chaired by U.S. Sen. (D-Tenn.) (1985-93) Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) in a hearing on a particularly hot day with malfunctioning air conditioning (after he and Wirth sabotaged it, with Wirth telling PBS-TV's "Frontline": "We called the Weather Bureau and found out what historically was the hottest day of the summer... so we scheduled the hearing that day, and bingo, it was the hottest day in Washington, or close to it... We went in at the night before and opened all the windows so that the air conditioning wasn't working inside the room"), uttering the soundbyte that "with 99% confidence" CO2-driven global warming has already arrived, claiming a 0.5C-0.7C global warming in the past cent., with the four warmest years all in the 1980s, and the two warmest in 1981 and 1987, making him 99% sure that the Earth is the warmest since instrumental data began to be collected in 1980, that there is a clear cause-effect relationship with the Greenhouse Effect, and that global warming is steadily increasing the likelihood of freak weather incl. superstorms, concluding: "Finally, I would like to stress that there is a need for improving these global climate models, and there is a need for global observations if we're going to obtain a full understanding of these phenomena", becoming "the opening salvo of the age of climate change", supercharging the One World Govt. (OWG) types and letting them loose like a roving lion to create a new money-hungry OWG religion complete with priests, bishops, and a pope (Al Gore)?, and CO2 as their Devil?; outside the hearing room Hansen declares "The greenhouse effect is here"; in 1999 the GISS study is updated, reporting 1998 as the warmest year on record despite slight cooling in the E U.S. and W Atlantic, mainly due to the El Nino; Hansen says that coal-fired power plants with no CO2 (carbon) capture technology should be eliminated in the U.S. by 2025, and the rest of the world by 2030; this despite the problem that carbon capture takes 3x-5x as much energy as can be gained by burning the fuel, which ultimately must come from burning fossil fuels, creating more CO2?; Hansen's runaway climate predictions focus the spotlight on the Petroleum (fossil fuel) industry and its Fossil fuels lobby, turning its great benefit to humanity into something sinister, based on pie-in-the-sky future gloom and doom predictions treated as sure things, targeting it with fossil fuel divestment, causing opponents of global warming to counter with global warming conspiracy theory; in the next seven years the budget for CO2-AGW climate research zooms from $200M to $4B?; too bad, after his runaway climate predictions fall flat, and he insists on keeping his job, on Aug. 29, 2000 Hansen et al. pub. the paper Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario, admitting that the net global warming observed so far is likely due to non-CO2 gases and black carbon, because CO2 is offset by climate-cooling aerosols emitted via fossil fuel burning. On June 24, 1988 the article Global Warming Has Begun, Expert Tells Senate by Philip Shabecoff is pub. in the New York Times, containing the soundbyte: "Until now, scientists have been cautious about attributing rising global temperatures of recent years to the predicted global warming caused by pollutants in the atmosphere, known as the 'greenhouse effect.' But today Dr. James E. Hansen of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration told a Congressional committee that it was 99 percent certain that the warming trend was not a natural variation but was caused by a buildup of carbon dioxide and other artificial gases in the atmosphere. Dr. Hansen, a leading expert on climate change, said in an interview that there was no 'magic number' that showed when the greenhouse effect was actually starting to cause changes in climate and weather. But he added, 'It is time to stop waffling so much and say that the evidence is pretty strong that the greenhouse effect is here.'" On Sept. 25, 2006 Hansen et al. pub. the paper Global Temperature Change in Proceedings of the Nat. Academy of Sciences, with the abstract: "Global surface temperature has increased 0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West–East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Paci?c with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within 1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than 1°C, relative to 2000, will constitute 'dangerous' climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species" - is 1C of global avg. temp change like a $3 bill? On Dec. 5, 2006 Hansen et al. pub. the paper Dangerous human-made interference withclimate: a GISS modelE study in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, using the GISS climate data with computer climate simulations to predict the future, with the conclusion: "Our conclusion that global temperature is nearing the level of dangerous climate effects implies that little time remains to achieve the international cooperation needed toavoid widespread undesirable consequences. CO2 emissions are the critical issue, because a substantial fraction of these emissions remain in the atmosphere 'forever, for practical purposes. The principal implication is that avoidance of dangerous climate change requires the bulk of coal and unconventional fossil fuel resources to be exploited only under condition that CO2 emissions are captured and sequestered. A second inference is that remaining gas and oil resources must be husbanded, so thattheir role in critical functions such as mobile fuels can be stretched until acceptable alternatives are available, thus avoiding a need to squeeze such fuels from unconventional and environmentally damaging sources. The task is to achieve a transition toclean carbon-free energy sources, which are essential on the long run, without push-ing the climate system beyond a level where disastrous irreversible effects become inevitable." In 2008 Hansen et al. pub. the paper Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? in The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, accepting on all the worst climate Armageddon predictions on the market and concluding that atmospheric CO2 must be reduced to 350 ppm or lower by putting "a rising global price on CO2 emissions" and phasing out coal use unless CO2 is captured and sequestered. On Feb. 13, 2013 global warming scientist James A. Hansen of NASA is arrested outside the White House along with Sierra Club dir. Michael Brune, co-founder Bill McKibben, civil rights activist Julian Bond, and actress Daryl Hannah while protesting the proposed Keystone XL Pipeline. CLIMATE WISDOM FROM THE FATHER OF CLIMATE CHANGE Watch video - James Hansen. Watch video - James Hansen. Watch video - Tony Heller on James Hansen. Watch video - Tony Heller on James Hansen.

On June 27-30, 1988 the World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Security in Toronto, Canada, hosted by Canadian U.N. ambassador H.E. Stephen Lewis is attended by 300 scientists and politicians from 46 nations, who unanimously sign a communique calling the greenhouse effect and the ozone problem a present problem threatening internat. security which "are already having harmful consequences over many parts of the globe", asserting a 0.7C global temp rise in the past cent. and calling for a 20% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2005 along with a formal Plan for the Protection of the Atmosphere and a World Atmosphere Fund "financed in part by a levy on the fossil fuel consumption of industrialized countries".

In summer 1988 the Summer 1988 U.S. Heat Wave sees a drought reminiscent of the Dust Bowl years, killing 5K-17K; Yellowstone burns, and the Mississippi River nearly dries up; too bad, the U.S. Nat. Climate Assessment erases it from their graph of the 20th-21st cent. to make it seem like global warming is happening?

On Sept. 8-19, 1988 Category 5 Hurricane Gilbert, "the storm of the century" smashes into the Gulf coast, Jamaica (Sept. 12) (45 dead, $1B damage), the Yucatan Peninsula (Sept. 14), and the Mexican coast (Sept. 16), killing 318 and causing $2.98B damage, becoming the most intense tropical cyclone to strike Mexico (until ?), and deadliest hurricane of 1988.

On Sept. 26, 1988 climate experts make the claim that all 1,1916 of the Maldives Islands will drown in 30 years.

John Henry Sununu of the U.S. (1939-) Lee Atwater of the U.S. (1951-91)

On Nov. 17, 1988 pres.-elect Bush announces his choice of conservative Havana, Cuban-born Repub. N.H. gov. #75 (1983-9) John Henry Sununu (1939-) (an Arab-Am. of Lebanese extraction and Greek Orthodox faith) to be White House chief of staff #14 (Jan. 20, 1989-Dec. 15, 1991), and his Atlanta, Ga.-born campaign mgr. Harvey Leroy "Lee" Atwater (1951-91) to succeed Frank Fahrenkopf Jr. as chmn. of the Rep. Nat. Committee, becoming known for dirty tricks incl. the "jumper cable" episode, rumors that Dukakis had been treated for mental illness and his wife had burned a U.S. flag, and the Willie Horton ad smear campaign; before he dies of a brain tumor in 1991 Atwater converts to Roman Catholicism and issues written apologies; during the campaign Bush's son George W. Bush is given an office across from Atwater's to be his dad's "eyes and ears", and they become good friends; Sununu's refusal to back the 1986 proclamation condemning the U.N. resolution defining Zionism as racism causes concerns by Jews, but Bush owes him for his help in the N.H. primary; Sununu goes on to join a "policy action" group to advise Bush incl. Allan Bromley (science), Michael Biskin (economics), Dick Darman (budget), and Roger Porter (domestic policy) and convince Bush to becoming a global warming skeptic and "not commit to policies that would result in trillion dollar changes in the U.S. economy until there were then more adequate technical bases for such a position." Sununu goes on to utter the soundbytes: "The global warming crisis is just the latest surrogate for an over-arching agenda of anti-growth and anti-development. This agenda grew and gathered support in the years following World War II"; "Nature will eventually do what nature has always done. It will respond in a self-stabilizing manner over the long term with moderate variability over multi-decade periods and with occasional significant variability over the short term"; "But waiting for 'eventually' to prove the alarmists wrong is not the wisest course of action. Unfullfillable ambitions to stifle growth will devastate a world trying to deal with the complexities of economics, stability, and the environment. Quality of life depends on access to energy. Noble intentions about 'C02-free' sources of energy are not sufficient, if their agenda of eliminating coal as a source, and turning their back on nuclear, are allowed to be part of our near-term policies." Watch video - John Sununu.

Bert Bolin (1925-2007)

In 1988 after the speech by James Hansen, the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) to investigate "the risk of human-induced climate change" and provide an objective scientific view of climate change and its political-economic impacts, but actually is weighted at the outset to assume anthropogenic global climate change, with Article 1.2 restricting its mission to studying "a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods", with Swedish meteorologist Bert Rickard Johannes Bolin (1925-2007) as chmn. #1, receiving endorsement by the U.N. Gen. Assembly in Resolution 43/53; too bad, it is taken over by sinister OWG globalists of the Club of Rome et al. who want to force the rich nations to cough-up their wealth and give it to the poor nations to supposedly atone for their sins, ensuring that all nations will be poor?; they also know that CO2 is good not bad, and must be limited to keep the teeming billions from being fed to keep the pop. down?; "The aim of the IPCC is to ignore recognized standards of science, frame mankind for a nonexistent crime, and shackle human society. It's the next planned slavery. The developing countries, who will be denied cheap and reliable energy, will bear the heaviest chains." - Pierre Gosselin Watch video.

The United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization created the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988. It has now produced six increasingly long and detailed assessments of the state of climate science as well as many special reports on associated subjects. Contrary to popular belief the IPCC is not a scientific organization; it is an administrative entity consisting of delegates from governments of 195 member states. The panel organizes periodic plenary meetings to oversee the work of the IPCC bureau, a 30-member agency headquartered in Geneva that directs the working groups. They, in turn, manage the process of producing assessment reports on scientific and socioeconomic topics related to climate change according to procedures developed by the IPCC. The IPCC itself was created not by scientists but by politicians. While its operating principles declare that its reports should be “neutral with respect to policy,” in practice its conclusions must be approved by the sponsoring government delegates, and the drift towards policy advocacy has become steadily more pronounced over time.

Users of IPCC reports, especially policymakers, need to have a clear picture in mind of the kind of entity the IPCC is. Using the analogy of a courtroom it is tempting to suppose that the IPCC is like a judge who listens to both sides then renders a judgment. But a close look at its procedures and the way it has handled numerous controversies in the past suggests that a better analogy is that of an advocate or witness for a particular side. In other words, the IPCC's development and operations, especially over the past two decades, are best explained by supposing that it assembles the evidence and argumentation that serves the interests of its sponsoring entities, who are openly committed to an ambitious climate policy agenda.

In its assessment reports and other publications, the IPCC has, when confronted with conflicting evidence, consistently selected and highlighted that which supports policy action to reduce human greenhouse gas emissions. It has downplayed, and often ignored outright, scientific evidence casting doubt on the need for such action. This is not surprising once users understand the detailed structure of the IPCC, as distinct from its popular image. The IPCC is under the directional control of, and entirely dependent for funding upon, those national governments who, largely for reasons of international competitive strategy, favour immediate action to reduce human GHG emissions. Like any expert witness, the IPCC has served the interests of its clients.

- The Hand of Government in theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Jason S. Johnston

In 1988 Shell's Greenhouse Effect Working Group creates the confidential report The Greenhouse Effect, admitting that fossil fuels play a dominant role in driving greenhouse gas emissions, incl. Shell's own products, recommending that early action be taken before major changes are observed in the climate.

In 1989 only four anti-global warming (AGW) books are pub., growing to 19 in the 1990s, 15 in 2000-5, 54 in 2005-9, and 15 in 2010.

On Jan. 26, 1989 The New York Times pub. the article U.S. Data Since 1895 Fail To Show Warming Trend by Philip Shabecoff, which begins: "After examining climate data extending back nearly 100 years, a team of Government scientists has concluded that there has been no significant change in average temperatures or rainfall in the United States over that entire period. While the nation's weather in individual years or even for periods of years has been hotter or cooler or drier or wetter than in other periods, the new study shows that over the last century there has been no trend in one direction or another. The study, made by scientists for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was published in the current issue of Geophysical Research Letters. It is based on temperature and precipitation readings taken at weather stations around the country from 1895 to 1987"; no surprise, "Dr. Hansen of NASA said today that he had 'no quarrel' with the findings in the new study. He noted that the United States covered only 1.5 percent of Earth. 'If you have only one degree warming on a global average, how much do you get at random' when taking measurements in such a relatively small area, he asked rhetorically. 'We are just arguing now about whether the global warming effect is large enough to see,' he added. 'It is not surprising we are not seeing it in a region that covers only 1.5 percent of the globe.' Dr. Hansen said there were several ways to look at the temperature readings for the United States, including as a 'statistical fluke'"; how convenient that outside the U.S. there are hardly any weather stations to collect accurate data?; in 1999 James Hansen of NASA Goddard falsifies the record by shaving 0.5C off 1935 and adding it to 1998 then lying about it? Watch video - Tony Heller, t=10:38.

On June 29, 1989 Peter James Spielmann pub. the AP news article U.N. Predicts Disaster if Global Warming Not Checked, quoting senior U.N. environmental official Noel Brown that world govts. have a 10-year window of opportunity to solve the greenhouse effect before it goes runaway, else entire nations could be wiped off the face of the Earth by rising sea levels if the global warming trend is not reversed by the year 2000, and coastal flooding and crop failures would create an exodus of 'eco-refugees'; climate alarmists love the 10-year doomsday number?

1989 San Francisco Earthquake, Oct. 17, 1989 1989 San Francisco Earthquake, Oct. 17, 1989

On Oct. 17, 1989 (5:04 p.m.) the 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta (Watsonville) (San Francisco) Earthquake, centered in the Forest of Nisene Marks State Park 10 mi. NE of Santa Cruz hits the San Francisco (N Calif.) area minutes before the start of World Series Game 3, killing 63, injuring 3,757 and causing $5.6-$6B in damage; the WS is delayed for 10 days.

The Emperor Has No Clothes

On Nov. 1, 1989 M.S. Reilly, D. Arasteh, and M. Rubin of Lawrence Berkeley Lab pub. the study The Effects of Infrared Absorbing Gasses on Window Heat Transfer: A Comparison of Theory and Experiment in Solar Energy Materials, which finds experimentally that CO2 is useless in trapping heat or delaying cooling when used in multipane windows, showing up the global warming scientists who tout CO2 as a major "greenhouse gas" as the Emperor Has no Clothes, with the conclusion: "The effect of the infrared radiation properties of CO2 is unnoticeable".

On Nov. 7, 1989 the First Global Diplomatic Climate Conference in Noordwijk, Netherlands is attended by reps from 67 nations, 11 internat. orgs., and the Commission of the European Community (EC); too bad, after a stunt by activists who lower the U.S., Soviet, and Japanese flags to half-mast and use French govt. photographers to take photos that are plastered across Europe, pissing them off, the conference fails to reach a consensus, after which the fossil fuel industry mobilizes to fight the climate change lobby, leading the U.S. Senate to reject the Kyoto Protocol.

PM Margaret Thatcher of Britain (1925-2013)

On Nov. 8, 1989 chemistry-trained British Conservative PM (1979-90) Margaret Hilda Thatcher (nee Roberts) (1925-2013) (AKA the Iron Lady) gives her 1989 Speech on Climate Change to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, warning of the dangers of rising CO2 and calling for an internat. framework convention on climate change, with the aim being "to prevent rather than just cure a global environmental problem", abandoning her laissez-faire free market principles with the soundbyte that economic growth must benefit "future as well as present generations everywhere", becoming the first world leader to put climate change at the top of the global agenda; it contains the soundbytes: "I believe we should aim to have a convention on global climate change ready by the time the World Conference on Environment and Development meets in 1992. That will be among the most important conferences the United Nations has ever held. I hope that we shall all accept a responsibility to meet this timetable. The 1992 Conference is indeed already being discussed among many countries in many places. And I draw particular attention to the very valuable discussion which members of the Commonwealth had under the Mahathir bin Mohamad, Prime Minister of Malaysia's chairmanship at our recent Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Kuala Lumpur. But a framework is not enough. It will need to be filled out with specific undertakings, or protocols in diplomatic language, on the different aspects of climate change. These protocols must be binding and there must be effective regimes to supervise and monitor their application. Otherwise those nations which accept and abide by environmental agreements, thus adding to their industrial costs, will lose out competitively to those who do not. The negotiation of some of these protocols will undoubtedly be difficult. And no issue will be more contentious than the need to control emissions of carbon dioxide, the major contributor—apart from water vapour—to the greenhouse effect. We can't just do nothing. But the measures we take must be based on sound scientific analysis of the effect of the different gases and the ways in which these can be reduced. In the past there has been a tendency to solve one problem at the expense of making others worse. The United Kingdom therefore proposes that we prolong the role of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change after it submits its report next year, so that it can provide an authoritative scientific base for the negotiation of this and other protocols. We can then agree to targets to reduce the greenhouse gases, and how much individual countries should contribute to their achievement. We think it important that this should be done in a way which enables all our economies to continue to grow and develop. The challenge for our negotiators on matters like this is as great as for any disarmament treaty. The Inter-governmental Panel's work mustremain on target, and we must not allow ourselves to be diverted into fruitless and divisive argument. Time is too short for that." On Nov. 6, 1990 Thatcher follows with another 1990 Speech on Climate Change, which contains the soundbytes: "The IPCC report is a remarkable achievement. It is almost as difficult to get a large number of distinguished scientists to agree, as it is to get agreement from a group of politicians. As a scientist who became a politician, I am perhaps particularly qualified to make that observation! I know both worlds. Of course, much more research is needed. We don't yet know all the answers. Some major uncertainties and doubts remain. No-one can yet say with certainty that it is human activities which have caused the apparent increase in global average temperatures. The IPCC report is very careful on this point. For instance, the total amount of carbon dioxide reaching the atmosphere each year from natural sources is some 600 billion tonnes, while the figure resulting from human activities is only 26 billion tonnes. In relative terms that is not very significant. Equally we know that the increases of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere date from the start of the industrial revolution. And we know that those concentrations will continue to rise if we fail to act. Nor do we know with any precision the extent of the likely warming in the next century, nor what the regional effects will be, and we can't be sure of the role of the clouds. There is a continuing mystery about how atmospheric carbon, including the small extra contribution from human sources, continuing mystery about how that is being absorbed: is most of it going into the ocean, as used to be thought? Or is it being increasingly absorbed by trees or plants, of soils, especially in the northern hemisphere? These are questions that need answers, sooner rather than later. Global climate change within limits need not by itself pose serious problems—our globe has after all seen a great deal of climate change over the centuries. And it's notable that the blue-green algae which dominated the Precambrian period at the dawn of life are still major components of the marine phytoplankton today. Despite the climate changes of many millions of years, these microbes have persisted on earth virtually unchanged, pumping out life-giving oxygen into the atmosphere and mopping up carbon dioxide. The real dangers arise because climate change is combined with other problems of our age: for instance the population explosion; — the deterioration of soil fertility; — increasing pollution of the sea; — intensive use of fossil fuel; - and destruction of the world's forests, particularly those in the tropics." In 2002 Thatcher flip-flops in her autobio. Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World in the section "Hot Air and Globl Warming", which contains the soundbytes: "By the end of my time as Prime Minister I was also becoming seriously concerned about the anti-capitalist arguments which the campaigners against global warming were deploying"; "The doomsters' favourite subject today is climate change. Clearly no plan to alter climate could be considered on anything but a global scale, it provides a marvelous excuse for worldwide, supra-national socialism"; "Actually, President Bush was quite right to reject the Kyoto protocol... Kyoto was an anti-growth, anti-capitalist, anti-American project which no American leader alert to his country's national interests could have supported"; "She voiced precisely the fundamental doubts about the warming scare that have since become familiar to us. Pouring scorn on the 'doomsters', she questioned the main scientific assumptions used t o drive the scare, from the conviction that the chief force shaping world climate is CO2, rather than natural factors such as solar activity, to exaggerated claims about rising sea levels. She mocked Al Gore and the futility of 'costly and economically damaging' schemes to reduce CO2 emissions. She cited the 2.5C rise in temperatures during the Medieval Warm Period as having had almost entirely beneficial effects. She pointed out that the dangers of a world getting colder are far worse than those of a CO2-enriched world growing warmer. She recognised how distortions of the science had been used to mask an anti-capitalist, Left-wing political agenda which posed a serious threat to the progress and prosperity of mankind. In other words, long before it became fashionable, Lady Thatcher was converted to the view of those who, on both scientific and political grounds, are profoundly sceptical of the climate change ideology. Alas, what she set in train earlier continues to exercise its baleful influence to this day. But the fact that she became one of the first and most prominent of 'climate sceptics'' has been almost entirely buried from view." - Was Margaret Thatcher The First Climate Sceptic? Watch video.

Reginald E. Newell (1932-2003)

In Nov. 1989 Birmingham, England-born MIT meteorologist Reginald E. Newell (1932-2003) (known for talking the Mass. legislature into a harbor tunnel in 1969) pub. the article Has the Globe Really Warmed?, revealing that ocean surface temperature logs kept by merchant-marine captains around the world dating back to 1856 "appears to have... little or no global warming over the past century", going on to become a global warming skeptic and losing federal funding despite being considered one of the world's top meteorologists; on Aug. 12, 1990 he participates in the British documentary film The Greenhouse Conspiracy along with Richard Lindzen, Roy Spencer, Sherwood Iso, and Pat Michaels, containing the soundbyte "Man-Made Climate Change is Absolute Crap", becoming one of the first to suggest a conspiracy to deny funding to scientists critical of global warming. Watch video - Reginald E. Newell.

On Dec. 6 NOAA climate scientist Tom Karl speaks at a conference of the Am. Geophysical Union, with the soundbyte: "While global climate warmed overall since 1881, it actually cooled from 1921 to 1979"; in May 2024 Karl flip-flops, with the soundbyte: "I don't know where this information came from, but it certainly is wrong. The temperatures from 1921 to 1941 did rise rapidly but then leveled off for a few decades until the mid and late 1970s. Since then the increase has been rather consistent across the decades."

On Dec. 7, 1989 the Santa Cruz Sentinel pub. the article Debate over global warming heats up, containing the soundbyte: "'Analysis of warming since 1881 shows most of the increase in global temperature happened before 1919 - before the more recent sharp rise in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,' said Thomas Karl, of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, N.C. 'While global climate warmed overall since 1881, it actually cooled from 1921 to 1979,' Karl said. 'In spite of all the well-publicized concern about global warming, you must that there is still considerable uncertainty among scientific experts about a number of critical factors which determine global warming,' NOAA administrator John Knauss said."

The U.N. IPCC works to expand its global Marxism rule into Western private corps. from day one: In 1989 the nonprofit org. Ceres (Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies) is founded in Boston, Mass. by Trillium Asset Mgt. pres. Joan Bavaria to team with far-left environmentalists to change corporate practices toward their idea of sustainability, going on in Fa.. 1989 to announce the 10-point Valdez (Ceres) Principles 10-point code for adoption by Ceres cos., signing up Sunoco in 1993, followed by 12 more Fortune 500 cos. and 50+ more; they go on to launch the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) in 1997, which becomes the de facto std. used by 1.2K+ cos. for corporate reporting on ESE performance, the Investor Network on Climate Risk (INCR) of 100 leading institutional investors with collective assets of $10T+, which was launched at the first bi-annual U.N. Investor Summit on Climate Risk in Nov. 2003, which in 2008 was attended by almot 50 institutional investors from the U.S. and Europe representing $1.75T in assets, and released a 9-point action plan aimed at increasing energy efficiency and clean energy; on Jan. 27, 2016 the Seventh (7th) U.N. Investor Summit on Climate Risk at the U.N. HQ in New York City sees 110+ institutional investors representing $22T+ in assets set the goal of doubling global investment in clean energy by 2020.

In 1989 the Global Climate Coalition (GCC) is founded in Washington, D.C. by an internat. lobbyist group of businesses incl. Exxon, Phillips Petroleum Co., the Am. Petroleum Inst., the Nat. Coal Assoc., the Am. Forest and Paper Assoc., the Edison Electric Inst., and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce to oppose the Kyoto Protocol and challenge the science of global warming, becoming the largest climate policy group, representing over 230K businesses; too bad, in 1995 an internal advisory committee produces the 17-page report "Future Climate Change: A Primer", which admits "The scientific basis for the Greenhouse Effect and the potential impact of human emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 on climate is well established and cannot be denied", and in 1996 after a campaign by environmental groups British Petroleum (BP) withdraws, followed in 1997 by Royal Dutch Shell, Ford Motor Co. in 2000, Texaco in 1999, the Southern Co. in 2000, GM in 2000, and Daimler-Chrysler in 2000, after which it folds in 2001 after U.S. Pres. George W. Bush withdraws the U.S. from the Kyoto process, but not before gleefully posting on its Web site: "At this point, both Congress and the Administration agree that the U.S. should not accept the mandatory cuts in emissions required by the protocol."

David Bellamy (1933-2019) George Monbiot (1963-)

In 1989 English U. of Nottingham botanist-environmentalist David James Bellamy (1933-2019) (known for the soundbyte "Gwapple me gwape nuts") and English King's College London physical chemist Jack Barrett pub. the book The Greenhouse Effect, which contains the soundbyte: "The profligate demands of humankind are causing far reaching changes to the atmosphere of planet Earth, of this there is no doubt. Earth's temperature is showing an upward swing, the so-called greenhouse effect, now a subject of international concern. The greenhouse effect may melt the glaciers and ice caps of the world causing the sea to rise and flood many of our great cities and much of our best farmland"; Bellamy later flops on global warming, attributing it to natural causes not CO2, causing the PC establishment to begin snubbing him. In 1994 Barrett pub. an article in New Scientist claiming that the lowest 30m of the troposphere already contains all the CO2 necessary to absorb all the radiation reflected and emitted back by the earth's surface at most infrared wavelengths, except for the "window" between 7.5 and 14 microns, through which radiation escapes back into space, that fossil fuel burning can only result in an increase of CO2 levels to 1400 ppm, and that the most likely consequence would be flourishing vegegation not runaway global warming. In July 1990 Barrett pub. the article Grave Discrepancies Between Theory and Experiment, containing the soundbyte: "There is still argument about the magnitude of the climate sensitivity and the impossibility of doubling the carbon dioxide level." On May 2, 2007 Barrett and Bellamy pub. the paper Climate stability: an inconvenient proof in Civil Engineering, claiming to prove that even if atmospheric CO2 concentration doubles in the next decade, it "will amount to less than 1°C of global warming". In Jan. 2005 Bellamy utters the soundbyte: "Global warming is a largely natural phenomenon. The world is wasting stupendous amounts of money on trying to fix something that can't be fixed"; On June 24, 2007 Bellamy pub. the article The Global Warming Myth, containing the soundbyte: "I don't like being called a denier because deniers don't believe in facts. There are no facts linking the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide with imminent catastrophic global warming, there are only predictions based on complex computer models"; on Nov. 19, 2009 The Telegraph quotes him as uttering the soundbyte: "I'm sceptical about man-made climate change. There's absolutely no proof that carbon dioxide will kill us all. It's not a poison, it's the most important gas in the world. Carbon dioxide is an airborne fertiliser. How can farmers grow increasing amounts of food without a rise in CO2?" Too bad, he pub. a letter in New Scientist on Apr. 16, 2005 suggesting that 555 of 625 world glaciers are growing, causing English activist environmentalist George Joshua Richard Monbiot (1963-) to call him on it in a May 10 article titled Junk Science, after which he backs down and "decided to draw back from the debate on global warming", threatening his position as pres. of Plantlife Internat. and the Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts; on Nov. 18, 2014 Monbiot pub. the op-ed Growth: the destructive god that can never be appeased in The Guardian; on Oct. 20, 2017 Monbiot pub. the op-ed Insectageddon: farming is more catastrophic than climate breakdown in The Guardian; on Oct. 27, 2017 Monbiot gives an interview to Novara Media, containing the soundbyte: "The political system is completely out of phase with the environmental crisis", proposing the term "climate breakdown" to replace "climate change"; on Dec. 11, 2007 he pub. the op-ed Mass starvation is humanity's fate if we keep flogging the land to death in The Guardian, with the subtitle: "The Earth cannot accomodate our need and greed for food. We must change our diet before it's too late", concluding: "There are no easy answers, but the crucial change is a shift from an animal- to a plant-based diet"; on Sept. 26, 2018 he pub. the op-ed While economic growth continues we'll never kick our fossil fuels habit in The Guardian; on Oct. 8, 2018 Monbiot tweets the soundbyte: "But deeper than any of this are the stories we tell ourselves: that progress means growth means wellbeing. What #climatebreakdown and the rest of the environmental crisis reveal is that perpetual growth is the greatest threat to our wellbeing." On Apr. 12, 2019 Monbiot tweets the soundbyte: "We've got to go straight to the heart of capitalism and overthrow it." Watch video - David Bellamy. Watch video - David Bellamy. Watch video - David Bellamy and George Monbiot. Watch video - Ian Plimer and George Monbiot.

'The Greenhouse Trap' by John L. Daly (1943-2004)

In 1989 Tamanian amateur climate scientist John L. Daly (1943-2004) pub. the book The Greenhouse Trap: Why the greenhouse effect will not end life on earth, claiming that greenhouse gases can't cause global warming, only net solar radiation as modified by clouds, which are affected by sunspot activity; no surprise, in 2020 after he was gone the IPCC's scientists admitted that they didn't account for clouds in their GIGO computer climate models (CCMs), and instead of giving the billions they already wasted back, they put their hands out for more, starting with a $10M govt. pig trough that will probably further justify their CO2 global warming hoax.

Bill McKibben (1960-)

In 1989 Palo Alto, Calif.-born environmentalist William Ernest "Bill" McKibben (1960-) pub. the book The End of Nature, becoming the first gen. audience book on global warming, attempting to stir readers into action either via the "Defiant Reflex" or a "More Humble Way of Living"; he goes on to found and lead 5.2K simultaneous demonstrations in 2009; "If the waves crash up against the beach, eroding dunes and destroying homes, it is not the awesome power of Mother Nature. It is the awesome power of Mother Nature as altered by the awesome power of man, who has overpowered in a century the processes that have been slowly evolving and changing of their own accord since the earth was born." On July 19, 2012 McKibben pub. the article Global Warming's Terrifying New Math in Rolling Stone mag., with the subtitle: "Three simple numbers that add up to a global catastrophe - and that make clear who the real enemy is"; the numbers are 2 deg C, 565 gigatons of CO2 more to reach it, and 2,795 gigatons contained in proven reserves.


In the 1990s after ozone depletion is discovered in 1984, Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) are introduced to replace ozone-depleting cloroflurocarbons (CFCs) such as freon in refrigerators, air conditioners, and insulating foam; too bad, while the ozone shield recovers, the HFCs cause a super greenhouse effect, with 4,470x the heat-trapping power of carbon dioxide (CO2?)

In 1990 annual global CO2 emissions are 22.4B tons, rising to 35.8B in 2013 (60%).

In 1990 the solar irradiance at Earth's surface, which declined by 4%-6% since 1990 suddenly reverses.

In Mar. 1990 700+ from around the world gather for the First Internat. Ecocity Conference in Berkeley, Calif., calling for banning of chloroflourocarbons, increasing auto fuel efficiency and switching to renewable energy, preserving old-growth forests, minimizing hazardous waste production, stopping population growth, recycling, and green consumerism.

On June 27-July 2, 1990 the Painted Cave Fire in the Santa Ynez Mts. of Calif. explodes across Santa Barbara County, fed by heat, drought, and arson, destroying 427 bldgs. (most in Calif. history until ?)) from Santa Barbara to San Diego, and killin 1; Calif. Gov. George Deukmejian offers $50K rewards for arsonists, later identifying Leonard Ross as the perp; the fires cause Michael Jackson's 2.7K-acre Neverland Valley Ranch N of Santa Barbara, Calif. to be mentioned in the press for the first time; it even has a Ferris wheel.

On July 11, 1990 (2:48 p.m.) a clear sunny day suddenly ends with softball-sized hail in Denver, Colo., stripping most of the branches and all of the leaves off trees, and causing $625M in property damage to roofs and cars, incl. TLW's white Mitsubishi Galant, which is pockmarked like a golf ball; a power failure traps 47 in a Ferris wheel, causing them to be battered by the hail; the worst hailstorm in U.S. history until a worse hailstorm on July 20, 2009.

On Aug. 1-4, 1990 the 1990 U.K. Heat Wave sees highs of 37.1C (98.8F) on Aug. 3 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, breaking the 1911 record (until 2003).

David Suzuki (1936-)

On Sept. 14, 1990 Canadian environmental activist (zoologist) David Takayoshi Suzuki (1936-) co-founds the David Suzuki Foundation in Vancouver to attempt to reverse global climate change, er, global warming, adding clean energy and sustainability to the goals, along with opposition to GMOs, uttering the soundbyte: "Canada, more than any other nation, will be affected by rising sea leavels from global warming"; too bad, on Sept. 23, 2013 he gives an interview on Australia's ABC-TV, revealing complete ignorance about the main temperature data sets on which global warming theories are based, and on Feb. 2, 2016 calls for Canadian PM Stephen Harper to be jailed for "willful blindness" regarding AGW, after which on Dec. 12, 2019 at the U.N. Climate Summit in Madrid he declares: "Capitalism is at the heart of what is driving" AGW, therefore "We've got to throw the system out." Watch video - David Suzuki.

On Nov. 16, 1990 the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 is enacted by the 101st U.S. Congress, requiring research into global warming and related issues along with a report to Congress every four years, which becomes known as the Nat. Climate Assessment.

Sir John T. Houghton (1931-2020)

In 1990 the First Assessment Report (FAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub., serving as the basis of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change of June 4, 1992; it is based on the 1979 Charney Report, making Svante Arrhenius' Greenhouse Effect into settled science; Welsh evangelical Christian scientist Sir John Theodore Houghton (1931-2020) is the lead author of Working Group I, which reaches the following conclusions: "We are certain of the following: there is a natural greenhouse effect...; emissions resulting from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases: CO2, methane, CFCs and nitrous oxide. These increases will enhance the greenhouse effect, resulting on average in an additional warming of the Earth's surface. The main greenhouse gas, water vapour, will increase in response to global warming and further enhance it"; "We calculate with confidence that: ...CO2 has been responsible for over half the enhanced greenhouse effect; long-lived gases would require immediate reductions in emissions from human activities of over 60% to stabilise their concentrations at today's levels..." "Global-mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.3°C to 0.6°C over the last 100 years... The size of this warming is broadly consistent with predictions of climate models, but it is also of the same magnitude as natural climate variability.. The unequivocal detection of the enhanced greenhouse effect from observations is not likely for a decade or more"; "Based on current models, we predict: under [BAU] increase of global mean temperature during the [21st] century of about 0.3 oC per decade (with an uncertainty range of 0.2 to 0.5 oC per decade); this is greater than that seen over the past 10,000 years; under other ... scenarios which assume progressively increasing levels of controls, rates of increase in global mean temperature of about 0.2o C [to] about 0.1o C per decade"; "There is no convincing evidence of an acceleration in global sea level rising during the twentieth century. For longer periods, however, there is weak evidence for an acceleration over the last 2-3 centuries"; the FAR incl. a graph by Houghton which depicts the Medieval Warming Period, although he soon flops and backs Michael Mann's hockey stick; the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios uses statistical techniques to predict CO2 emissions for the next cent., which later turn out to be moose hockey?

In 1990 the Aspen Global Change Inst. in Aspen, Colo. is founded, "dedicated to advancing the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary workshops, research and consulting, and education and outreach."

In 1990 the Centre for Internat. Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO) at the U. of Oslo is founded by the govt. of Norway.

Richard A. Betts Sir John F.B. Mitchell (1948-) Met Office Hadley Centre

In 1990 the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research of the U.K. Met Office is established, going on to employ 1.5K staff incl. 200 in its climate research unit, incl. Richad A. Betts as head of High-End Climate Impacts and Extremes (Helix), and John Francis Brake Mitchell (1948-) as head of the Climate Change Group, rising to chief scientist in 2002-8 and dir. of climate science in 2008-10, becoming the most cited scientist on the topic of global warming, getting knighted in 2001; the climate unit goes on to develop the HadCM3 climate model, and the HadCRUT4 dataset in Mar. 2012, which is riddled with errors; in the 1990s the U.K. Met Office's Hadley Centre's temperature chart begins a clear rise, which levels off about 2000 (until ?); the result of more CO2 or cleaner air and more sunshine? Watch video - Marc Morano.

'Race to Save the Planet', 1990

In 1990 the 10-part PBS-TV series Race to Save the Planet debuts, hosted by Meryl Streep and narrated by Roy Scheider; "By the year 2000, that's less than 10 years away, the Earth's climate will be warmer than it's been in over 100,000 years. If we don't do something, there will be enormous calamities in a very short time" (Streep); watch episode.

Hal Lewis (1923-2011)

In 1990 UCSB physicist Harold Warren "Hal" Lewis (1923-2011) (student of J. Robert Oppenheimer) pub. Technological Risk, which contains the soundbyte: "All models agree that the net effect [of increasing greenhouse gases] will be a general and global warming of the earth; they only disagree about how much. None suggest that it will be a minor effect, to be ignored while we go about our business", adding that reducing the effects incl. sea level rise would "require global cooperation and sacrifice now, to avert something far in the future, and a conjectural something at that. There is no evidence in human history that this is in the cards, but one can always hope"; too bad, after 20 years of further thinking, combined with the Nov. 2009 Climategate Scandal, on Oct. 8, 2010 he writes a letter of resignation to Am. Physical Society (APS) pres. Curtis Callan, resigning after 67 years because it has been "corrupted by the money flood", which has "become the raison d'etre of much physics research, the vital sustenance of much more, and it provides the support for untold numbers of professional jobs", adding that it is "the global warming scam, with the (literally) trillions of dollars driving it, that has corrupted so many scientists, and has carried APS before it like a rogue wave. It is the greatest and most successful pseudoscientific fraud I have seen in my long life as a physicist", making him a climate denier celeb; in its Nov. 2010 newsletter the APS responds, with the soundbyte: "In his letter, Lewis speculated that Council's policy positions on climate change must be driven by financial interest, adding that Callan's own physics department 'would lose millions a year if the global warming bubble burst'. The APS press release categorically rejected the notion that APS as an organization is benefitting financially from climate change funding and further pointed out that the vast majority of the Society's members do not work on climate and derive no personal benefit from such research support"; too bad, Lewis dies on May 26, 2011 before he can properly respond.

Nasif S. Nahle

In 1990 biologist Nasif Sabag Nahle, founder of the Biology Cabinet in Nuevo Leon, Mexico et al. pub. the paper The Effects of Infrared Absorbing Gases on Window Heat Transfer: A Comparison of Theory and Experience in Solar Energy Materials, reporting that lab tests by Lawrence Berkeley Lab proving that regular air delays and traps heat better than CO2. On Apr. 27, 2007 he pub. the paper Heat Stored by Greenhouse Gases, debunking the claim of CO2 back radiation. On Sept. 1, 2007 Nahle pub. the paper Emissivity, Absorbency and Total Emittance of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in, with the intro.: "The whole idea of global warming is based on the capacity of absorption and emissivity of carbon dioxide. The gases that have an influence on the atmosphere temperature are water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and methane. Heat Transfer science demonstrates that the effect known like 'global warming' is caused by the Solar Irradiance, Interstellar Cosmic Radiation and land and oceans. The influence of carbon dioxide is negligible", concluding: "Carbon dioxide is a conveyor of energy through convection and radiation more than an accumulator of heat." On Mar. 11, 2011 he pub. the article Recycling of Heat is Impossible, claiming the inanity of global warming scientists for using contrived energy budget diagrams, starting with the soundbyte: "Some diagrams on the Earth's energy budget depicts an exchange of energy between the surface and the atmosphere and their subsystems, considering each system as if they were blackbodies with emissivities and absorptivities of 100%. This kind of analyses show a strange 'multiplication' of the heat transferred from the surface to the atmosphere and from the atmosphere to the surface which is unexplainable from a scientific viewpoint. The authors of those diagrams adduce that such increase of energy in the atmosphere obeys a 'recycling' of the heat coming from the surface by the atmosphere, as if the atmosphere-surface were a furnace or a thermos and the heat was a substance. Such 'recycling' of heat by the atmosphere does not occur in the real world by the reasons I will expose later in this paper...", and concluding with the soundbyte: "Key diagrams that purport to show the annual energy budget of Earth show a recycling in the atmosphere of the heat emitted by the surface. But they are wrong. The lengthening of the wavelength of quantum/waves emitted by the absorber systems and the decrease of their frequency inhibit any possibility of re-absorption of the absorbed energy - in the form of infrared radiation - by the same absorber once it has been emitted out from the absorber system. Additionally, this assessment confirms that the second law of thermodynamics is applicable to molecular and quantum levels. The carbon dioxide does not act like a warmer of the Earth's surface, but rather like a coolant of the Earth's surface." Nahle also claims that CO2 only retains heat for 0.1 millisec. (100 microsec.), making warming "not possible". No surprise, AGW proponents label his analysis as moose hockey, causing independent scientists to believe it more?

Carl Sagan (1934-96) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-2020)

In Jan. 1991 the Kuwaiti oil fires are set by Iraqi forces retreating from Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm of the Persian Gulf War, igniting 605-732 oil wells plus oil lakes and fire trenches; the last well is not capped until Nov. 6; meanwhile Am. astronomer Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) debates Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist-engineer Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-2020) on ABC-TV's "Nightline", with Sagan claiming that the smoke could cause a Nuclear Winter, which only requires 100 oil fires emitting smoke that rises to 48K ft., and Singer correctly claiming that the smoke would only rise to 3K ft. before being rained out in 3-5 days; in 1995 Sagan pub. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark, admitting that he was wrong, with the soundbyte: "It was pitch black at noon and temperatures dropped 4–6 °C over the Persian Gulf, but not much smoke reached stratospheric altitudes and Asia was spared."

Mount Pinatubo, June 12, 1991

On June 9-16, 1991 Mt. Pinatubo on Luzon Island in the Philippines erupts for the first time in 400 years, killing 450 (most on June 15-16), becoming the 2nd largest volcanic eruption of the cent. after Novarupta, Alaska in 1912, complicated by the arrival of Typhoon Yunya, causing tens of thousands to be evacuated, after which mudslides raise the death toll to 700; the particulates ejected into the stratosphere are the greatest since Krakatoa in 1883, forming a global sulfuric acid haze that drops global temps by 0.5C (0.9F) in 1991-3, increasing ozone depletion; volcanoes generate 200M tons of CO2 each year, vs. 24B from human activities; the eruption pumps more pollution into the atmosphere than the entire history of man? Watch video.

Alexander King (1909-2007)

On Sept. 3, 1991 Scottish scientist Alexander King (1909-2007) (co-founder of the Club of Rome) and Bertrand Schneider (1929-) pub. The First Global Revolution: A Report by the Council of the Club of Rome, a sequel to the 1972 bestseller "The Limits to Growth", claiming that time has run out and it's now or never for radical environmental actions; "The common enemy of humanity is man. In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill. All these dangers are caused by human intervention, and it is only through changed attitudes and behavior that they can be overcome. The real enemy then, is humanity itself."

David Viner

In Sept. 1991 David Viner begins working at the U. of East Anglia (UEA) Climatic Research Unit, moving after 17 years to Natural England, followed by the British Council, and Mott MacDonald in 2012; in 2000 he utters the soundbyte: "[Snowfall will become] a very rare and exciting event... Children just aren't going to know what snow is."

In 1991 Royal Dutch Shell debuts the documentary film Climate of Concern; "If the weather machine were to be wound up to such new levels of energy, no country would remain unaffected. Global warming is not yet certain, but many think that to wait for final proof would be irresponsible. Action now is seen as the only safe insurance."

In 1991 the Voluntary Human Extinction Movement is founded by Am. leftist environmentalist activist Les U. Knight, with the motto: "When every human chooses to stop breeding, Earth's biosphere will be allowed to return to its former glory."

Rush Limbaugh (1951-)

On Feb. 4, 1992 Al Gore debates conservative radio talk show host Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (1951-) on Ted Koppel's Nightline, with Limbaugh calling him an "environmentalist wacko". On Apr. 2, 2007 Limbaugh utters the soundbyte that the so-called scientific consensus on climate is "just a bunch of scientists organized around a political proposition." On Feb. 17, 2019 Limbaugh appears on Fox News Sunday, uttering the soundbytes: "Climate change is nothing but a bunch of computer models that attempt to tell us what's going to happen in 50 years or 30. Notice the predictions are never for next year or the next ten years. They're always for way, way, way, way out there, when none of us are going to be around or alive to know whether or not they were true", and "I know young people, Chris, who really think that by the time they're 65, the country, the world is not going to be habitable because of climate change, which is another hoax! There's no evidence for it", pissing-off warming scientist Kevin Trenberth, who calls it "utter nonsense." Watch video - debate part 1. Watch video - debate part 2.

Maurice Strong of Canada (1929-2015) Tim Wirth of the U.S. (1939-) Severn Cullis-Suzuki (1979-)

On June 3-14, 1992 the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (U.N. Conference on Environment and Development) is held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, producing the 27-principle Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, based on the principle of sustainable development, a Rio Declaration on Forests, the Rio (U.N.) Framework Convention on Climate Change (June 4), and the devilish Marxist globalist 40-chapter $600B Agenda 21 along with an agreement to establish a Sustainable Development Commission to monitor the progress in implementing the Rio Declaration, becoming the largest and most costly diplomatic gathering in world history to date but failing to agree on an internat. ban on whaling, followed on June 13-22 by the U.N. Conference on Sustainable Development, in which Canadian globalist Marxist U.N. bigwig Maurice Strong (1929-2015) utters the soundbytes: "We may get to the point where the only way of saving the world will be for industrialized civilization to collapse. Isn't it our responsibility to bring this about?"; "It is clear that current lifestyles and consumption patterns of the affluent middle class…involving high meat intake, consumption of large amounts of frozen and convenience foods, ownership of motor vehicles, golf courses, small electric appliances, home and work place air-conditioning, and suburban housing are not sustainable... A shift is necessary toward lifestyles less geared to environmentally damaging consumption patterns", followed by U.S. Sen. (D-Colo.) (1987-93) Timothy Endicott "Tim" Wirth (1939-) (backer of Al Gore's agenda), who utters the soundbyte: "We have got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing in terms of economic policy and environmental policy", going on to become undersecy. of state #1 for global affairs for the U.S. State Dept. in 1993-7, lead U.S. negotiator for the Kyoto Climate Conference, and pres. #1 of the United Nations Foundation in 1998-2013; activists claim that the Earth has only 10 years left to get global warming under control; U.S. deputy asst. of state Richard Benedick adds: "A global warming treaty must be implemented even if there is no scientific evidence to back the greenhouse effect"; Vancouver, Canada-born environmental activist Severn Cullis-Suzuki (1979-), daughter of environmental activist David Suzuki and 1988 founder of the Environmental Children's Org. (ECO) gives a speech at the Rio summit, containing the soundbyte: "I am afraid to go out in the sun now because of the hole in our ozone. I am afraid to breathe the air because I don't know what chemicals are in it", which becomes a viral YouTube hit, causing her to be known as "the Girl Who Silenced the World for Five Minutes"; in 2002 she founds the Internet-based think tank The Skyfish Project; meanwhile a climate skeptic conference is held in Heidelberg, Germany, resulting in the Heidelberg Appeal by Michel Salomon to be pub., signed by 492 scientists, calling on govt. to quit following "junk" environmental science for their "balanced" policies, calling it "pseudoscientific arguments or false and nonrelevant data", pissing-off the global warmists, who call it tobacco and asbestos industry agitprop, which doesn't stop it from having influence, after which Philip Morris pays APCO & Assocs. the create the Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC) in 1993, headed by Steve Milloy. In Dec. 2011 U.N. Foundation pres. Tim Wirth utters the soundbyte that Pres. Obama has a "last window of opportunity" to put in place dramatic carbon dioxide restrictions necessary to keep future warming "anywhere approaching" the 2 degree Celsius tipping point and avert catastrophic climate change, but "I don't know who and where the climate leadership in the administration is. It doesn't exist. There is no resolve in the Obama administration to do anything, and I think they look at Congress and say, 'We can't do anything, so why break our pick now?'" Watch video - Severn Suzuki. Watch video - Glenn Beck and Rosa Koire. Watch video - Glenn Beck and Rosa Koire. Watch video - Patrick Wood.

On June 4, 1992 the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is opened for signatures at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, entering into force on Mar. 21, 1994, with the objective to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system", setting non-binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions with no enforcement mechanisms.

In June 1992 U.S. Sen. (D-Tenn.) and U.S. vice-pres. candidate Al Gore pub. the bestselling book Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit , becoming the first NYT bestseller by a sitting U.S. sen. since JFK's 1956 "Profiles in Courage"; proposes a Global Marshall Plan to address global warming and other ecological issues, calling the adaptation approach to global warming a “kind of laziness, an arrogant faith in our ability to react in time to save our skins"; in 2003 the Club of Rome et al. found the Global Marshall Plan Initiative.

Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-2020) Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) Roger Revelle (1909-91) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Dennis T. Avery (1936-2020)

In summer 1992 the article "What to Do about greenhouse Warning: Look Before You leap", by Austrian-born U. of Va. physicist-engineer Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-2020) (founding dir. of the U.S. Weather Satellite Service) and electrical engineer Chauncey Starr (1912-2007) is pub. in Cosmos: A Journal of Engineering Issues, containing the soundbyte: "Drastic, precipitous - and, especially, unilateral - steps to delay the putative greenhouse impacts can cost jobs and prosperity and increase the human costs of global poverty, without being effective. Stringent economic controls now would be economically devastating particularly for developing countries", and concludes: "The scientific base for a greenhouse warming is too uncertain to justify drastic action at this time. There is little risk in delaying policy responses"; too bad, Seattle, Wash.-born geologist-oceanographer ("Father of Global Warming") Roger Randall Douglas Revelle (1909-91) adds his name to the article after Singer allegedly hoodwinks him, causing Revelle's grad student Justin Lancaster to to call Singer's actions "unethical", after which Singer sues with the support of the Center for Public Interest in Washington, D.C., receiving a letter of apology from Lancaster sans admission of wrongdoing, only to withdraw his letter in 2006 after Robert Balling et al. continue to claim that Revelle is the article's real author, while Revelle waffles until his 1991 death; on June 1, 1989 Singer pub. the book Global Climate Change: Human and Natural Influences; meanwhile in June 1992 Dem. vice-pres. candidate Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. the NYT bestseller (first by a sitting U.S. sen. since JFK's "Profiles in Courage") Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, proposing a Global Marshall Plan to save the planet. In 1997 Singer pub. the book Hot Talk, Cold Science: Global Warming's Unfinished Debate (rev. ed. Jan. 1, 2001); dares to point out that "the Emperor has no clothes" (Arthur C. Clarke). On July 1, 2002 Singer pub. the article Statistical Analysis Does Not Support a Human Influence on Climate in Energy & Environment. In Feb. 2007 Singer and Lansing, Mich.-born food policy analyst Dennis T. Avery (1936-2020) (dir. of the Center for Global Food Issues at the Hudson Inst.) pub. Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1500 Years, containing the soundbytes: "The Earth is warming but physical evidence from around the world tells us that human-emitted carbon dioxide has played only a minor role in it. Instead, the mild warming seems to be part of a natural 1,500-year climate cycle (plus or minus 500 years) that goes back at least one million years"; "Considered collectively, there is clear and convincing evidence of a 1,500-year climate cycle. And if the current warming trend is part of an entirely natural cycle, as Singer and Avery conclude, then actions to prevent further warming would be futile, could impose substantial costs upon the global economy and lessen the ability of the world's peoples to adapt to the impacts of climate change"; "Sunspots and cosmic rays have a 79 percent correlation with our thermometer record since 1860. Meanwhile the CO2 correlation is a mere 22 percent." On Sept. 9, 2007 Hannity's America airs footage of Al Gore landing in late Aug. in a fuel-inefficient private Gulfstream jet at the San Francisco airport and taking off in another fuel-inefficient town car. On Jan. 3, 2011 Singer pub. the article Estimated 40 Percent of Scientists Doubt Manmade Global Warming in the bulletin of the Nat. Assoc. of Scholars. In Aug. 2011 Singer pub. the article NIPCC vs. IPCC: Addressing the Disparity between Climate Models and Observations: Testing the Hypothesis of Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW), exposing some of IPCC's dirty laundry incl. the failure to prove a tropical tropospheric hotspot, with the soundbyte: "While AR4 now asserts to be 90-99% sure that the warming of the late 20th century is anthropogenic, they have no solid evidence to back this claim. To the contrary, their own data demonstrate the opposite. All IPCC climate models show an amplification of trends in the tropical zone, with a 'hot spot' in the upper troposphere - while the temperature data from radiosondes (both the Hadley Centre analysis and the RATPAC analysis by NOAA) do not show this feature." On Feb. 29, 2012 Singer pub. the article Climate Deniers Are Giving Us Skeptics a Bad Name in American Thinker, attempting to position himself on the fence. In 2015 he steps away from the Greenhouse Warming crowd, with the soundbyte: "I should note that I am somewhat out of step here with my fellow skeptics. Few of them would agree with me that the climate sensitivity (CS) is indeed close to zero. I will have to publish the analyses to prove my point and try to convince them. Of course, nothing, no set of facts, will ever convince the confirmed climate alarmists." On Apr. 2, 2018 Singer pub. the article Does the Greenhouse Gas CO2 Cool the Climate? in American Thinker, which concludes: "A greenhouse gas produces cooling of the climate when its molecular transitions are in a region of positive lapse rate. One example is CO2 and the stratosphere, where temperature increases with altitude. Another example is temperature over the winter poles. While the climate cooling is not obvious, it counters [conventional] GH warming. This at-least-partial cancellation might explain the puzzling absence of CO2-based GH warming in the 20th century. It could also help explain the cause of the [hotly] contested climate 'pause'. Much further work awaits!" On May 15, 2018 Singer pub. the article The Sea is Rising, but Not Because of Climate Change in The Wall Street Journal, causing a flurry of denials and rebuttals by scientists. On Feb. 8, 2019 Singer pub. the article The 1978-1997 Warming Trend Is an Artifact of Instrumentation. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - S. Fred Singer. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery. Watch video - Dennis T. Avery.

On Sept. 11, 1992 Category 4 (145 mph) Hurricane Iniki (Hawaiian "strong and piercing wind") (formed Sept. 5) hits Kauai, Hawaii, becoming the first hurricane to hit Hawaii since Hurricane Iwa in 1982, and the first major hurricane since Hurricane Dot in 1959, killing six, damaging 1.4K houses and severely damaging 5K more, causing $3.1B damage before it dissipates on Sept. 13, becoming the most costly tropical cyclone to hit Hawaii (until ?).

Patrick J. Michaels (1950-2022) Robert C. Balling Jr. (1952-) Chip Knappenberger (1964-) Oliver W. Frauenfeld Robert E. Davis (1960-)

On Oct. 15, 1992 Berwyn, Ill.-born climatologist (global warming skeptic) Patrick J. "Pat" Michaels (1950-2022) pub. Sound and Fury: The Science and Politics of Global Warming, claiming that there is no scientific foundation for a coming global warming apocalypse a la Al Gore. On Dec. 31, 1998 Michaels pub. the paper Long Hot Year: Latest Science Debunks Global Warming Hysteria for the Cato Inst. In 2000 Michaels and Ariz. State U. geography prof. Robert C. Balling Jr. (1952-) pub. The Satanic Gases: Clearing the Air About Global Warming. On Dec. 20, 2002 Michaels pub. the article Revised 21st century temperature projections along with Paul C. "Chip" Knappenberger (1964-), Oliver W. Frauenfeld, and Robert E. Davis (1960-) in Climate Research, containing the soundbyte that the Earth will see "a warming range of 1.3–3.0°C, with a central value of 1.9°C" for the 1990 to 2100 period (an analysis far smaller than the IPCC's average predictions)." In 2004 Michaels pub. Meltdown: The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians and the Media, "Patrick Michaels fully exploits his incomparable wit and credentialed expertise to dismantle the claim that catastrophic climate change is upon us. Using dozens of examples, this working-stiff climatologist exposes the exaggerations and outright falsehoods promoted by a media industry hungry for 'if it bleeds, it leads' stories." On Nov. 28, 2005 Michaels edited the book Shattered Consensus: The True State of Global Warming. On Feb. 23, 2007 Michaels pub. an article calling Al Gore's big global warming scare film "science fiction... The main point of [Gore's] movie is that, unless we do something very serious, very soon about carbon dioxide emissions, much of Greenland's 630,000 cubic miles of ice is going to fall into the ocean, raising sea levels over twenty feet by the year 2100. Nowhere in the traditionally refereed scientific literature do we find any support for Gore's hypothesis. Instead, there's an un-refereed editorial by NASA climatefirebrand James E. Hansen, in the journal Climate Change - edited by Steven Schneider, of Stanford University, who said in 1989 that scientists had to choose 'the right balance between being effective and honest' about global warming - and a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that was only reviewed by one person, chosen by the author, again Dr. Hansen. These are the sources for the notion that we have only ten years to 'do' something immediately to prevent an institutionalized tsunami. And given that Gore only conceived of his movie about two years ago, the real clock must be down to eight years! It would be nice if my colleagues would actually level with politicians about various'solutions' for climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, if fulfilled by every signatory, would reduce global warming by 0.07 degrees Celsius per half-century." On Sept. 29, 2007 Michaels gives an interview to The Washington Post, explaining why he resigned as the state climatologist of Va., with the soundbyte: "I was told that I could not speak in public.... Michaels has argued that the climate is becoming warmer but that the consequences will not be as dire as others have predicted. Gov. Kaine had warned Michaels not to use his official title in discussing his views. 'I resigned as Virginia state climatologist because I was told that I could not speak in public on my area of expertise, global warming, as state climatologist,' Michaels said in a statement this week provided by the libertarian Cato Institute, where he has been a fellow since 1992. 'It was impossible to maintain academic freedom with this speech restriction.'" On Nov. 21, 2007 Andrew Dessler pub. the soundbyte in Grist Magazine: "While some people claim there are lots of skeptical climate scientists out there, if you actually try to find one, you keep turning up the same two dozen or so (Singer, Lindzen, Michaels, Christy, etc., etc.) These skeptics are endlessly recycled by the denial machine, so someone not paying close attention might think there are lots of them out there - but that's not the case." On Sept. 23, 2009 Michaels pub. the article The Dog Ate Global Warming in National Review, containing the soundbyte: "Steel yourself for the new reality, because the [Hadley Center] data needed to verify the gloom-and-doom warming forecasts have disappeared." In 2009 Michaels and Robert Balling Jr. pub. Climate of Extremes: Global Warming Science They Don't Want You to Know. On Apr. 16, 2011 Michaels edited Climate Coup: Global Warming's Invasion of Our Government and Our Lives. In 2015 Michaels and Knappenberger pub. Global Lukewarming: A New Synthesis of Climate Change, proposing a third group after climate alarmists and climate deniers; "Climate change is real, it is partially man-made, but it is clearer than ever that its impact has been exaggerated - with many of the headline-grabbing predictions now being rendered implausible or impossible." In 2019 Michaels and Terence Kealey ed. the book Scientocracy: The Tangled Web of Public Science and Public Policy; "The public, politicians, and the media are mostly scientific ignoramuses easily fooled into believing that fake science is rock-solid science. There is an alliance driven by the money-greed of the science mandarins and the socialist dreams of the political Left. It is not an accident that the many ecological catastrophes predicted by rogue science get political support from the Left." Michaels is known for the soundbytes: "Surface temperatures are indeed increasing slightly: They've been going up, in fits and starts, for more than 150 years, or since a miserably cold and pestilential period known as the Little Ice Age. Before carbon dioxide from economic activity could have warmed us up, temperatures rose three-quarters of a degree Fahrenheit between 1910 and World War II. They then cooled down a bit, only to warm again from the mid-1970s to the late '90s, about the same amount as earlier in the century"; "It's hardly news that human beings have had a hand in the planetary warming that began more than 30 years ago. For nearly a century, scientists have known that increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide would eventually result in warming that was most pronounced in winter, especially on winter's coldest days, and a cooling of the stratosphere. All of these have been observed... The best policy is to live with some modest climate change now and encourage economic development, which will generate the capital necessary for investment in the more efficient technologies of the future"; "Probably the best solution is to do nothing, because doing nothing is doing something." Balling is known for the soundbytes: "The scientific evidence argues against the existence of a greenhouse crisis, against the notion that realistic policies could achieve any meaningful climatic impact, and against the claim that urgent action is necessary to reduce the greenhouse threat"; "Life has existed on our planet for billions of years, and the climate over that time has changed from ice ages to periods much warmer than today. There is little doubt that as our cities grow, heat waves will be more severe in the urban areas. If global warming does in fact add to the problem, we will adapt to the new world, just as humans have done for millions of years"; "All of us engage in activities that involve burning fossil fuels, and according to some self-proclaimed environmentalists we should feel guilty doing so due to the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) which can lead to ever-dreaded global warming. However, the botanical literature is full of 1,000s of articles showing that elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will be beneficial for plants throughout the world... We see the forest and we see the trees, and they both thank us for the CO2 we're adding to the atmosphere... So drive out to the forest and feel good about the CO2 coming out of your tailpipe!"; "Elevated atmospheric CO2 will produce biological miracles all over the world." Knappenberger is known for the soundbytes: "It's expected that the Arctic is going to warm more than the rest of the world. Now, does that mean it's all doom and gloom? There, I take exception to that... Some particular elements of the press like to focus on the losers – and pretend like the winners don't exist at all. But in that same annual Arctic report card from NOAA, there is plenty of good to be found there"; "The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently reached a 'milestone' of 400 parts per million (ppm). In some circles, this announcement has been met with consternation and gnashing of teeth. The proper reaction is celebration." Davis is known for the soundbytes: "The question everyone should ask is not 'Is the earth warming,' but, 'How is the warming being felt across the planet? Where is it warming? When? And by how much?' It turns out that most of the warming is occurring in the high latitudes, in the winter, and across the planet, at night"; "The temperature record at the surface is a contaminated record and urbanization needs to be factored out of that if we're going to get any kind of accurate representation of how surface temperatures have changed over the last hundred years." Frauenfeld is known for the soundbytes: "Without question, much more progress is necessary regarding our current understanding of climate and our abilities to model it"; "Only after we identify these factors and determine how they affect one another, can we begin to produce accurate models. And only then should we rely on those models to shape policy. Until that time, climate variability will remain controversial and uncertain." Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Patrick J. Michaels. Watch video - Robert C. Balling Jr.. Watch video - Chip Knappenberger.

In Oct. 1992 the Global Environment Facility (GEF) is founded to help finance internat. efforts to fight climate change and other environmental challenges, going on to provide $94B in co-financing and $18B in grants for 4.5K programs in 170 countries; too bad, a Sept. 2017 report concludes that a program started in Russia in 2010 to increase energy efficiency in building equipment and household appliances "did not achieve any GHG emission reductions", pointing to misappropriation of funds.

Henry Way Kendall (1926-99)

In Dec. 1992 former Union of Concerned Scientists chmn. Henry Way Kendall (1926-99) (1990 Nobel Physics Prize) pub. World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, a response to the June 14 Heidelberg Appeal, signed by 1.7K leading scientists incl. most Nobel Prize science laureates, starting out: "Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course", and incl. the soundbyte: "We must, for example, move away from fossil fuels to more benign, inexhaustible energy sources to cut greenhouse gas emissions and the pollution of our air and water... We must stabilize population"; in Nov. 2017 "A World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: Second Notice" is pub., signed by 15,364 scientists, calling for drastically lowering per capita consumption of fossil fuels, meat, et al., and limiting population growth, detailing 13 specific steps to transition to sustainability, becoming the most scientist cosigners for a journal article (until ?).

In 1992 the New Universal Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church is completed after nine drafts, changing the term "mortal sin" to "grave sin", adding terrorism and offenses against the environment to the sin list, and calling for a psychological analysis for sexual sins.

In 1992 the Australian Greens center-left political party is founded by environmentalists, pushing carbon taxes, tax cuts for the rich, free univ. tuition and medical care, becoming Australia's third largest political party.

William Dawbney Nordhaus (1941-)

In 1992 Albuquerque, N.M.-born Yale U. economist William Dawbney Nordhaus (1941-) pub. the paper An Optimal Transition Path for Controlling Greenhouse Gases, which introduces the Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy (DICE) Model. In 1993 Nordhaus pub. the book Reflections on the Economics of Climate Change. On Oct. 4, 1994 he pub. the book Managing the Global Commons: The Economics of Climate Change, which makes him a global warming/climate change star. On Aug. 11, 2003 he pub. the book Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming, describing his DICE-99 (Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate-Economy) and RICE-99 (Regional Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate-Economy) models of the economics of climate change. On June 24, 2008 he pub. the book A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies, which becomes a std. work. On Nov. 26, 2013 Nordhaus edits the book Economics and Policy Issues in Climate Change (Resources for the Future). In Nov. 2013 he pub. the book The Climate Casino: Risk, Uncertainty, and Economics for a Warming World, calling coal the #1 cause of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), calling for a $40/ton carbon tax (which would result in 3.5C global warming?). On June 16, 2017 he pub. an article in the book Global Carbon Pricing: The Path to Climate Cooperation. In 2018 Nordhaus is awarded the 2018 Nobel Econ. Prize for "integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis". In June 2019 Nordhaus pub. the article The Empty Radicalism of the Climate Apocalypse in Issues in Science and Technology. Nordhaus's methods are fatally flawed? Watch video - William Nordhaus. Watch video - William Nordhaus.

Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber (1950-)

In 1992 the Potsdam Inst. for Climate Impact Research (PIK) is founded by the German govt. and German physicist Hans-Joachim "John" Schelnhuber (1950-), an expert on climatological tipping points, who becomes dir. in 1993, going on to propose the 2C guardrail for global warming in 1995 and grow PIK to one of the world's top climate research institutes (300+ employees) before moving to the Tyndall Centre in 2001-5 and returning to the U. of Potsdam in time to see his Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) be jointly awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. On Mar. 15, 2017 pub. an interview with "Father of the 2C Limit" Schellnhuber, in which he "urges scientists to come out of their ivory towers to fight climate denial", adding: "We are at the crossroads now... We will end up with a planet warming by 4, 5, 6 or even 12 deg C. It would be the end of the world as we know it." On Aug. 19, 2018 the German online newspaper Augsburger Allgemeinen pub. an interview with Schellnhuber, in which he utters the soundbyte: "On Earth, ice ages and warm periods have alternated for millions of years. We have shown in studies that the industrial society, with its historic greenhouse gas emissions, has already interrupted this cycle and there will probably never be another ice age. So my colleagues and I brought up the question: Can our climate system be stabilized in the currently prevailing warm period state, or are we putting planetary processes in motion that are driving us into a hot period? The difference is, roughly speaking, the continued existence of civilization as we know it. With a long-term increase in temperature of five or six degrees and a sea level of around 60 meters, it will not be possible maintain it", receiving criticism from climate skeptics for his cluelessness.

In 1992 English climate scientist Chris Folland (1944-) of the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre utters the soundbyte about the 1990 IPCC Report: "The data doesn't matter. We're not basing our recommendations on the data. We're basing them on the climate models"; in 2014 after the quote is spread over the Internet by climate warming skeptics, he confirms it but claims that since 1995 the data began coming in and the models are no longer as important.

Edward Osborne Wilson (1929-) Elizabeth Kolbert (1961-)

In 1992 Harvard entomologist ("Father of Sociobology and Biodiversity") Edward Osborne "E.O." Wilson (1929-) pub. the book The Diversity of Life, which claims that the Earth is losing 30K species/year (3/hour), launching the concept of the Sixth Extinction, with the soundbyte: "The sixth great extinction spasm of geological time is upon us, grace of mankind. Earth has at last acquired a force that can break the crucible of biodiversity. The creation of that diversity came slow and hard: 3 billion years of evolution to start the profusion of animals that occupy the seas, another 350 million years to assemble the rain forests in which half or more of the species on earth now live. There was a succession of dynasties." Too bad, when environmental activist Tim Keating of Rainforest Relief was asked if he could name any of them he replies: "No we can't, because we don't know what those species are. But most of the species we're talking about in those estimates are things like insects and even microorganisms.” In 2014 The New Yorker journalist Elizabeth Kolbert (1961-) pub. the book The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History (Pulitzer Prize), a climate alarmist hit predicting that humans are next, starting with 20%-50% of "all living species on earth" by 2100. On Mar. 7, 2016 Wilson pub. the book Half-Earth: Our Planet's Fight for Life, which buys the Sixth Extinction narrative bigtime, blaming humans for turning the Holocene into the Anthropocene, with the bold conclusion: "The only solution to the 'Sixth Extinction' is to increase the area of inviolable natural reserves to half the surface of the Earth or greater. This expansion is favored by unplanned consequences of ongoing human population growth and movement and evolution of the economy now driven by the digital revolution. But it also requires a fundamental shift in moral reasoning concerning our relation to the living environment"; on May 14, 2017 Kamran Nayeri pub. the article How to Stop the Sixth Extinction: A Critical Assessment of E. O. Wilson's Half-Earth on

In 1992 the documentary film The Greening of Planet Earth: The Effects of Carbon Dioxide on the Biosphere is released, produced by the Greening Earth Society (Inst. for Biospheric Research), a front for the Western Fuels Assoc., and narrated by Sherwood Idso, praising rising CO2 levels as beneficial to agriculture and life itself while and knocking govt. policies designed to lower them, becoming popular with the George H.W. Bush admin. esp. chief of staff John H. Sununu; in 1998 the sequel "The Greening of Planet Earth Continues" is released. Watch Pt. 1. Watch Pt. 2.

On Jan. 28, 1993 Jonathan D. Kahl, Donna J. Charlevoix, Nina A. Zaftseva, Russell C. Schnell, and Mark C. Serreze pub. the paper Absence of evidence for greenhouse warming over the Arctic Ocean in the past 40 years in Nature mag., with the abstract: "We do not observe the large surface warming trends predicted by models; indeed, we detect significant surface cooling trends over the western Arctic Ocean during winter and autumn. This discrepancy suggests that present climate models do not adequately incorporate the physical processes that affect the polar region."

In early Mar. 1993 the U.S. East Coast is smothered in the No Name Superstorm (AKA Storm of the Cent.) , causing a 12-ft. storm surge in Taylor County, Fla. along with 11 tornadoes in Fla., moving N and becoming a historic blizzard, affecting 26 states and killing 218; watch video.

In Apr.-Oct. 1993 the Great Mississipi/Missouri River Flood floods 30K sq. mi., killing 32 and causing $15B damage, becoming the worst since the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 (until ?).

U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton (1946-) U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton (1946-)

In 1993 Dem. U.S. pres. #42 (1993-2001) William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (Bythe III) (1946-) proposes a BTU Tax on all fuel sources based on their heat content, except for wind, solar, and geothermal; it passes the House but dies in the Senate; many House Dems. who lose their seats in the 1994 midterm election blame it on voting for it, causing the term "getting BTUd" to be coined.

Soviet Pres. Mikhail S. Gorbachev (1931-)

In 1993 after he let the looted and pillaged Soviet Union fall, Green Cross Internat. is founded by Soviet pres. (1990-1) Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (1931-) to take communism global via a global propaganda machine giving cover to communists looting many nations in the name of fighting climate change; Global Green USA is the U.S. arm.

In 1993 the multinat. Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), led by Indian scientist Veerabhadran Ramanathan discovers anthropogenic atmospheric brown clouds covering the Indian Ocean, finding that they cause surface cooling that masks as much as 50% of the surface heating caused by CO2 and reduce precipitation during the Indian monsoon.

William 'Will' Happer (1939-) Harrison H. Schmitt (1935-) Steve Koonin (1951-)

In 1993 Princeton U. physicist William "Will" Happer (1939-), dir. of energy research at the U.S. Dept. of Energy (in charge of a $6B annual budget, the world's largest funder of physical science research) testifies before Congress that the scientific data doesn't support the hypothesis of anthropogenic global warming, pissing-off Al Gore, who gets him fired, after which in 2008 Happer utters the soundbyte: "I had the privilege of being fired by Al Gore, since I refused to go along with his alarmism. I did not need the job that badly"; on Feb. 25, 2009 he speaks to the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, uttering the soundbyte: "I believe that the increase of CO2 is not a cause for alarm and will be good for mankind. I predict that future historians will look back on this period much as we now view the period just before the passage of the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution to prohibit 'the manufacturing, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors.' At the time, the 18th amendment seemed to be exactly the right thing to do – who wanted to be in league with demon rum? It was the 1917 version of saving the planet. More than half the states enacted prohibition laws before the 18th amendment was ratified. Only one state, Rhode Island, voted against the 18th amendment. Two states, Illinois and Indiana, never got around to voting and all the rest voted for it. There were many thoughtful people, including a majority of Rhode Islanders, who thought that prohibition might do more harm than good. But they were completely outmatched by the temperance movement, whose motives and methods had much in common with the movement to stop climate change. Deeply sincere people thought they were saving humanity from the evils of alcohol, just as many people now sincerely think they are saving humanity from the evils of CO2. Prohibition was a mistake, and our country has probably still not fully recovered from the damage it did. Institutions like organized crime got their start in that era. Drastic limitations on CO2 are likely to damage our country in analogous ways"; he goes on to declare that there is a CO2 drought. On Mar. 2, 2009 Happer pub. the article Global Warming in Perspective: A Note from William Happer, In June 2011 Happer pub. the paper The Truth About Greenhouse Gases, containing the soundbyte: "CO2 does indeed cause some warming of our planet, and we should thank Providence for that, because without the greenhouse warming of CO2 and its more potent partners, water vapor and clouds, the earth would be too cold to sustain its current abundance of life. Other things being equal, more CO2 will cause more warming. The question is how much warming, and whether the increased CO2 and the warming it causes will be good or bad for the planet"; he also utters the soundbyte that "the demonization of carbon dioxide is just like the demonization of the poor Jews under Hitler." On May 8, 2013 Happer and former NASA astronaut (geologist) and U.S. Sen. (R-N.M.) (1977-83) Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (1935-) pub. the op-ed article In Defense of Carbon Dioxide in The Wall Street Journal, arguing that "The demonized chemical compound is a boon to plant life and has little correlations with global temperature", pissing-off the AGW true believers and causing the Columbia Journalism Review to call the article "shameful, even for the dismal standards" of the WSJ (journalism standards or scientific standards?); Happer later gives an interview claiming that "temperature always changes first, and CO2 follows", there has been no global temp increase since 1998, and "A thousand parts per million of CO2 would actually help the planet... If you look around the world, many greenhouse operators put several thousand parts per million into their greenhouses"; he later utters the soundbyte: "There's a whole area of climate so-called science that is really more like a cult... it's like Hare Krishna or something like that. They're glassy-eyed and they chant. It will potentially harm the image of all science"; "The hated 'deniers' are right. I don't see a whole lot of difference between the consensus on climate change and the consensus on witches. At the witch trials in Salem, the judges were educated at Harvard. This was supposedly 100 percent science. The one or two people who said there were no witches were immediately hung. Not much has changed." In 2017 Happer meets with new Pres. Trump to discuss being appointed as his science adviser, and is appointed on Sept. 4, 2018 by John Bolton to draft an executive order creating a Pres. Committee on Climate Security to rein-in climate alarmists in the federal govt., hiring former Obama admin. undersecy. for science in the U.S. Energy Dept. (2009-11) Steven E. "Steve" Koonin (1951-) to help him create a committee to scrutinize the science underlying the Nov. 2017 National Climate Assessment and make "the science more transparent and explicit" to form a skeptical but credible second opinion to send to the private National Academy of Sciences for review; too bad, the committee is killed in Oct. 2019, causing Happer to leve the Trump admin.; on Mar. 18, 2019 140+ scientists and scientific orgs. pub. a letter of support. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer. Watch video - Will Happer.

In 1993 the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Research Station in Gakona, Alaska is established to develop ionospheric enhancement technology for radio communications and surveillance; conspiracy theorists claim that it can be used to modify weather and cause catastrophes incl. the 2010 Haiti Earthquake; in 2018 Indian environmental minister Anil Madhav Dave accuses the U.S. govt. of using it to cause global warming and reduce yields of major crops incl. wheat and maize.

Steven R. Donziger (1961-)

In 1993 Am. anti-Big Oil activist atty. Steven R. "Steve" Donziger (1961-) leads a legal team filing a class-action lawsuit against Texaco (bought by Chevron in 2001) for pollution in their Lago Agrio Oil Field in Ecuador, which began production in 1973, winning $18B in damages for 30K+ farmers and natives, which are later reduced to $9.5B, causing Chevron to move its assets out of Ecuador, making collection almost impossible after the U.N. Permanent Court of Arbitration rules in 2018 that the judgment was marred by fraud and corruption; meanwhile Chevron strikes back with a U.S. RICO lawsuit in 2011, which causes Donziger to be disbarred in N.Y. in 2018, then put under house arrest on Aug. 2019 for contempt of court for refusing to turn over certain electronic devices, which ends in a guilty verdict and 6 mo. jail sentence in Oct. 2021; in 2020 21 Nobel laureates sign a petition calling Chevron's actions "judicial harassment"; in Apr. 2021 six members of the Dem.-run U.S. Congressional Progressive Caucus demands that the U.S. Dept. of Justice review Donziger's case; in Sept. 2021 the U.N. high commissioner for human rights rules that Donziger's pre-trial detention was illegal, calling for his release.

In 1993 the InterAcademy Panel: The Global Network of Science Academies (IAP) is founded by 106+ nat. science academies to advise the public on scientific aspects of critical issues through its Gen. Council, which meets every 3rd year, going on to pub. official statements incl. pop. growth (1994), the future of cities (1996), sustainability (2000), human cloning (2003), access to scientific info. (2003), biosecurity (2005), the teaching of evolution (2006), ocean acidification (2009), tropical forests and climate change (2009), and the IPCC (2010); in 2002 it founds the InterAcademy Council (IAC).

On Apr. 8, 1994 The Canberra Times pub. the article Sunspots linked to global warming: Gases not dominant factor, which starts out: "Sunspots, rather than 'greenhouse' gases from the burning of fossil fuels, may be responsible for the rise in global temperatures in the past 200 years, it was claimed on Wednesday. Astronomers at Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland have studied meteorological records going back to 1795, which point to a strong link between air temperatures on Earth and solar activity. Dr. John Butler, who presented the results at the European and National Astronomy Meeting in Edinburgh, said: "It looks as though carbon dioxide [the principal greenhouse gas] has not been the most dominant factor in global warming for the past 200 years... However, Dr. Butler said, 'Carbon dioxide may well become dominant in future.'"

Kerry Emanuel (1955-)

In 1994 MIT meteorologist Kerry Andrew Emanuel (1955-), known for his novel method of computer modeling that did a reasonable job of simulating past hurricane fluctuations proposes the hypercane, a superpowerful hurricane that could form if the avg. sea temp increases another 15C, making him a rising star among global warming scientists. In Aug. 2005 he pub. a paper in Nature finding that cyclones have become more destructive over the past 30 years, with long-lived and more intense storms; in early Sept. he follows with another paper in Nature that concludes that modern cyclones are stronger but less common than 35 years ago, which, combined with Hurricane Katrina in Aug. 2005 make him a superstar. In May 2008 he pub. the paper The Hurricane-Climate Connection in Bulletin of the Am. Meteorological Society, predicting that global warming is likely to increase the intensity but reduce the frequency of hurrricane and cyclone activity, with the soundbyte: "The weight of available evidence suggests that multidecadal variability of hurricane season tropical Atlantic SST and Northern Hemispheric surface temperature... is controlled mostly by time-varying radiative forcing owing to solar variability, major volcanic eruptions, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases, though the response to this forcing may be modulated by natural modes of variability", making him a bigger star, after which his co-author Gabriel Vecchi of NOAA utters the soundbyte: "While his results don't rule out the possibility that global warming has contributed to the recent increase in activity in the Atlantic, they suggest that other factors - possibly in addition to global warming - are likely to have been substantial contributors to the observed increase in activity." In Nov., 2013 he co-authors an open letter with James Hansen, Tom Wigley, and Ken Caldeira, stating that "continued opposition to nuclear power threatens humanity's ability to avoid dangerous climate change." "The hurricanes are following the tropical ocean temperature.... [which] is following the Northern Hemisphere. And it's very hard now to believe that there's anything natural about that." (Emanuel) Watch video - James Hansen, Tom Wigley, Kerry Emanuel, Ken Caldeira.

In 1994 M.E. Schlesinger and Navin Ramankutty pub. the paper An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65-70 years in Nature, identifying the Atlantic Multidecal Oscillation (AMO), irregular cyclical temperature changes in the Atlantic, which are used by climate skeptics to explain away any greenhouse gas effect.


On Jan. 1, 1995 a 61-ft.-high Draupner Wave (rogue wave) is observed via satellite in the Bermuda Triangle, supposedly solving the mystery; in Feb. a pair of rogue waves up to 95 ft. high hit the Queen Elizabeth II, injuring 50 passengers.

David Deming (1954-) David John Karoly (1955-)

On June 16, 1995 Terre Haute, Ind.-born U. of Okla. geophysicist David Deming (1954-) pub. a paper in Science reviewing published analysis of borehole temperature data in North Am., concluding: "The magnitude of the observed warming... is still within the range of estimated natural variability... A cause and effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and climatic warming cannot be demonstrated unambiguously at the present time", pissing-off global warmists; in 1998 he adds that worldwide borehole temperature records are not anomalously warm "when compared to the period of time over which human civilization rose, present day temperatures are colder than average. Even if mean global temperature were to rise another degree, it would still be colder than it has been for much of the last 10,000 years." In Mar. 2005 he pub. an op-ed in Investor's Business Daily, comparing Naomi Oreskes' claim of 100% scientific consensus on global warming "to the October 2002 election in Iraq, where Saddam Hussein received 100% of the vote", dissing a Dec. 26, 2004 op-ed by Oreskes in the Washington Post in which she wrote the soundbyte "We need to stop repeating nonsense about the uncertainty of global warming" and ending with a quotation from Francis Bacon: "If we begin in certainty, we will end in doubts." On Dec. 6, 2006 he testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works, with the soundbyte: "The amount of climatic warming that has taken place in the past 150 years is poorly constrained, and its cause - human or natural - is unknown. There is no sound scientific basis for predicting future climate change with any degree of certainty. If the climate does warm, it is likely to be beneficial to humanity rather than harmful. In my opinion, it would be foolish to establish national energy policy on the basis of misinformation and irrational hysteria." On Mar. 1, 2007 Deming debates Australian-born U. of Okla. meteorology prof. David John Karoly (1955-), uttering the soundbyte: "[S]ome people want to enlist science in a moral crusade. Science is a disinterested search for truth... Global warming is a scientific question, not a moral one... The projection that the temperatures are becoming warmer is nothing more than speculation." On Dec. 19, 2007 he pub. an op-ed in The Washington Times titled "Year of Global Cooling", containing the soundbyte: "In 2007, hundreds of people died, not from global warming, but from cold weather hazards", adding that "The mean planetary temperature hasn't increased significantly for nearly nine years", and concluding that "Global warming has long since passed from scientific hypothesis to pseudo-scientific mumbo-jumbo."

On July 12-16, 1995 the 1995 Chicago, Ill. Heat Wave peaks, with a high of 106F (41C) on July 13 (warmest since 100F/43C on July 23, 1934), causing 739 deaths, mostly elderly who can't afford air conditioning; additional deaths occur in St. Louis, Mo. and Milwaukee, Wisc.

'Waterworld', 1995

On July 28, 1995 Kevin Reynolds' Waterworld (Universal Pictures) ("A man with a serious drinking problem") debuts, gobbling up $172M in production and causing star Costly Kevin, er, Kevin Costner to call in his chips, becoming known as Fishtar and Kevin's Gate; stars Costner as man-fish Mariner, who helps the good human survivors of global flooding, esp. his babe Jeanne Tripplehorn look for Dryland while fighting Dennis Hopper's mean Smokers on a floating set anchored off Hawaii that is once lost during a tropical storm; does $264.2M box office; it could be the best or the worst sci-flick yet made, wait till the secondary markets are milked?; view trailer.

Will Alexander (1924-)

In Aug. 1995 South African U. of Pretoria U.N. scientist William John Richard "W.J.R." "Will" Alexander (1924-) pub. the peer-reviewed article Floods, droughts and climate change in South Africa Journal of Science; in Jan. 2004 he pub. the article Climate Change - There is no Need for Concern in The Water Wheel, concluding: "The general conclusion, therefore, is that global warming has not caused any environmental damage in South Africa in the past, and that future increases in global warming are more likely"; on Mar. 1, 2005 he pub. the peer-reviewed article Linkages Between Solar Activity and Climatic Responses in Energy & Environment, claiming that "statistically significant 21-year periodicity is present concurrently in South African annual rainfall, river flow, flood peak maxima, groundwater levels, lake levels and the Southern Oscillation Index. This is directly related to the double sunspot cycle. The first years of the periodic sequences are characterised by sudden, regular and therefore predictable, reversals from sequences of well below average rainfall and river flow (droughts) that are suddenly broken by sequences of well above average events (floods). These reversals are directly related to corresponding six-fold increases in sunspot activity at this time. The two sunspot cycles that comprise the double sunspot cycle also have fundamentally different effects on the hydrometeorological responses. These observations are solidly based and will require a re-assessment of the nature of the solar activity that gives rise to them"; in Feb. 2007 she pub. the peer-reviewed article Locally-Developed Climate Model Verified, describing his climate model for water resource development and mgt. based on a 21-year periodicity, pissing-off the PC global warmist scientists at the South African Nat. Biodiversity Inst., who claim it wasn't peer-reviewed to slam him; in June 2007 he co-authors the paper Linkages between solar activity, climate predictability and water resource development, in Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, detailing linkages between solar activity, climate predictability, and water resource development, with the soundbyte: "This study is based on the numerical analysis of the properties of routinely observed hydrometeorological data which in South Africa alone is collected at a rate of more than half a million station-days per year, with some records approaching 100 continuous years in length. The analysis of the data demonstrates an unequivocal synchronous linkage between these processes in South Africa and elsewhere, and solar activity. This confirms observations reported by others in many countries during the past 150 years. It is also shown with a high degree of assurance that there is a synchronous linkage between the statistically significant, 21-year periodicity in these processes and the acceleration and deceleration of the sun as it moves through galactic space. Despite a diligent search, no evidence could be found of trends in the data that could be attributed to human activities", which draws stony silence. In Dec. 2007 he pub. the article The IPCC: Structure, Processes and Politics Climate Change – the Failure of Science in Energy & Environment, containing the soundbyte: "The IPCC has been in existence for nearly 20 years but its final report is newhere in sight. The essence of the difficulty is the impossibility of applying process theory to a problem that can only be solved by applying observation theory. Nowhere in the world is process theory used to design systems and structures exposed to climatic extremes. If climate change scientists had applied well-established observation theory instead of abstract process theory, they would have studied the wealth of published climate-related data extending back for more than the past 100 years. They would have observed the unequivocal linkage between variations in solar activity and synchronous climatic responses. The nations of the world would not be in the position where they are debating the necessity for implementing costly, and in all likelihood fruitless, greenhouse gas emissions control measures based on seriously flawed science. These measures must inevitably damage their economies and the reputation of science as an honest profession." In June 2008 he pub. the article The likelihood of a global drought in 2009-2016 in Civil Engineering, which draws stony ditto at a summit on climate change in Midrand in early Mar. 2009, after which on Mar. 26, 2009 he pub. the article Climate change - the clash of theories, lamenting the closed minds of the U.N. climatologists, with the soundbyte: "The whole climate change issue is about to fall apart - Heads will roll." List of articles by Will Alexander.

Helmut Metzner (1925-99) Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-2020)

On Nov. 9-10, 1995 a conference in Leipzig, Germany organized by German plant physiologist Helmut Metzner (1925-99) produces the Leipzig Declaration on Global Climate Change, written by Austrian-born Am. physicist Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-2020) and his Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEP) (founded 1990) in Arlington, Va., and signed by 80 scientists and 25 TV meteorologists, opposing the claims of global warming; in 1997 it is updated to opppose the Kyoto Protocol after a conference on Nov. 10-11 in Bonn, Germany; in 2005 it is revised again; global warming advocates call it a disinfo. campaign.

Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) Phil Jones (1952-), Ben Santer (1955-), and Tom Wigley (1940-) Benjamin David Santer (1955-)

On Nov. 27-29, 1995 the Second (2nd) Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is approved by the 5th session of IPCC Working Group I in Madrid, Spain, and pub. in 1996, dropping attempts at making forecasts, with the soundbyte: "Carbon dioxide remains the most important contributor to anthropogenic forcing of climate change; projections of future global mean temperature change and sea level rise confirm the potential for human activities to alter the Earth's climate to an extent unprecedented in human history; and the long time-scales governing both the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the response of the climate system to those accumulations, means that many important aspects of climate change are effectively irreversible"; too bad, after the key scientists who authored the report approve it, sections were eliminated by the global Marxist politician overlords "to ensure that it conformed to a policymakers' summary of the full report", incl. altering a key graph to suggest a human influence not suggested in the scientists' version, and adding fake evidence to support the CO2-driven global warming hoax, all pissing-off Frederick Seitz, who calls the report "the most corrupted peer-review process", demanding that his name be removed from the report; Working Group III pub. Summary for Policymakers, causing an uproar when it seems to put a money value on people, suggesting that people living in poor countries are worth less than people living in rich countries; meanwhile Am. scientist Charles David Keeling (1928-2005) of the Mauna Loa Observatory reports that the annual spring-time carbon dioxide drop in the N Hemisphere is occurring earlier each year in response to increasing global CO2 levels, lengthening the overall growing season about 12 days in recent decades; by 2005 it is a full month; "I honestly believe that we are standing at the edge of a very, very large mass extinction, and top-of-mountain species are going to be the first ones to go" (Terry Root, Stanford U.); too bad, overzealous CRU scientist Benjamin David "Ben" Santer (1955-) is lead author of Chapter 8: "Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Causes", rewriting the conclusions of the other authors in their final draft meeting in Madrid, changing "None of the studies cited above has shown clear evidence that we can attribute the observed [climate] changes to the specific cause of increases in greenhouse gases" and "While some of the pattern-base discussed here have claimed detection of a significant climate change, no study to date has positively attributed all or part of climate change observed to man-made causes" to: "There is evidence of an emerging pattern of climate response to forcing by greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols... from the geographical, seasonal and vertical patterns of temperature change... These results point toward a human influence on global climate" and "The body of statistical evidence in chapter 8, when examined in the context of our physical understanding of the climate system, now points to a discernible human influence on the global climate", taking the IPCC report over the top with the public as proof of a scientific consensus about human-caused climate change after a quick peer-reviewed article is pub. in Nature on July 4, 1996 by Santer, Tom Wigley, Phil Jones et al. backing up the report, with Dennis Avery and Fred Singer issuing the soundbyte: "Santer single-handedly reversed the 'climate science' of the whole IPCC report and with it the global warming political process! The 'discernible human influence' supposedly revealed by the IPCC has been cited thousands of times since in media around the world and has been the 'stopper' in millions of debates among nonscientists"; after the Climategate scandal breaks, Santer sends an email threatening to beat the crap out of Pat Michaels for exposing the fraud in an article in Nature he pub. on Dec. 12, 1996? On July 21, 2018 Santer et al. pub. an article in Science, dissing the U.S. Congress for failing to acknowledge human-caused global warming, and announcing that four decades of satellite data have led to the conclusion that for the first time humans are pushing seasonal temperatures out of balance, giving odds of "roughly 5 in 1 million" of it being purely natural - how about 100 trillion to 1, tax dollars bilked from suckers, that is? Watch video - Ben Santer. Watch video - Ben Santer.

Keith R. Briffa (1952-2017)

In 1995 dendrochronologist Keith R. Briffa (1952-2017) of the U. of East Anglia Hadley Climate Research Unit pub. a paper attempting to frame the Medieval Warming Period as containing the coldest year of the millennium; too bad, it is later found that the paper relies on only three tree ring from the Polar Urals. On Apr. 18, 2012 B. Christiansen and F.C. Ljungqvist of the Danish Meteorological Inst. pub. the paper The extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere temperature in the last two millennia: reconstructions of low-frequency variability, confirming that the climate was warmer 1K years ago despite Michael Mann's hockey stick graph, with the soundbyte: "We present two new multi-proxy reconstructions of the extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90° N) mean temperature: a two-millennia long reconstruction reaching back to 1 AD and a 500-yr long reconstruction reaching back to 1500 AD. .. The two-millennia long reconstruction shows a well defined Medieval Warm Period, with a peak warming ca. 950–1050 AD reaching 0.6 °C relative to the reference period 1880–1960 AD. "

Piers Corbyn (1947-)

In 1995 English weather-forecasting physicist Piers Richard Corbyn (1947-), brother of British Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn founds WeatherAction to sell weather predictions based on his secret Solar Weather Technique which considers past weather patterns and solar observations, and Sun-Earth magnetic connectivity; in 1990 his successful prediction of severe weather makes him a star when it becomes a year of "the worst extremes"; he goes on to deny anthropogenic global warming, with the soundbytes: "CO2 has never driven, does not drive and never will drive weather or climate. Global warming is over and it never was anything to do with CO2. CO2 is still rising but the world is now cooling and will continue to do so", "Climate change is a hoax by gravy-train scientists", "Superfloods, hellish heat is normal, sellout science is not", and "The global warming nonsense will collapse." Watch video - Piers Corbyn. Watch video - Piers Corbyn. Watch video - Piers Corbyn. Watch video - Piers Corbyn.

Nothing starts or moves, everything breaks? On Jan. 6-9, 1996 a record blizzard hits the E coast of the U.S., dumping 30.7 in. of snow on Philly, 20.6 in. on New York City, and 18.2 in. on Boston.

Jonathan Patz

On Jan. 17, 1996 Am. physician Jonathan Patz pub. the paper Global Climate Change and Emerging Infectious Disease in the Journal of the Am. Medical Assoc., becoming the first climate policy paper of the Am. Public Health Assoc. (APHA), going on to become a global warming star salesman, scaring people with stories of stranded polar bears, thriving poison ivy, yellow fever, Zika virus, sewer overflow et al., all the while pushing American guilt and confusing global warming with air pollution?; he goes on to claim that the health benefit for each ton of CO2 eliminated is $200, vs. $30/ton for doing it; on Oct. 2, 2017 he gives a lecture at Colo. State U. in Fort Collins titled Solving the Global Climate Crisis Will Be the Health Cure of the Century. Watch video - Jonathan Patz. Watch video - Jonathan Patz.

Murry Salby (1951-)

On May 23, 1996 U. of Colo. atmospheric scientist Murry Lewis Salby (1951-) pub. the textbook Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics, followed in 2011 by Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate, questioning anthropogenic climate change, with the soundbyte: "Because of the saturation effect in the energy absorption of CO2 molecules with increasing concentration and short residence time, the further increase in temperature could be therefore only at most a few tenths of a degree, if at all. However, the known fossil reserves would be exhausted by then"; too bad, in 20015 after his findings cast doubt on the U.N. IPCC global warming bureacracy, the Nat. Science Foundation begins framing, er, investigating him for funding irregularities, causing him to resign in 2008 and move to Macquarie U., only to be fired in 2013 after hosting the conference Global Emission of Carbon Dioxide: The Contribution from Natural Sources at the Sydney Inst. on Aug. 2, 2011. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby. Watch video - Murry Salby.

'The Arrival', 1996

On May 31, 1996 David Twohy's The Arrival (Orion Pictures) debuts, starring Charlie Sheen as radio astronomer Zane Zaminsky, who discovers evidence of intelligent ETs trying to raise Earth's temperature with CO2 emissions, becoming a victim of a conspiracy; Teri Polo plays his babe Char; Lindsay Crouse plays NCAR climatologist Ilana Green (a land of green?); does $14M on a $25M budget, becoming a cult film; watch trailer; watch movie.

In Dec. 1996 the 1996 El Nino develops (ends Aug. 1997), bringing unusually warm (4C) water to the South Am. coastline.

Thomas Sowell (1930-)

In 1996 Gastonia, N.C.-born African-Am. economist Thomas Sowell (1930-) pub. the book The Vision of the Anointed: Self-Congratulation as a Basis for Social Policy, about how liberals try to build utopias and block evidence of failure to keep expanding, resorting to ridicule and shaming of conservative critics warning of serious side effects instead of logical argument; the anointed U.N.-backed global climate clique is a case in point? On Jan. 5, 2010 Sowell pub. the book Intellectuals and Society, expounding on "the fatal misstep of intellectuals", viz., their assumption that superior ability within some superspecialist subject gives them superior wisdom and morality in everything, causing these "idea workers" to manufacture public demand for more of themselves by making alarming predictions about economics, nat. defense, and the environment incl. climate change, ending up exercising profound influence on public opinion and policy makers even though they are not only regularly wrong but personally unaccountable for the results, using their "undue influence" and "vulgar pride" to cause disaster for societies. On Apr. 1, 2010 he pub. the article Don't use word 'science' to halt global warming debate in Deseret News, with the soundbytes: "Nothing is easier than coming up with computer models that prove almost anything. Back during the 1970s, there were computer models predicting mass starvation and global cooling. The utter failure of those predictions ought to make us at least skeptical of computer models, especially computer models based on data that advocates want to keep from public view or even 'lose' when investigators start closing in"; "On climate issues, as on many other issues, the biggest argument of the left has been that there is no argument. The word 'science' has been used as a magic mantra to shut up critics, even when those critics have been scientists with international reputations as specialists in climate science"; "Stealing the aura of science for political purposes is nothing new for the left. Karl Marx called his brand of Utopianism 'scientific socialism.' Even earlier, in the 18th century, the Marquis de Condorcet referred to 'engineering' society. In the 20th century, H.G. Wells referred to the creation of a lasting peace as a heavy and complex 'piece of mental engineering'"; "Genuine science is the opposite of dogmatism, but that does not keep dogmatists from invoking the name of science in order to shut off debate. Science is a method of analysis, rather than simply a set of conclusions. In fact, much of the history of science is a history of having to abandon the prevailing conclusions among scientists in light of new evidence or new methods of analysis"; "Educators who turn schools into indoctrination centers have been going all out to propagandize a whole generation with Al Gore's movie, 'An Inconvenient Truth' - which has, in fact, carried a message that has been very convenient for Gore financially, producing millions of dollars from his 'green' activities." Watch video - Thomas Sowell on Al Gore. Watch video - Thomas Sowell.


Robert W. Felix (-2021)

On Jan. 1, 1997 Am. architect Robert W. Felix (-2021) pub. Not by Fire but by Ice: Discover What Killed the Dinosaurs...and Why It Could Soon Kill Us, with the ad blurb: "Forget global warming. The next ice age could begin any day. Beginning with the dinosaur extinction of 65 million years ago, Not by Fire but by Ice explores the relationship between mass extinctions, ice ages, and geomagnetic reversals (times when compasses would have pointed south instead of north)." On Jan. 1, 2008 Felix pub. Magnetic Reversals and Evolutionary Leaps: The True Origin of Species.

William Sebastian Cohen of the U.S. (1940-)

On Apr. 28, 1997 U.S. defense secy. #20 (1997-2001) William Sebastian Cohen (1940-) utters the soundbyte that some nations have created eco-terrorism weapons that "can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves... "So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations, It's real, and that's the reason why we have to intensify our counter-terrorism efforts."

In Apr.-May 1997 after extreme temperatures and abundant snowfall, the 1997 Red River Flood of the Red River of the North in Minn., N.D., and S Manitoba causes $3.5B damage and no deaths, becoming the river's most severe flood since 1826.

Arthur B. Robinson (1942-) Frederick Seitz (1911-2008)

On Dec. 11, 1997 the Kyoto Protocol is signed by 192 parties incl. all U.N. member states except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan, and the U.S., effective Feb. 16, 2005, extending the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) committing all parties to reduce greenhouse emissions esp. CO2, while giving a pass to India and Red China; opening remarks offered by FCCC's Environment Program Executive Director Maurice Strong who organized the first U.N. Earth Climate Summit (1992) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil expressed an underlying priority very candidly: “We may get to the point where the only way of saving the world will be for industrialized civilization to collapse. Isn't it our responsibility to bring this about?”; "Strong left no doubt about where to place blame for global problems, stating in the conference report: “It is clear that current lifestyles and consumption patterns of the affluent middle class… involving high meat intake, consumption of large amounts of frozen and convenience foods, ownership of motor vehicles, golf courses, small electric appliances, home and work place air-conditioning, and suburban housing are not sustainable…A shift is necessary toward lifestyles less geared to environmentally damaging consumption patterns”; former U.S. Senator Timothy Wirth (D-CO), then representing the Clinton-Gore administration as U.S undersecretary of state for global issues, joined Maurice Strong in addressing the Climate Summit audience he said: “We have got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing in terms of economic policy and environmental policy.” (Wirth now heads the U.N. Foundation which lobbies for hundreds of billions of U.S. taxpayer dollars to help underdeveloped countries fight climate change.); ;also speaking at the Rio conference, Deputy Assistant of State Richard Benedick, who then headed the policy divisions of the U.S. State Department, agreed that the Kyoto Protocol should be approved whether i t had anything to do with climate change or not: “A global warming treaty must be implemented even if there is no scientific evidence to back the [enhanced] greenhouse effect”; in 1998 the Oregon Petition AKA the Global Warming Petition Project, organized by Chicago, Ill.-born biochemist Arthur Brouhard "Art" Robinson (1942-), pres. of the Ore. Inst. of Science and Medicine in Cave Junction, Ore. (founded in 1980), and endorsed by Am. solid state physicist Frederick Seitz (1911-2008), pres. #17 of the U.S. Nat Academy of Sciences in 1962-9 is launched, and signed by 31,487 Am. scientists incl. 9,029 with doctorates by Oct. 2019, urging the U.S. to reject the Kyoto Protocol, with the soundbytes: "This treaty is, in our opinion, based upon flawed ideas. Research data on climate change do not show that human use of hydrocarbons is harmful. To the contrary, there is good evidence that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is environmentally helpful"; "There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth"; "The proposed agreement would have very negative effects upon the technology of nations around the world, especially those that are currently attempting to lift from poverty and provide opportunities to over 4 billion people in technologically undeveloped countries"; "The proposed limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind"; the U.S. Congress unanimously agrees with the advice, while the EU continues to back the Kyoto Protocol.

Jeremy Grantham (1938-)

In 1997 billionaire British investor Robert Jeremy Goltho Grantham (1938-), founder of Grantham, Mayo & van Otterloo (GMO) establishes the Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment, giving money to entities that protect the environment; in 2017 he launches the GMO Climate Change Fund to invest in wind and solar cos.; Grantham goes on to correctly predict the bursting of the bubble in 2000 and the market downturn in 2008 while seeing his assets under mgt. drop $124B in June 2014 to $71B in Mar. 2018; no surprise, on June 12, 2018 he gives a speech at the Morningstar Investment Conference in Chicago, Ill. calling on capitalists and mainstream economists to recognize the looming threat of climate change, with the soundbyte: "We deforest the land, we degrade our soils, we pollute and overuse our water and we treat air like an open sewer, and we do it all off the balance sheet", blaming corps. for short-sightedness, with the soundbytes: "Anything that happens to a corporation over 25 years out doesn't exist for them, therefore, as I like to say, grandchildren have no value", and "Capitalism and mainstream economics simply cannot deal with these problems. Mainstream economics largely ignore them"; in Aug. 2018 he pub. the paper The Race of Our Lives Revisited, which contains the ridiculous alarmist soundbyte: "The number of floods is up by 15 times from 2005, the deaths from droughts up by 10 times, wildfires by 7 times, and extreme temperature events by 20 times"; they later issue a correction that it was 1950 not 2005, although those numbers are wrong? Watch video - Jeremy Grantham.


1998 is the warmest year on Earth since record-keeping began in 1880, with an avg. temp. for the first 10 mo. of 1.25 deg. F above normal, according to NASA, blamed on the weather phenomenon known as El Nino (Niño) (warmer water than usual), which formed in the C and E equatorial Pacific in the first half of the year, disrupting worldwide weather patterns and feeding Millennium Fever with wildfires in Indonesia, Brazil, and Central Am., crop losses in SE Africa, record rains in the S U.S., the warmest spring in Canadian records, and the worst natural diaster in Latin Am. records (Hurricane Mitch); Jan.-Feb. are the warmest and wettest in U.S. records; the global avg. temp. this year is 14.57 C, compared to 14.0 C avg. from 1960-90; high sea temps cause massive coral bleaching in the Seychelles, Maldives and W Australian coral reefs, although coral bleaching has been happening for 400 years, and was far worse in the 1750s and 1890s? In 1998 (hockey stick year) the Global Warming Pause (Hiatus) (Slowdown) begins (ends 2013), causing global warming proponents to do somersaults until NOAA scientists Thomas R. Karl et al. pub. the article Possible artifacts of data biases in the recent global surface warming hiatus in Science on June 4, 2015, claiming that the hiatus disappears after the datasets are "adjusted", which doesn't phase climate deniers, who claim it as more evidence of a govt. conspiracy. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - Anthony Watts. Watch video - The Corbett Report. Watch video - ABC Science. Watch video - Robert Fanney. Watch video. Watch video - Jay Lawrimore. Watch video. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch vidoe - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller.

On Jan. 4-10, 1998 after a low pressure system stalls over the Great Lakes, pumping warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico into the St. Lawrence Valley, the Great North Am. Ice Storm of 1998 sees five successive ice storm hit a narrow swath of land from E Ontario to S Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, bordering U.S. areas from N New York to C Maine, damaging trees and electrical infrastructures, leading to long-term power outages that affect millions, causing the largest deployment of Canadian military personnel since the Korean War (16K incl. 12K in Quebec and 4K in Ontario).

In Jan. 1998 Tom Segalstad of the U. of Oslo pub. the paper Carbon cycle modelling and the residence time of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric CO 2: on the construction of the "Greenhouse Effect Global Warming" dogma, which contains the soundbyte: "IPCC's 'Greenhouse Effect Global Warming' dogma rests on invalid presumptions and a rejectable non-realistic carbon cycle modelling which simply refutes reality, like the existence of carbonated beer or soda 'pop' as we know it."

On Feb. 13, 1998 (Fri.) BBC News pub. the article Scientists blame sun for global warming, about a meeting of the Am. Assoc. for the Advancement of Science in Philly where climatologists and astronomers attribute global warming to changes in sunspot activity rather than CO2, and speculate on a coming mini ice age.

On Feb. 23-24, 1998 another Pacific storm hits the Cuyama River Basin in Sunny Southern Calif., spawning flash floods, mudslides, tornadoes in Long Beach, Huntington Beach et al., killing seven; San Francisco records its wettest Feb. ever (until ?), with 14.89 in. of rain (13.68 in. in Los Angeles) - it never rains where?

Rod Serling on Climate Change Hockey Stick Graph Michael E. Mann (1965-) Willie Soon (1966-) Sallie Baliunas (1953-) Chris de Freitas (1948-2017) Edward Wegman (1943-)

Man-made global warming or Mann-made global warming? On Apr. 23, 1998 Am. climatologists Michael Evan Mann (1965-) (Penn. State U.), Raymond S. "Ray" Bradley, and Malcolm K. Hughes pub. the article Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries in Nature, proposing the Hockey Stick Graph based on reconstructions of the temp record on Earth over the past 600 (later 1K years), showing an abrupt rise in temps over the last 150 years, ramping up the Global Warming Controversy over whether there is a coming runaway heat wave; Mann had a newly-minted doctorate that was "rushed through" so he could be appointed lead scientist of the IPCC?. Mann's graph hides the Medieval Warm Period of 950-1250, and later Mann and Katherine Hayhoe work together to erase it from history to make modern times look exceptional?; on Jan. 31, 2003 Malaysian-born Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics aerospace engineer Wei-Hock "Willie" Soon (1966-) and Harvard-Smithsonian astrophysicist Sallie Louise Baliunas (1953-) pub. the paper Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years in Climate Research, blasting Mann's hockey stick, with the soundbytes: "Our results suggest a different interpretation of the multiproxy climates compared to recent conclusions of Mann et al. (1998, 1999, 2000)", "Our current lack of understanding of the Earth's climate system does not allow us to determine reliably the magnitude of climate change that will be caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, let alone whether this change will be for better or for worse", and "Across the world, many records reveal that the 20th century is probably not the warmest or a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium", which is quickly adopted by the Pres. G.W. Bush admin. as a basis for amending the first EPA Report on the Environment, causing a firestorm of controversy causing 10 of 20 editors to resign and German-born publisher Otto Kinne (1923-2015) to cut the authors loose and blame the ed. who passed the paper, Trinidad and Tobago-born Kiwi climate scientist Christopher Rhodes "Chris" de Freitas (1948-2017), who on May 9, 2006 pub. an article in the New Zealand Herald with the soundbyte: "There is evidence of global warming. The climate has warmed about 0.6 °C in the past 100 years, but most of that warming occurred prior to 1940, before the post World War II industrialisation that led to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions. But warming does not confirm that carbon dioxide is causing it. Climate is always warming or cooling. There are natural variability theories of warming"; de Freitas also writes the soundbytes: "I am not a global warming skeptic. I accept that rising human-caused CO2 from fossil sources could 'change the climate'. The basic physics is there to support this view. But where is the evidence that the putative change would be large or damaging?" and "Climate is not responding to greenhouse gases in the way we thought it might. If increasing carbon dioxide is in fact increasing climate change, its impact is smaller than natural variation. People are being misled by people making money out of this"; Mann tries to cover up tree ring proxy data calculations by Keith Briffa at the Climate Research Unit (CRU) of the U. of East Anglia that showed a steady temperature decline?; Mann covered up an r-squared statistical test that showed his hockey stick shape to be incorrect?; no surprise, Mann suggests that Harvard U. punish Soon and Baliunas; on June 5, 2001 Baliunas pub. the paper Climate History and the Sun, containing the soundbyte: "But is it possible that the particular temperature increase observed in the last 100 years is the result of carbon dioxide produced by human activities? The scientific evidence clearly indicates that this is not the case … measurements of atmospheric temperatures made by instruments lofted in satellites and balloons show that no warming has occurred in the atmosphere in the last 50 years. This is just the period in which humanmade carbon dioxide has been pouring into the atmosphere and according to the climate studies, the resultant atmospheric warming should be clearly evident." On Jan. 31, 2003 Soon and Baliunas pub. the paper Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 2000 years in Climate Research, with the abstract: "The 1000 yr climatic and environmental history of the Earth contained in various proxy records is reviewed. As indicators, the proxies duly represent local climate. Because each is of a different nature, the results from the proxy indicators cannot be combined into a hemispheric or global quantitative composite. However, considered as an ensemble of individual expert opinions, the assemblage of local representations of climate establishes both the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period as climatic anomalies with worldwide imprints, extending earlier results by Bryson et al. (1963), Lamb (1965), and numerous intervening research efforts. Furthermore, the individual proxies can be used to address the question of whether the 20th century is the warmest of the 2nd millennium locally. Across the world, many records reveal that the 20th century is probably not the warmest nor a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium", which they follow with the Mar. 31, 2003 press release 20th Century Climate Not So Hot, which starts out: "A review of more than 200 climate studies led by researchers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics has determined that the 20th century is neither the warmest century nor the century with the most extreme weather of the past 1000 years. The review also confirmed that the Medieval Warm Period of 800 to 1300 A.D. and the Little Ice Age of 1300 to 1900 A.D. were worldwide phenomena not limited to the European and North American continents. While 20th century temperatures are much higher than in the Little Ice Age period, many parts of the world show the medieval warmth to be greater than that of the 20th century", pissing-off the IPCC crowd and resulting in the Soon and Baliunas Controversy. On May 9, 2003 Baliunas speaks out against U.K. climate change policy, with the soundbyte: "Fear often dominates discussion about the earth's climate. Many people have been led to believe that drastic measures are necessary to prevent the risk of negative future outcomes, such as global warming. As such, we now face a situation where politicians are misallocating resources because they are responding to manufactured problems, which are based on public anxiety rather than sound scientific evidence. Ineffective measures like the Kyoto Protocol, built on fear rather than science, will not reduce the future burden of greenhouse gases and will cause many more problems than they solve." In 2006 George Mason U. statistician Edward Wegman (1943-) et al. pub. the Wegman Report AKA Ad Hoc Committee Report on the 'Hockey Stick' Global Climate Reconstruction for U.S. Rep. Joe Barton of the U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce to evaluate Michael Mann's hockey stick graph and the criticisms by Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick, concluding that Mann's graph is moose hockey, with the soundbyte: "Mann's] decentred methodology is simply incorrect mathematics . . . I am baffled by the claim that the incorrect method doesn't matter because the answer is correct anyway. . . . In this case we judge that there was too much reliance on peer review, which was not necessarily independent"; no surprise, the IPCC octopus responds with smearing and sniveling nit-picking, incl. accusing Wegner of "plagiarizing" Wikipedia while never addressing the profound statistical questions raised; when the Climategate scandal breaks, Wegman is later found to be part of a closed group of HadCRUT leftist activist scientists who "pal-review" each other's papers. On Nov. 14, 2011 Baliunas pub. the press release Human Activity is Not Cause of Global Warming via the George C. Marshall Inst., containing the soundbyte: "The science does not suggest dangerous global warming. If there is any trace at all of a greenhouse warming, it is too small to be seen in the climate record. That means that future warming due to human activities will be quite small - well under one degree C." On Feb. 25, 2015 after Soon is named a creditor in bankruptcy filings of Peabody Energy, Canadian mathematician Christopher Essex pub. the article Save Willie: The global warming movement is anti-science, oblivious to how little we know about climate in the Financial Post, calling out the "fascistic" media for "silly hit pieces" on Soon, with the soundbyte: "Those that speak out must endure vexatious, eristic tactics rather than scientific reasoning in matters from publication, to funding, to jobs. For example, my friend Dr. Willie Soon is under assault from activist groups. An army of human bots has been released to get him fired from Harvard's Center for Astrophysics. He's shared scientist's skepticism publicly. Betraying acute ignorance, media pound him with silly hit pieces. Some perpetrators believe they fight for science, but they could not be more antiscientific, if not fascistic. If there''s any chance at a rational policy on climate, two things must happen. First, intelligent laymen must take back the debate, by pushing currently out-of-bounds science back onto center stage. They must stop letting 'experts' do their thinking for them. Second, political attacks on scientists must be stopped. Those must be pushed out of bounds. Let's begin by saving Willie!" In Nov. 2015 Soon, Irish chemist Ronan Connolly, and his environmentalist father Michael Connolly pub. the paper Re-evaluating the role of solar variability on Northern Hemisphere temperature trends since the 19th century in Earth-Science Reviews, with the soundbyte: "Finally, we compare our new composite to one of the solar variability datasets not considered by the CMIP5 climate models, i.e., Scafetta and Willson, 2014's update to the Hoyt and Schatten, 1993 dataset. A strong correlation is found between these two datasets, implying that solar variability has been the dominant influence on Northern Hemisphere temperature trends since at least 1881." On Sept. 27, 2016 Mann pub. The Madhouse Effect: How Climate Change Denial Is Threatening Our Planet, Destroying Our Politics, and Driving Us Crazy. On Aug. 1, 2019 The Washington Post pub. the article Why we shouldn't take peer review as the 'gold standard', trying to attack peer review itself as to be chucked if climate skeptics like fossil fuel-funded Willie Soon are permitted to publish, drawing a scornful open letter by Christopher Monckton. On Sept. 10, 2020 the state of Del. libels Soon, calling him corrupted. On Oct. 2, 2020 Mann gives an interview to the Guardian, uttering the soundbytes: "A second Trump term is game over for the climate - really!"; "If we are going to avert ever more catastrophic climate change impacts, we need to limit warming below a degree and a half Celsius, a little less than three degrees Fahrenheit. Another four years of what we've seen under Trump, which is to outsource environmental and energy policy to the polluters and dismantle protections put in place by the previous administration... would make that essentially impossible"; "It is a political statement, because it speaks to the need to enact policies to deal with climate change. But it isn't partisan to say that we should act on this crisis"; "It's also a scientific statement. Two years ago this month, scientists with the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a landmark study, Global Warming of 1.5 Degrees, which found that humanity had to cut heat-trapping emissions roughly by half by 2030 to avoid catastrophic climate breakdown"; headlines warned we had '12 years to save the planet"; in Nov. 2020 Joe Biden picks Mann to be his climate advisor. Crooked Climate ‘Scientist' Michael Mann Caught Lying Again! - John Sullivan. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann. Watch video - Michael E. Mann et al.. Watch video - Sally Baliunas. Watch video - Sally Baliunas. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Willie Soon. Watch video - Malcolm Roberts. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Tony Heller. Watch video - Alex Epstein.

On May 12-June 7, 1998 2.5K+ people die in a record-breaking heat wave in New Delhi, India, with temperatures as high as 124 deg. F. (51 deg. C.).

John Elkington (1949-)

In 1998 English hardcore English Greenie writer John Elkington (1949-) pub. Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business, which coined the phrases "environmental excellence", "green growth", "green consumer", and the "triple bottom line", the environmental, social, and financial factors for responsible investors to consider. Meanwhile in 1998 Robert Levering and Milton Moskowitz pub. Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For in Fortune mag, dispelling fears that using socially responsible investment criteria doesn't damage financial performance, after which in 2011 Wharton finance prof. Alex Edmans pub. a paper in Journal of Financial Economics concluding that the Leverling-Moskowitz cos. outperformed their peers by 2%-3% in higher stock returns in 1984-2009, causing Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance (ESG) to catch on. No surprise, in 2005 the U.N. Environment Programme Finance Initiative commisioned a report from the internat. law firm of Freshfields, Bruckhaus, and Deringer that concludes that it is not only permissible but part of their fiduciary duty to integrate ESG considerations into their investment strategies, and in 2014 the Law Commission of England and Wales ruled that there is no bar on pension funds using ESG in investment decision.

Henrik Svensmark (1958-) Nigel Calder (1931-2014)

On Nov. 3, 1998 Danish physicist Henrik Svensmark (1958-) pub. the paper Influence of Cosmic Rays on Earth's Climate in Physical Review Letters, with the abstract: "During the last solar cycle Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation more closely in phase with the galactic cosmic ray flux than with other solar activity parameters. Further it is found that Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in galactic cosmic ray flux and solar cycle length, than other solar activity parameters. The main conclusion is that the average state of the heliosphere affects Earth's climate"; on Jan. 25, 2007 Svensmark pub. the paper Cosmoclimatology: a new theory emerges in Astronomy and Geophysics, tracing climate change to solar activity and their effect on cosmic rays, not CO2; in 2007 Svensmark and British science writer Nigel David Calder (McKail-Ritchie-Calder) (1931-2014) pub. the book The Chilling Stars: A New Theory of Climate Change; in 1980 Calder predicted that by 2000 "the much-advertised heating of the earth by the man-made carbon dioxide 'greenhouse' fails to occur; instead, there is renewed concern about cooling an an impending ice age." "The hypothesis is that solar variability is linked to climate variability by a chain that involves the solar wind, cosmic rays, and clouds"; "Those who are absolute certain that the rise in temperature is due solely to carbon dioxide have no scientific justification. It's pure guesswork." On Aug. 19, 2016 J. Svensmark, M.B. Enghoff, N.J. Shaviv, and H. Svenmark pub. the study The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases in JGR Space Physics, using over 25 years of satellite observations to conclude that large Sun surface eruptions can temporarily shield Earth from cosmic rays, reducing global cloud cover by about 2%, corresponding to 1B tonnes of liquid H2O disappearing from the atmosphere. Watch video - Henrik Svensmark. Watch video - Henrik Svensmark. Watch video.

On Dec. 23, 1998 a freeze destroys more than one-third of Calif.'s citrus crop; the cold spell beginning Dec. 21 is the worst since 1990?

Christine Stewart of Canada (1941-2015)

In Dec. 1998 Christine Susan Stewart (1941-2015), Canadian Liberal Party minister of the environment utters the soundbyte to the Calgary Herald: "No matter if the science of global warming is all phony... climate change provides the greatest opportunity to bring about justice and equality in the world."

In 1998 the Global Climate Science Communications Plan is created by the Global Climate Science Communications Team to create a "one-stop resource on climate science for members of Congress, the media, industry and all others concerned", combined with a public relations and lobbying campaign funded with $600K from the Am. Petroleum Inst., known for the soundbyte: "Victory will be achieved when... Average citizens 'understand' (recognize) uncertainties in climate science; recognition of uncertainties becomes part of the 'conventional wisdom'", later being accused of deliberately trying to confuse the public.

Craig D. Idso Sherwood B. Idso (1942-)

In 1998 after getting pissed-off when his global warming skeptic physicist father Sherwood B. Idso (1942-) is attacked by U.S. senator Al Gore in an attempt to discredit him, Ariz. State U. geographer Craig D. Idso, his father, and his brother Keith E. Idso (botanist) found the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change in Tempe, Ariz., promoting the idea that carbon dioxide (CO2) has mostly positive environmental effects; no surprise, climate warmists later find out that he was receiving $11K/mo. from the Heatland, er, Heartland Inst. in 2012, using it to give the finger to all his scientific arguments without detailed scientific analysis Marxist style; famed agronomist Sylvan Harold Wittwer joins. On Feb. 24, 2009 Craig Idso pub. CO2, Global Warming and Coral Reefs. On June 1, 2009 Craig Idso and S. Fred Singer pub. Climate Change Reconsidered: The Report of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), released on conjunction with the Heartland Inst. 2nd Internat. Conference on Climate Change, claiming to refute the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. On Jan. 31, 2011 Craig and Sherwood Idso pub. Carbon Dioxide and Earth's Future: Pursuing the Prudent Path, which concludes: "Why would anyone in their right mind give the governments of the world a mandate to totally restructure human society to fight a hypothetical problem of vastly greater complexity than the very real and clearly-identified problems we currently face? Why should we not rather confront these genuine energy and health threats with all due haste and with every modern tool we have at our disposal?" On Sept. 1, 2011 Craig Idso and Robert M. Carter pub. Climate Change Reconsidered: 2011 Interim Report on the Nongovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In 2015 Craig Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer pub. Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming: Second Edition: The NIPCC Report on Scientific Consensus (2nd ed. May 9, 2018), containing the soundbyte: "Probably the most widely repeated claim in the debate over global warming is that '97% of scientists agree' that climate change is man-made and dangerous. This claim is not only false, but its presence in the debate is an insult to science." In June 2017 Craig D. Idso, James P. Wallace III, and Joseph S. D'Aleo pub. the paper On the Validity of NOAA, NASA and Hadley CRU Global Average Surface Temperature Data & The Validity of EPA's CO2 Endangerment Finding, concluding that the GST (Global Avg. Surface Temperature) data produced by NOAA, NASA, and Hadley used to claim ever-increasing yearly avg. surface temps "are not a valid representation of reality" because of the "adjustments" made to historical data that "systematically remove the previously existing cyclical temperature pattern", with the soundbyte: "The magnitude of their historical data adjustments, that removed their cyclical temperature patterns, are totally inconsistent with published and credible U.S. and other temperature data. Thus, it is impossible to conclude from the three published GAST data sets that recent years have been the warmest ever - despite current claims of record setting warming. Finally, since GAST data set validity is a necessary condition for EPA's GHG/CO2 Endangerment Finding, it too is invalidated by these research findings." Watch video - Craig D. Idso. Watch video - Sherwood B. Idso.

Bjørn Lomborg (1965-)

In 1998 Danish economist (self-educated environmentalist) Bjorn (Bjørn) Lomborg (1965-) pub. The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (English trans. pub. in 2001), questioning the statistical data supporting global warming claims along with deforestation, water shortages, overpop. and species loss, and questioning the wisdom of alarmist govt. policies incl. the Paris Accord, with the soundbyte: "Global warming is by no means our main environmental threat", causing a firestorm of controversy. In 2006 he pub. the book How to Spend $75 Billion to Make the World a Better Place. In 2011 he pub. the book Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming. On Feb. 11, 2015 Lomborg pub. the article The Alarming Thing About Climate Alarmism in The Wall Street Journal, claiming that climate change alarmists are like the boy that cried wolf, with the soundbyte: "Much of the data about climate change are encouraging", causing an outcry by scientists. On Aug. 31, 2018 Lomborg pub. the article The world gets better every day in the Mail & Guardian of Africa. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg. Watch video - Bjorn Lomborg.

Kary Banks Mullis (1944-2019)

In 1998 Lenoir, N.C.-born biochemist Kary Banks Mullis (1944-2019) (co-winner of the 1993 Nobel Chem. Prize for discovering the polymerase chain reaction)) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, in which he disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money. Watch video - Kary Mullis.

Kary Banks Mullis (1944-)

In 1998 Nobel-Prize-winning Lenoir, N.C.-born biochemist Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) pub. his autobio. Dancing Naked in the Mind Field, which disses climate change along with ozone depletion and the HIV origin of AIDS, claiming a conspiracy by environmentalists and govt. to make money.


On May 2-8, 1999 the 1999 Okla. Tornado Outbreak sees 154 tornadoes touch down in Okla., Kan., Neb, Tex., Ark., and Canada, incl. 72 in Okla., culiminating with an F5 SE of Chickasha, Okla. that tears through Oklahoma City and its suburbs incl. unlucky Moore, Okla.; on May 3 (6:23 p.m. CDT) the EF5 1999 Bridge Creek-Moore Tornado touches down in Grady County 2 mi. SSW of Amber, Okla., with wind speeds up to 301 mph, devastating portions of S Okla. City in its 38-mi. 85-min. rampage that kills 36 and injures 583, destroying 8K homes and causing $1B damage; too bad, on May 20, 2013 the EF5 2013 Moore Tornado travels adjacent to the 1999 tornado's track, killing 24 and injuring 212.

Vostok Ice Core Data Euan Mearns (1957-) Joanne Nova Jeremy D. Shakun U.S. Postal Charges Drive Global Warming - Joanne Nova

On June 3, 1999 J.R. Petit, J. Jouzel., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius et al. pub. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica in Nature, becoming the first significant examination of the long-term Antarctic ice core record, with the soundbyte: "Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane correlate well with Antarctic air-temperature throughout the record. Present-day atmospheric burdens of these two important greenhouse gases seem to have been unprecedented during the past 420,000 years"; too bad, a graph supplied with the article upsets IPCC's CO2-driven temperature apple cart, with Scottish geologist Euan Mearns (1957-) writing the soundbyte: "In their seminal paper on the Vostok Ice Core, Petit et al. (1999) note that CO2 lags temperature during the onset of glaciations by several thousand years but offer no explanation. They also observe that CH4 and CO2 are not perfectly aligned with each other but offer no explanation. The significance of these observations are therefore ignored. At the onset of glaciations temperature drops to glacial values before CO2 begins to fall suggesting that CO2 has little influence on temperature modulation at these times"; on Aug. 10, 2007 Lorius et al. pub. the article Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years in Science, with the soundbyte: "Our [East Antarctica, Dome C] ice core shows no indication that greenhouse gases have played a key role in such a coupling [with radiative forcing]"; too bad, the IPCC crowd studiously ignores these results while working overtime to generate alternative explanations, always including climate models that have atmospheric CO2 capturing heat from the surface and sending it back down. In Oct. 2008 Australian science writer Joanne "Jo" Nova (nee Codling) pub. the article The 800 year lag in CO2 after temperature – graphed, with the subtitle "Carbon dioxide follows temperature in the Vostok Ice Cores", and the soundbytes: "In the 1990's the classic Vostok ice core graph showed temperature and carbon in lock step moving at the same time. It made sense to worry that carbon dioxide did influence temperature. But by 2003 new data came in and it was clear that carbon lagged behind temperature. The link was back to front. Temperatures appear to control carbon, and while it's possible that carbon also influences temperature these ice cores don't show much evidence of that. After temperatures rise, on average it takes 800 years before carbon starts to move. The extraordinary thing is that the lag is well accepted by climatologists, yet virtually unknown outside these circles. The fact that temperature leads is not controversial. Its relevance is debated." "The bottom line is that rising temperatures cause carbon levels to rise. Carbon may still influence temperatures, but these ice cores are neutral on that. If both factors caused each other to rise significantly, positive feedback would become exponential. We'd see a runaway greenhouse effect. It hasn't happened. Some other factor is more important than carbon dioxide, or carbon's role is minor." She also utters the soundbytes: "Anything that heats the planet will melt ice, shift Lemurs and cause droughts. None of these things tell us why the planet got warmer"; "In the head-spinning cosmos of climate change, everyday hundreds of people claim there are 'thousands of papers' in support of a theory, yet no one can actually name one single paper with empirical evidence that shows carbon dioxide emissions are the main cause of global warming"; "Let the historic dissection begin. Man-made global warming is a dying market and a zombie science"; "Everything on our dinner table - the meat, cheese, salad, bread, and soft drink - requires carbon dioxide to be there. For those of you who believe that carbon dioxide is a pollutant, we have a special diet: water and salt!" In 2009 Nova pub. The Skeptic's Handbook, followed by Global Bullies Want Your Money (2009), and Climate Money. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. Watch video - Joanne Nova. In 2018 Nova becomes co-founder along with Jerry Ellis, Hugh Morgan, Ian Plimer, and Viv Forbes of the Saltbush Club (Carbon Sense Coalition), whose motto is: "Our goal is to change the climate of public opinion", and the soundbyte: "We have been listening to scare-mongers and panicky children for too long - it's time to listen to sensible people and grown-ups." On Apr. 5, 2012 paleoclimatologist Jeremy D. Shakun of Boston College et al. pub. the article Global warming preceded by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations during the last deglaciation in Nature mag., criticizing the Vostok data as local not global, claiming to "construct a record of global surface temperature from 80 proxy records and show that temperature is correlated with and generally lags CO2 during the last (that is, the most recent) deglaciation... These observations, together with transient global climate model simulations, support the conclusion that an antiphased hemispheric temperature response to ocean circulation changes superimposed on globally in-phase warming driven by increasing CO2 concentrations is an explanation for much of the temperature change at the end of the most recent ice age." Watch video - Tony Heller on potholer54. Watch video - Reply to Tony Heller by potholer54. Watch video - Reply to potholer54 by Tony Heller. Watch video - 2nd Reply to Tony Holler by potholer54.

On Aug. 25, 1999 Mount Baker, Wash. reports 1,140 in. of snowfall for the 1998-9 season, becoming the most snowfall for a single season in U.S. history (until ?); in 1971 it received 1,122 in.

David Evans (1961-

In 1999 Australian mathematician-engineer David Evans (1961-) (husband of Joanne Nova) begins working in the Australian Greenhouse Office (until 2005) to develop FullCam, a fully integrated carbon accounting model for thie Australian govt.; he goes on to utter the soundbyte: "The greenhouse signature is missing. We have been looking and measuring for years, and cannot find it. Each possible cause of global warming has a different pattern of where in the planet the warming occurs first and the most. The signature of an increased greenhouse effect is a hot spot about 10km up in the atmosphere over the tropics. We have been measuring the atmosphere for decades using radiosondes: weather balloons with thermometers that radio back the temperature as the balloon ascends through the atmosphere. They show no hot spot. Whatsoever. If there is no hot spot then an increased greenhouse effect is not the cause of global warming. So we know for sure that carbon emissions are not a significant cause of the global warming. If we had found the greenhouse signature then I would be an alarmist again"; he also utters the soundbyte: "There is no evidence to support the idea that carbon emissions cause significant global warming. None. There is plenty of evidence that global warming has occurred, and theory suggests that carbon emissions should raise temperatures (though by how much is hotly disputed) but there are no observations by anyone that implicate carbon emissions as a significant cause of the recent global warming"; Evans' views piss-off the pro-AGW scientists, who pub. rebuttals. Watch video - David Evans. Watch video - David Evans.

Robert W. Felix

In 1999 Am. former architect Robert W. Felix pub. Not by Fire but by Ice: Discover What Killed the Dinosaurs...and Why It Could Soon Kill Us, predicting a coming ice age after a reversal of the magnetic poles.

David Dunning (1960-) and Justin Kruger (1971-)

In 1999 Am. social psychologists David Dunning (1960-) and Justin Kruger (1971-) pub. the paper Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One's Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, describing the Dunning-Kruger Effect, with the soundbyte: "People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains. The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilled in these domains suffer a dual burden: Not only do these people reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the metacognitive ability to realize it." Guess who each side of the great climate debate blame for being unskilled?

Joseph J. Romm (1960-)

In 1999 MIT-educated Am. physicist and climate blogger/activist Joseph J. Romm (1960-) pub. the book Cool Companies: How the Best Businesses Boost Profits and Productivity by Cutting Greenhouse Gas Emissions, becoming the first book on the subject. In 1997 he becomes acting secy. of the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, with a $1B/year budget. In 2004 he pub. the book The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate, dissing hydrogen cars as diverting attention from reducing greenhouse gas emissions. On Dec. 26, 2006 he pub. the book Hell and High Water: Global Warming – the Solution and the Politics – and What We Should Do, calling for immediate massive U.S. govt. intervention to stop global warming, warning of sea level rises submerging U.S. coastlines along with horrible permanent droughts. On July 12, 2011 Romm pub. the article Dust Storm Marks Beginning of Southwest's "Permanent Drought", claiming tht the U.S. Southwest is going into a permanent drought; too bad, precipation returns to normals; and on Apr. 1, 2019 Joshua S. Oliver, Grant L. Harley, and Justin T. Maxwell pub. the paper in Geophysical Research Letters, proving that 50+ droughts have surpassed the severity of the 21st cent. ones since 500 B.C.E. In 2014 the TV series The Year of Living Dangerously debuts on Showtime, produced by James Cameron, Arnold Schwarzenegger et al., with Joseph Romm and Heidi Cullen as chief science advisors, trying to turn global climate change into a series of human stories dumbed down to Ahnuld level. Watch video - Joseph Romm. Watch video - Joseph Romm. Watch video - Joseph Romm. Watch video - Joseph Romm.


In 2000 atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen popularizes the germ Anthropocene for the latest epoch of geological history (began 1900?), the first period of geological time shaped by a single species, characterized by the Holocene Extinction, the 6th largest mass extinction in Earth's history; a moose hockey concept?; on Mar. 5, 2024 the Internat. Union of Geological Scientists voted down a proposal to officially declare it.

In 2000 the Earth's spin abruptly turns E and speeds up 2x to 17cm (17 in.) a year, moving toward the British Isles instead of Hudson Bay; in 2016 it is traced to lost water in Eurasia from climate change.

In 2000 U.S. utilities begin a new push to build coal-fired electric power plants, with 150 projects under planning or construction by spring 2007; meanwhile the U.N. IPCC-led global warming lobby plots the total shutdown of all plants around the world.

Richard Blane Alley (1957-)

In 2000 Penn State U. geologist-climatologistRichard Blane Alley (1957-) pub. the book The Two-Mile Time Machine: Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future (updated Oct. 24, 2014), which shows that the Earth experienced abrupt climate changes in the past, winning him the 2005 Seligman Crystal "for his prodigious contribution to our understanding of the stability of the ice sheets and glaciers of Antarctica and Greenland, and of erosion and sedimentation by this moving ice"; in Dec. 2009 Alley gives a speech to the Am. Geophysical Union, revealing that there is often a lag between atmospheric CO2 levels and global warming, pissing-off the U.N. IPCC apologists bigtime. On Sun. Apr. 10, 2011 Alley debuts the PBS program EARTH: The Operators' Manual; watch video. Watch video - Richard Alley.

D. James Baker (1937-) Robert E. Stevenson (1921-2001)

On Mar. 24, 2000 Long Beach, Calif.-born oceanographer Donald "D." James Baker (1937-) of NOAA announces that since the late 1940s there "has been warming to a depth of nearly 10,000 feet in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In each ocean basin, substantial temperature changes are occurring at much deeper depths than we previously thought", according to research conducted at NOAA's Ocean Climate Laboratory; the same day Sydney Levitus, John L. Antonov, Timothy P. Boyer, and Cathy Stephens of NOAA pub. the paper Warming of the World Ocean in Science mag. giving the details, with the soundbyte: "We quantify the interannual-to-decadal variability of the heat content (mean temperature) of the world ocean from the surface through 3000-meter depth for the period 1948 to 1998. The heat content of the world ocean increased by ~2 × 1023 joules between the mid-1950s and mid-1990s, representing a volume mean warming of 0.06°C. This corresponds to a warming rate of 0.3 watt per meter squared (per unit area of Earth's surface). Substantial changes in heat content occurred in the 300- to 1000-meter layers of each ocean and in depths greater than 1000 meters of the North Atlantic. The global volume mean temperature increase for the 0- to 300-meter layer was 0.31°C, corresponding to an increase in heat content for this layer of ~1023 joules between the mid-1950s and mid-1990s. The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans have undergone a net warming since the 1950s and the Indian Ocean has warmed since the mid-1960s, although the warming is not monotonic", warming the cockles of the climate alarmists' hearts, after which Richard A. Kerr writes the soundbyte: "The ocean-induced delay in global warming also suggests to some climatologists that future temperature increases will be toward the top end of the models' range of prediction", and James A. Hansen of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies writes the soundbyte: "Now the ocean-warming data imply that climate sensitivity [to the greenhouse effect] is not at the low end of the spectrum"; too bad, in summer 2000 Fullerton, Calif.-born Kauai, Hawaii-based climate skeptic oceanographer ("Father of Space Oceanography") Robert Everett "Bob" Stevenson (1921-2001) pub. the article Yes, the Ocean Has Warmed; No, It's Not 'Global Warming' in 21st Century, with the conclusions: "For the past two decades at least, and possibly for the past seven decades, the Earth's true surface air temperature has likely experienced no net change; there should have been a sizable CO2-induced increase in atmospheric radiative forcing during that time, but there wasn't. That must mean that a suite of compensatory feedbacks overwhelmed the 'greenhouse' impetus for warming; implying, therefore, that the planet will not warm from any man-produced increases in CO2; indicating [that] any increases in temperature will likely fit the global trend of +0.048 deg C/decade, that is, about 0.5°C this century - the rate of warming that has existed since the Little Ice Age, centered around 1750 in Europe, South America, and China; suggesting that the heat storage in the upper ocean takes place in the upper 100 meters, and the magnitude provides a rise in temperature at those depths of 0.5°C in the past 50 years (in those part of the ocean for which we have data); this global warming (and cooling) of the ocean occurs on biennial, ENSO, decadal and interdecadal period scales; thence, the ocean thermal changes on centennial-period scales, which appear as the warming trend through the past 50 to 100 years, can be explained by means of intrinsic internal modes of the Earth going through their normal cycle of warming and cooling, independent of both radiative and anthropogenic influences", ending with the soundbyte: "I guess what I'm really wondering is 'Why did Syd Levitus, and his associates, write their paper in the first place?'"

David E. Wojick (1942-)

On May 30, 2000 Am. epistemologist and civil engineer David E. Wojick (1942-), Richard S. Courtney, Hugh Ellsaesser, Vincent Gray, Wibjorn Karlin, Ross McKitrick et al. form the Science Integrity Team to review IPCC's Third Assessment Report and brief members of Congress, news media et al. about why climate change isn't an important issue. On Oct. 1, 2002 Wojick pub. the article A skeptic's guide to global warming in the National Post, containing the soundbyte: "The problem is that the earth is very large and the temperature is always changing, everywhere, so how can we possibly tell if overall it is a mere half-degree warmer today than it was around 1902? The origin of the theory of global warming (for it is just a theory) lies in taking the thermometer readings we happen to have from the last 100 years and massaging them in various ways. Some places have clearly warmed, others have clearly cooled. Many have gone up and down but with little apparent trend. To get a global result requires a lot of statistical manipulation... Even if the earth has warmed a little bit there is still the very real possibility that this warming is natural, that the models are no good, that warming is beneficial, etc." On May 19, 2016 Wojick and Patrick J. Michaels pub. the article Climate Modeling Dominates Climate Science, containing the soundbyte: "To summarize, it looks like something like 55% of the modeling done in all of science is done in climate change science, even though it is a tiny fraction of the whole of science. Moreover, within climate change science almost all the research (97%) refers to modeling in some way." On Dec. 1, 2017 Wojick writes the soundbyte: "The motion of climate change is highly chaotic, poorly understood and at this point completely unpredictable within certain broad limits. In fact, there is strong evidence that the natural climate is capable of warming or cooling several degrees very quickly... The true shame is that teachers read this stuff and believe it, then teach it to their students, spreading it like a disease. What is lacking are alternative skeptical sources of sound science for teachers and students." On Nov. 26, 2018 Wojick pub. the article 100% Renewable Deception, with the soundbyte: "The basic point is that those who crusade for 100% renewable electricity from wind and solar, without mentioning the staggering number of big batteries required for that system, are either deceptive or painfully ignorant. I suspect it is a combination, but the problem of intermittency is too well known for it all to be ignorance. There must be a lot of 100% renewable deception. I guess deception is renewable too."

On July 26, 2000 the U.N. Global Compact is formed, a non-binding pact to encourage businesses worldwide to adopt ESG policies.

On Aug. 19, 2000 the New York Times pub. the fake news article Ages-Old Icecap at North Pole Is Now Liquid, Scientists Find, claiming "The thick ice that has for ages covered the Arctic Ocean at the pole has turned to water, recent visitors there reported yesterday... An ice-free patch of ocean about a mile wide has opened at the very top of the world, something that has presumably never before been seen by humans and is more evidence that global warming may be real and already affecting climate. The last time scientists can be certain the pole was awash in water was more than 50 million years ago."

Richard S. Courtney Harry N.A. Priem Siegfried Fred Singer (1924-2020) Gerd Rainer Weber

On Nov. 21, 2000 the 6th Global Warming Conference (COP6) sees nations in a standoff, with the scientists continuing to assail the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the U.S. willing to compromise but unwilling to sacrifice core principles. On Nov. 21, 2000 the Cooler Heads Coalition (founded May 6, 1997 by the Nat. Consumer Coalition "to dispel the myths of global warming by exposing flawed economic, scientific, and risk analysis") (which runs the Web site holds a briefing titled "Climate is Not Warming - Has Not Warmed in 60 Years", featuring Nat. Coal Board (British Coal) senior material scientist Richard S. Courtney, Dutch U. of Utrecht geophysicist Harry N.A. Priem, Austrian-born Am. physicist-engineer Siegfried Frederick Singer (1924-), and German meteorologist Gerd Rainer Weber; global warming proponents content themselves with gloating at alleged oil and coal industry ties. Watch video - Gerd Rainer Weber.

Sonja Boehmer-Christiansen

In 2000 the first issue of the journal Energy & Environment is pub., becoming the journal climate skeptics can turn to after being rejected by the mainstream peer-reviewed science journals; ed. #1 is physical geographer Sonja A. Boehmer-Christiansen, who goes on to repub. the infamous 2003 Willie Soon-Sallie Balinius article from Climate Research; it doesn't become peer-reviewed until SAGE acquires it in Feb. 2018, promising to shut-out you know who, causing her to resign.

Mike Hulme (1960-) Corinne Le Quéré (1966-)

In 2000 the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, named after 19th cent. scientist John Tyndall is founded in the U.K. by the U. of East Anglia, Cambridge U., Cardiff U., U. of Manchester, Newcastle U., Oxford U., U. of Southampton, and U. of Sussex; Fudan U. joins in May 2011; dir. #1 (until July 2007) is London-born Cambridge U. geographer Michael "Mike" Hulme (1960-), who in 2008 announces the "Five Lessons of Climate Change": (1) Climate change is a relative risk, not an absolute one; (2) Climate risks are serious, and we should seek to minimise them; (3) Our world has huge unmet development needs; (4) Our current energy portfolio is not sustainable; (5) Massive and deliberate geo-engineering of the planet is a dubious practice"; the dir. since ? is French-Canadian climate scientist Corinne Le Quere (Le Quéré) (1966-). On Apr. 30, 2009 Hulme pub. the book Why We Disagree About Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction and Opportunity, with the ad blurb: "Climate change is not 'a problem' waiting for 'a solution'. It is an environmental, cultural and political phenomenon which is re-shaping the way we think about ourselves, our societies and humanity's place on Earth. Drawing upon twenty-five years of professional work as an international climate change scientist and public commentator, Mike Hulme provides a unique insider's account of the emergence of this phenomenon and the diverse ways in which it is understood. He uses different standpoints from science, economics, faith, psychology, communication, sociology, politics and development to explain why we disagree about climate change. In this way he shows that climate change, far from being simply an 'issue' or a 'threat', can act as a catalyst to revise our perception of our place in the world." On June 15, 2010 Hulme responds to an article by Nat. Post columnist Lawrence Solomon claiming that Hulme made the claim that: "The UN's IPCC misled the press and public into believing that thousands of scientists backed its claims on manmade global warming", with the soundbyte: "The IPCC consensus does not mean - clearly cannot possibly mean – that every scientist involved in the IPCC process agrees with every single statement in the IPCC! Giving the impression that the IPCC consensus means everyone agrees with everyone else - as I think some well-meaning but uninformed commentaries do (or have a tendency to do) - is unhelpful; it doesn't reflect the uncertain, exploratory and sometimes contested nature of scientific knowledge." In 2011 he follows with the article Reducing the Future to Climate: A Story of Climate Determinism and Reductionism, with the abstract: "One hundred years ago, a popular theory contended that various aspects of climate determined the physiology and psychology of individuals, which in turn defined the behavior and culture of the societies that those individuals formed. As the ideological wars of the twentieth century reshaped political and moral worlds, environmental determinism became discredited and marginalised within mainstream academic thought. Yet at the beginning of a new century with heightening anxieties about changes in climate, the idea that climate can determine the fate of people and society has re-emerged in the form of 'climate reductionism'. This paper traces how climate has moved from playing a deterministic to a reductionist role in discourses about environment, society and the future. Climate determinism previously offered an explanation, and hence a justification, for the superiority of certain imperial races and cultures. The argument put forward here is that the new climate reductionism is driven by the hegemony exercised by the predictive natural sciences over contingent, imaginative and humanistic accounts of social life and visions of the future. It is a hegemony which lends disproportionate power in political and social discourse to model-based descriptions of putative future climates. Some possible reasons for this climate reductionism, as well as some of the limitations and dangers of this position for human relationships with the future, are suggested." In 2013 he pub. the book Exploring Climate Change through Science and in Society, and anthology of his works, with the ad blurb: "Mike Hulme has been studying climate change for over thirty years and is today one of the most distinctive and recognisable voices speaking internationally about climate change in the academy, in public and in the media. T he argument that he has made powerfully over the last few years is that climate change has to be understood as much as an idea situated in different cultural contexts as it is as a physical phenomenon to be studied through universal scientific practices. Climate change at its core embraces both science and society, both knowledge and culture." On June 4, 2014 he pub. the book Can Science Fix Climate Change?: A Case Against Climate Engineering. On June 15, 2016 he pub. the book Weathered: Cultures of Climate, with the soundbyte: "Self-evidently, dangerous climate change will not emerge from a normal scientific process of truth seeking". On Oct. 24, 2018 Hulme pub. the article Climatism and the Reification of Global Temperature, containing the soundbyte: "Global temperature does not cause anything to happen. It has no material agency. It is an abstract proxy for the aggregated accumulation of heat in the surface boundary layer of the planet. It is far removed from revealing the physical realities of meteorological hazards occurring in particular places. And forecasts of global temperature threshold exceedance are even further removed from actionable early warning information upon which disaster risk management systems can work. Global temperature offers the ultimate view of the planet - and of meteorological hazard - from nowhere."

In 2000 Canadian climate skeptic William Walter "Bill" Kay pub. The Great Global Warming Hoax on his Web site, containing the soundbytes: "The problems with the human-induced-catastrophic-climate-change hypothesis are many, but the most salient are as follows. Earth's temperature is not static but rather has varied radically over the millennia, with many previous eras being much warmer than present. At others times, the temperature dropped so low that vast areas of Eurasia and North America were covered by kilometre-thick sheets of ice. No one can suggest human activity has anything to do with these changes. The generally accepted temperature records for the last 3,000 years reveal the present global temperature to be cooler than average for this period. Although fluctuations are the norm, Earth has been warming since the end of the last ice age (approximately 10,000 years ago). One of the main exceptions to this warming trend was the 'little ice age' (approximately 1300 to 1800 AD) wherein temperatures dipped considerably. As there has been a slow and steady warming trend since this time, it is impossible to determine how much, if any, appreciable warming can be attributed to fossil fuel burning because the current warming trend began prior to any possible influence from the Industrial Revolution"; "There is a clear and direct relationship between periodic increases in sunspot activity on the sun and increases in the sun's temperature. And there is a direct relationship between increases in the sun's heat output and the temperature here on Earth... Human activity has nothing to do with this relationship"; "Closely connected to this is the fact that because much of Earth's CO2 resides in the oceans, an increase in the sun's temperature causes a release of CO2 from the oceans into the atmosphere (the Coca Cola fizz effect). Hence, many scientists argue that increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere are a consequence of 'global warming' rather than a cause"; "And finally, keep in mind 'global warming' is not the first or only eco-scare. Over the last 40 years, overpopulation, energy crises, global cooling, ozone holes, desertification, deforestation, pesticide degradation, topsoil depletion, and other topics have each had their turn as scare of the day. The perpetrators of the doomsday hoaxes remain the same international environmental elite. The underlying fear within this small group of plutocrats is that unrestrained industrial growth will lead to a fundamental challenge to the prevailing property system. As surely as jacking up interest rates will slow economic development, so will high energy prices put a break on industrial progress. The 'global warming' scam is yet another effort of the most powerful and parasitic sectors of the ruling elite to hobble the forces of production with a view to the long-term preservation of an antiquated property system. Fighting for the truth about 'global warming' is fighting for the overthrow of these liars and the property regime upon which their power is based."


On June 6, 2001 the Summer of the Shark begins with a shark attack on 8-y.-o. Jessie Arbogast in Santa Rose Island, followed by 76 more attacks and five deaths, turning into sensationalist publicity after a July 4 weekend attack on 8-y.-o. Jessie Arbogast, ending with the 9/11 attacks; in 2000 there were 85 attacks and 12 deaths, but no big publicity.

James K. Glassman (1947-) Sallie Baliunas (1953-)

On June 25, 2001 Washington, D.C.-born govt. specialist James Kenneth Glassman (1947-) of the Am. Enterprise Inst. (AEI) and Harvard-Smithsonian astrophysicist Sallie Louise Baliunas (1953-) pub. the article Bush Is Right on Global Warming in The Weekly Standard, claiming that climate change "is not a calamity but a truism", with the soundbytes: "Evidence from ice cores, glaciers, boreholes and tree rings, deposits of microscopic animals on the sea floor, pollen in lake beds, and mineral deposits in caves show clearly that surface temperatures in some centuries have been very different from temperatures in others"; "Because there is considerable uncertainty in current understanding of how the climate system varies naturally and reacts to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, current estimates of the magnitude of future warming should be regarded as tentative and subject to future adjustments (either upward or downward)"; "Global warming is not a here-and-now problem. If the computers are right, the dire effects will unfold slowly over the century. But signs now indicate that the models vastly overstate the problem. We'll see." On July 5, 2005 Glassman gives an interview to C-Span in which he opposes the Kyoto Protocol and questions the science behind climate change, with the soundbyte: "It is not clear, the President does not believe it is clear, that human intervention causes increased emissions which cause the climate to heat up. We know the climate has heated up. It's gone up about one-degree Fahrenheit in the last one-hundred years. The question is, why is that? Is it because of humans, or is it because of simply a solar cycle. You know, the planet's been warmer than it has been today long before there was such a thing as an SUV or anything like that."

John Stossel (1947-)

On June 29, 2001 Chicago Heights, Ill.-born libertarian ABC News "20/20" TV personality John Frank Stossel (1947-) hosts a 1-hour ABC-TV special titled Tampering with Nature, which portrays environmentalits as "preachers of doom and gloom" who would have us "running around naked, hungry for food, maybe killing a rabbit with a rock, then dying young, probably before age 40", and features three dissenters from the 2K-member U.N. IPCC, pissing-off global warmists, who call it biased. On July 5, 2006 Stossel interviews climate skeptics John R. Christy and Sallie Baliunus, issuing the soundbyte: "The fundamentalist doom-mongers ignore scientists who say the effects of global warming may be benign." On Apr. 20, 2007 Stossel pub. the article The Global Warming Myth?, an extract from his 2007 book Myth, Lies, and Downright Stupidity: Get Out the Shovel - Why Everything You Know Is Wrong. In 2013-17 Stossel hosts the Fox News TV series Green Tyranny, uttering the soundbytes: "Environmentalists collude with the EPA to block economic progress"; "So, why do I use the phrase 'green tyranny'? Because government always goes too far. Years ago, when I heard some animals were going extinct, I thought the endangered species act was a great idea. But in the hands of government lawyers, and environmental zealots, it's become an instrument of petty tyranny. Frogs, prairie dogs, beetles, take priority over people"; "One can love nature but still hate the tyranny the green movement imposes", "Global warming alarmism has turned into hysteria. Yes, the globe has warmed. Climate changes! We can adjust to it. But climate scientists who say that, like Judith Curry of Georgia Tech, are shunned as heretics", "The climate models that got the government so excited are totally wrong so far. A few degrees warming might be good... Cold waves kill many more people than heat waves." "Americans are told that fossil fuels - coal, oil, and gas - are evil. But much of civilization owes its existence to fossil fuels." Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel. Watch video - John Stossel.

On July 15, 2001 the Internat. Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) in Amsterdam pub. the Amsterdam Declaration on Earth System Science, proposing the term "Anthropocene", a new geological epoch to succeed Holocene about 10K B.C.E., caused by human alteration of the "Earth system", as coined by Paul J. Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer, going on to unsuccessfully lobby the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) to adopt it before running out of funding.

On Aug. 20-24, 2001 the First Internat. Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age at Dalhousie U. in Halifax, N.S. is organized by Petr Chylek and Glen Lesins, and co-sponsored by the Am. Meteorological Society, the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, and the European Space Agency, with speakers on all sides of the global warming issue.

Bob Reiss (1951-)

On Sept. 5, 2001 Am. journalist Bob Reiss (1951-) pub. the book The Coming Storm: Extreme Weather and Our Terrifying Future, attempting to freak-out readers with climate alarmism; "Bob Reiss shows how a series of freakish and colossally destructive weather events awakened... people to... a changing climate" (Eugene Linden); "The layman's guide to global warming... fair, urgent and deeply unsettling" (Ted Conover) - good timing on the publication date? On May 15, 2012 Reiss pub. The Eskimo and the Oil Man: The Battle at the Top of the World for America's Future, about the fight over offshore drilling in the Arctic as seen through the eyes of a Shell Oil exec and an Eskimo leader in Alaska, containing the soundbyte: "The Arctic century is upon us."

World Trade Center - before Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 The Pentagon, Sept. 11, 2001

On Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) the infamous 9/11 Attacks forever change the U.S.

Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) Sir John T. Houghton (1931-) Sir John F.B. Mitchell (1948-) Richard Siegmund Lindzen (1940-) Freeman Dyson (1923-2020) Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-2020) Vincent Richard Gray (1922-2018)

In 2001 the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is pub., summarizing the predominant scientific opinion on climate change, concluding that the global avg. surface temp has risen 0.6C +/-0.2 C since the late 19th cent., and 0.17C/decade in 1971-2001, with the soundbyte: "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities" esp. greenhouse gases methane and CO2, predicting a temp increase of 1.4C-5.8C between 1990 and 2100 if greenhouse gas emissions continue, accompanied by sea level rise and an increase in some types of extreme weather, becoming more negative as warming increases; it also incl. the soundbyte: "The climate system is a coupled non-linear chaotic system, and therefore the long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible"; leaders of the IPCC Working Group incl. chmn. Sir Robert Tony Watson (1948-) (knighted in 2012), co-chmn. Welsh evangelical Christian scientist Sir John Theodore Houghton (1931-) and Sir John Francis Brake Mitchell (1948-) of Hadley Centre (lead author of the Second Assessment Report); in May a joint statement of support is issued by the science academies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, the Caribbean, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, New Zealand, Sweden, and U.K.: "We recognise the IPCC as the world's most reliable source of information on climate change and its causes, and we endorse its method of achieving consensus"; Ch. "Ice Storms", by Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability contains the soundbyte: "An increased frequency of heat waves will increase the risk of death and serious illness, principally in older age groups and the urban poor. The greatest increases in thermal stress are forecast for mid- to high-latitude (temperate) cities, especially in populations with limited air conditioning. Warmer winters and fewer cold spells, because of climate change, will decrease cold-related mortality in many temperate countries"; critics incl. Am. MIT atmospheric physicist (leading climate expert) Richard Siegmund "Dick" Lindzen (1940-), lead author of Ch. 7 "Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks", who wakes up later and calls it "climate alarmism", uttering the soundbytes: "We have focused on the greenhouse picture despite the fact that this is probably not the major factor in climate change. That is to say, we have accepted the basic premise of the first [dominant] narrative. Mea culpa", and "Climate is a remarkably complex system that cannot be reduced to a CO2 knob, something you turn up or down like a house thermostat to control global temperature", also the soundbyte: "When an issue becomes a vital part of a political agenda, as is the case with climate, then the politically desired position becomes a goal rather than the consequence of scientific research", and the soundbyte: "Why do we need to deconstruct global warming? Simply because it has been an issue that has been routinely treated with misinformation and sophistry abetted by constant repetition, institutional endorsements, and widespread ignorance even (perhaps especially) among the educated... To a great extent, global warming has been merely a device for implementing broader agendas"; in 1992 Lindzen pub. the article Global Warming: The Origin and Nature of the Alleged Scientific Consensus; in 2001 Lindzen pub. the Iris Hypothesis, that a warmer climate enhances precipitation efficiency, leading to less clouds in the troposphere from convection, allowing more infrared radiation to escape into space, creating a strong climate-stabilizing negative feedback loop preventing further warming; on Oct. 9, 2018 Lindzen gives a lecture in London with the title Global Warming for the Two Cultures, containing the soundbyte: "An implausible conjecture backed by false evidence and repeated incessantly has become politically correct 'knowledge', and is used to promote the overturn of industrial civilization"; in 2017 Lindzen utters the soundbyte: "To imply that a rise of temperature of a tenth of a degree is proof that the world is coming to an end - has to take one back to the dark ages. As long as you can get people excited as to whether it's a tenth of a degree warmer or cooler, then you don't have to think, you can assume everyone who is listening to you is an idiot. The whole point is so crazy because the temperature is always going up or down a little. What is astonishing is that in the last 20 years it hasn't done much of anything. What they don't mention is there has been a big El Nino in 2016 and in recent months the temperature has been dropping back into a zero trend level"; another critic is English-born Am. physicist Freeman John Dyson (1923-2020), Albert Einstein's successor at the Inst. for Advanced Physics at Princeton U., who acknowledges that CO2 drives global warming but doubts that existing climate simulation models are accurate enough "to describe the real world we live in", pointing in 2009 out that "What has happened in the past 10 years is that the discrepancies between what's observed and what's predicted have become much stronger. It's clear now the models are wrong, but it wasn't so clear 10 years ago", suggesting that China and India should choose to burn coal and get rich instead of staying poor, noting that "the main effect of carbon dioxide... is to make the planet greener, feeding the growth of green plans of al kinds, increasing the fertility of farms and fields and fields", suggesting that planting 1T trees could remove all excess CO2 in the atmosphere; in Apr. 2013 Dyson gives an interview to Paul Mulshine of the N.J. Star-Ledger, uttering the soundbytes: "I just think they [climatologists] don't understand the climate. Their computer models are full of fudge factors. The models are extremely oversimplified. They don't represent the clouds in detail at all. They simply use a fudge factor to represent the clouds"; in 2000 Watson utters the soundbyte: "The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognising that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world"; in Apr. 2002 after pressure from ExxonMobil et al. IPCC chmn. (since 1997) Robert Watson is replaced as IPCC chmn. by Rajendra Kumar Pachauri (1940-2020), who resigns in Feb. 2015 after sexual harassment allegations; in 2010 Watson utters the soundbyte: "The mistakes all appear to have gone in the direction of making it seem like climate change is more serious by overstating the impact. That is worrying. The IPCC needs to look at this trend in the errors and ask why it happened." Adding "We should always be challenged by sceptics. The IPCC's job is to weigh up the evidence. If it can't be dismissed, it should be included in the report. Point out it's in the minority and, if you can't say why it's wrong, just say it's a different view." Another critic is London-born Kiwi chemist Vincent Robert Gray (1921-2018), who pub. the books The Greenhouse Delusion: A Critique of 'Climate Change 2001' (Aug. 2002), and Confessions of a Climate Skeptic, going on in Mar. 2008 to call for the IPCC to be abolished, calling it "fundamentally corrupt" and unable to handle criticism, with the soundbytes: "The claims of the IPCC are dangerous unscientific nonsense", "The two main 'scientific' claims of the IPCC are the claim that 'the globe is warming' and 'Increases in carbon dioxide emissions are responsible'. Evidence for both of these claims is fatally flawed", "There is not a scrap of evidence in any IPCC reports that human emissions of CO2 have any harmful effect on the climate", and "Nobody seems to realise that the most elaborate and comprehensive conflict of interest that has been inflicted on the public is the 'Global Warning" Theory'... I have been an Expert Reviewer on every one of the Reports of IPCC", ending up commenting on every pub. of the IPCC, with 1,898 comments on the 2007 report alone. On Nov. 10, 2015 he pub. his last book The Global Warming Scam and Climate Change Superscam. He also utters the soundbyte: "So there you have it. An implausible conjecture backed by false evidence and repeated incessantly has become politically correct 'knowledge', and is used to promote the overturn of industrial civilization. What we will be leaving our grandchildren is not a planet damaged by industrial progress, but a record of unfathomable silliness as well as a landscape degraded by rusting wind farms and decaying solar panel arrays. False claims about 97% agreement will not spare us, but the willingness of scientists to keep mum is likely to reduce trust in and support for science." Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Richard Lindzen. Watch video - Freeman Dyson. Watch video - Freeman Dyson.

In 2001 the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (CES) is founded in Arlington, Va. as a successor to the Pew Center on Global Climate Change to work with policymakers and stakeholders to promote pragmatic and effective policies to fight global warming at all levels from state to internat., growing to become the largest U.S.-based assoc. of cos. working to advance business and policy solutions to climate change, growing from 13 members in 2001 to 44 in 2008, with a total market capitalization of $2.8T, and 30 mainly Fortune 500 cos. by 2018 with a total of 3.5M employees; it goes on to found the Make an Impact Program to assist employees and individuals in reducing their carbon footprints.

Mike Raupach (1950-2015) Corinne Le Quéré (1966-)

In 2001 the Global Carbon Project (GCP) is established to fully understand the carbon cycle under the belief (illusion?) that rising CO2 concentrations must be dealt with, going on to claim in 2006 that global CO2 emissions increased 3.2%/year since 2000, claim on Dec. 5, 2011 that CO2 released by fossil fuel burning jumped to a record 5.9%/year in 2010 vs. 1% in the 1990s, and claim that atmospheric CO2 concentration will reach 500 ppm by 2100; in 2013 they establish the Global Carbon Atlas, a tool for visualization of global carbon cycle data; dir. #1 (2001-9) is Australian climate scientist Michael Robin "Mike" Raupach (1950-2015), originator of the concept of the carbon budget; dir. #2 (2009-13) is French-Canadian climate scientist Corinne Le Quere (Le Quéré) (1966-), founder of the annual pub. of the Global Carbon Budget.


On Jan. 31, 2002 the Larsen B Ice Shelf in the Antarctic begins disintegrating, eventually collapsing into the Weddell Sea, becoming the largest series of Larsen Ice Shelf losses in decades.

In Feb. 2002 the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (originally the U.S. Global Change Research Program) is established under the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 to coordinate and integrate research on global warming, issuing 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAPs), along with three Nat. Climate Assessment Reports starting in 2000, followed by 2009 and 2014.

Geoffrey G. Duffy

On May 4, 2002 the NASA Boeing Aqua (EOS PM-1) satellite is launched from Vanderberg AFB, settling into a Sun-synchronous orbit with several other satellites to measure water on the Earth's surface and atmosphere, becoming the 2nd major component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) after Terra (EOS AM-1) (launched in 1999) (clouds, water, ice, land surface, carbon monoxide, aerosols) and Aura (EOS CH-1) (launched July 15, 2004) (climate, air quality, ozone layer). Kiwi U. of Auckland chemical engineer and climate change skeptic Geoffrey G. "Geoff" Duffy utters the soundbyte: "It is also interesting to note that NASA's Aqua satellite system has shown that the Earth has been cooling since 1998. This corresponds with measurements from the Argos sub-ocean probes that the ocean is cooling. This is in stark contrast with the proposals from many 'climate alarmists'."

In summer 2002 a week-long flood in Tex. causes Canyon Lake to spill over into the Guadalupe Valley, carving a new canyon in three days - giving Creationists a magic moment?

Tom Harris

In 2002 the Canadian nonprofit group Friends of Science (FoS) is founded in Calgary, Alberta by mechanical engineer Tom Harris et al., and "comprised mainly of active and retired earth and atmospheric scientists, engineers, and other professionals" whose main concern is "the abuse of science displayed in the politically inspired Kyoto protocol"; their goal is "To educate the public about climate science and through them bring pressure to bear on governments to engage in public debates on the scientific merits of the hypothesis of human induced global warming and the various policies that intend to address the issue"; climate alarmists gloat over the fact that they are partly funded by the fossil fuel industry; they go on to pub. the killer climate change essay Providing Insight into Climate Change. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris. Watch video - Tom Harris.

Christopher Essex (1954-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)

In 2002 Canadian Western U. (London, Ont.) applied math prof. Christopher Essex (1954-) and and Canadian economist Ross McKitrick (1965-) pub. the book Taken by Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming. In Nov. 2006 Canada's Conservative got. appoints Essex to the 21-member Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, which oversses research grants to Canadian univs., pissing-off the AGW crowd, with Canadian New Dem. Party MP Nathan Cullen uttering the soundbyte: "If you put someone in who doesn't believe in climate change and sees no urgency to fight against human-related climate change, you then skew the entire debate. It's a Republican-style approach where you fund the skeptics." On Mar. 25, 2015 Essex pub. the article Climate Science Doubts: Not Because of Payment, But Because the Science Is Bad in Breitbart, which starts out: "Members of the Scientific Council of the Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF) recently criticized the Royal Society's positions on climate. Their clear, authoritative scientific objections to the Royal Society's positions reveal the weak scientific foundation on which the great climate fervor has been based. The public must either become conversant enough to grasp this or step back and get out of the way of those who have. Scientists don't need to be paid to oppose the ideas of climate orthodoxy, because those ideas are just so damn bad." Watch video - Christopher Essex. Watch video - Christopher Essex. Watch video - Christopher Essex. Watch video - Christopher Essex.

Frank Luntz (1962-)

In 2002 West Hartford, Conn.-born Repub. (Pres. Bush) political consultant Frank Ian Luntz (1962-) suggests that the term "global warming" be changed to "climate change" to sound less severe, with the soundbyte: "The scientific debate is closing [against us]... but not yet closed. There is still a window of opportunity to challenge the science... Voters believe that there is no consensus about global warming within the scientific community. Should the public come to believe that the scientific issues are settled, their views about global warming will change accordingly. Therefore, you need to continue to make the lack of scientific certainty a primary issue in the debate, and defer to scientists and other experts in the field." In June 2019 Luntz begins a campaign to turn Repubs. into climate extremists who back his plan for a $40/ton fee on CO2 emissions, using a push poll funded by the Climate Leadership Council that he claims proves that opinion has reached a "tipping point".


Michael Crichton (1942-2008)

On Jan. 17, 2003 Chicago, Ill.-born "Jurassic Park" novelist John Michael Crichton (1942-2008) gives a lecture at Caltech titled Aliens Cause Global Warming, containing the soundbyte: "Historically, the claim of consensus has been the first refuge of scoundrels; it is a way to avoid debate by claiming that the matter is already settled. Whenever you hear the consensus of scientists agrees on something or other, reach for your wallet, because you're being had. Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus. There is no such thing as consensus science. If it's consensus, it isn't science. If it's science, it isn't consensus. Period"; also: "There's an initial Eden, a paradise, a state of grace and unity with nature; there's a fall from grace into a state of pollution as a result from eating from the tree of knowledge; and as a result of our actions, there is a judgement day coming for all of us. We're energy sinners, doomed to die, unless we seek salvation, which is now called sustainability. Sustainability is salvation in the church of the environment. Just as organic food is its communion, that pesticide-free wafer that the right beliefs imbibe"; on Dec. 7, 2004 Crichton pub. the NYT bestseller novel (1.5M copies) State of Fear, about ecoterrorists plotting mass murder to publicize the dangers of global warming, calling climate change "a vast pseudo-scientific hoax", which the book attempts to refute with scientific arguments that are pooh-poohed by climate warmists, making it more popular? On Sept. 28, 2005 Crichton testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, uttering the soundbyte: "I want to state emphatically that nothing in my remarks should be taken to imply that we can ignore our environment, or that we should not take climate change seriously. On the contrary, we must dramatically improve our record on environmental management. That is why a focused effort on climate science, aimed at securing sound, independently verified answers to policy questions, is so important now." Watch video - Michael Crichton.

On May 1, 2003 Ahilleas Maurellis and Jonathan Tennyson pub. the article The climatic effects of water vapour in Physics World, which starts out: "Extreme variations in local weather and the seasons make it easy for people to mutter 'greenhouse effect', and blame everything on carbon dioxide. Along with other man-made gases, such as methane, carbon dioxide has received a bad press for many years and is uniformly cited as the major cause of the greenhouse effect. This is simply not correct."

Hans Jelbring

In May 1, 2003 Swedish U. of Stockholm meteorologist Hans Roger Jelbring pub. the paper The "Greenhouse Effect" as a Function of Atmospheric Mass in Energy & Environment, with the abstract: "The main reason for claiming a scientific basis for 'Anthropogenic Greenhouse Warming (AGW)' is related to the use of 'radiative energy flux models as a major tool for describing vertical energy fluxes within the atmosphere. Such models prescribe that the temperature difference between a planetary surface and the planetary average black body radiation temperature (commonly called the Greenhouse Effect, GE) is caused almost exclusively by the so called greenhouse gases. Here, using a different approach, it is shown that GE can be explained as mainly being a consequence of known physical laws describing the behaviour of ideal gases in a gravity field... A noteworthy implication is that the calculated values of AGW, accepted by many contemporary climate scientists, are thus irrelevant and probably quite insignificant (not detectable) in relation to natural processes causing climate change"; in Jan. 2012 he writes the soundbyte: "IPCC should not only be defunded, it should be deleted as an agency. The reason is its misuse of the concept of science. It has never been meant to rely on correct science and uses science for one simple reason. People believe in science, since people have seen the result of powerful applications of it during 100 years. IPCC uses this fact to 'sell' its political message to get support from ordinary people. Science is a 'brand' for selling propaganda. The only way to keep the IPCC is for it to skip any claim of being scientific at all and clearly declare what it really is: a political organization. My tutor when writing my exam paper in meteorology was Bert Bolin, the founder of IPCC. He was for sure a screwed influential politician and a dishonest and ordinary scientist."

In July-Aug. 2003 the Summer 2003 European Heat Wave kills 70K, becoming the hottest summer in Europe since 1540; on Aug. 10 a record of 38.5C (101.3F) is set in Faversham, Kent, England; on Sept. 25 France reports a death toll of 14,802, mostly elderly people without air conditioning from the summer heat wave; the young people were vacationing at the time, and arrived back to find thousands of negelected dead old people bottled up in their hot apts.?

On Aug. 10, 2003 Haversham, Kent, England reaches a record 101.3F (38.5C).

Yuri Izrael (1930-2014)

On Sept. 29-Oct. 9, 2003 the World Climate Change Conference in Moscow, Russia, convened by Russian Federation pres. Vladimir Putin endorses the IPCC Third Assessment Report; too bad, several scientists break ranks, incl. Putin's scientific advisor Yuri Antonovich Izrael (1930-2014), vice-chmn. of the IPCC (until Sept. 2008) who utters the soundbytes: "The Kyoto Protocol is overly expensive, ineffective, and based on bad science", and: "The people of Bangladesh, who live at sea level, may face problems if the Indian Ocean rises. Still, their resettlement would be much cheaper than projected Kyoto Protocol expenses", causing conference participant Andreas Fischlin to get pissed-off and utter the soundbyte: "However, concerning the scientific content of the conference, we had also to struggle with considerable difficulties. Unfortunately, there were not only leading scientists present, but also some colleagues who used the conference to express personal, political opinions based on value judgement instead of scientific facts and rigorously derived, scientific insights and thorough understanding. Thereby, I believe, principles of proper scientific conduct were violated too often and sometimes, I am afraid having to say so, even systematically. This contrasts sharply with the principles upheld by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), which allow only to assess the current knowledge based on the best available, peer reviewed scientific literature and which do not allow for any non-scientific value judgements, let alone policy recommendations"; Izrael goes on to putin, er, put in his two cents worth, with the soundbytes: "Climate change is obvious, but science has not yet been able to identify the causes of it"; "There is no proven link between human activity and global warming"; "Global temperatures will likely rise by 1.4-5.8 degrees during the next 100 years. The average increase will be three degrees. I do not think that this threatens mankind. Sea levels, due to rise by 47 cm in the 21st century, will not threaten port cities"; "I think the panic over global warming is totally unjustified. There is no serious threat to climate"; "There is no need to dramatize the anthropogenic impact, because the climate has always been subject to change under Nature's influence, even when humanity did not even exist"; "There is no scientifically sound evidence of the negative processes that allegedly begin to place at such temperatures"; no surprise, global warmist scientists pooh-pooh him and resort to ad hominem attacks, with Quirin Shiermeier and Byron MacWilliams calling him a "fossil communist fighting for fossil fuel".

U.S. Sen. John McCain (1936-2018) U.S. Sen. Joe Lieberman (1942-)

On Oct. 30, 2003 the U.S. McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act, drafted by U.S. Repub. Ariz. Sen. (1987-2018) John Sidney McCain III (1936-2018) and Indep. Conn. Sen. (1989-2013) Joseph Isadore "Joe" Lieberman (1942-) is defeated in the U.S. Senate by 55-43; it would have capped 2010 CO2 emissions at the 2000 level and established a scholarship at the Nat. Academy of Sciences for students of climatology; similar acts are defeated in 2005 (38-60) and 2007 (dies in committee); on May 12, 2008 during the 2008 U.S. pres. campaign as the Repub. candidate, McCain gives a speech on climate change in Portland, Ore., with the soundbytes: "Today I'd like to focus on just one of those challenges, and among environmental dangers it is surely the most serious of all. Whether we call it 'climate change' or 'global warming', in the end we're all left with the same set of facts. The facts of global warming demand our urgent attention, especially in Washington. Good stewardship, prudence, and simple commonsense demand that we to act meet the challenge, and act quickly"; "Some of the most compelling evidence of global warming comes to us from NASA. No longer do we need to rely on guesswork and computer modeling, because satellite images reveal a dramatic disappearance of glaciers, Antarctic ice shelves and polar ice sheets"; "We have many advantages in the fight against global warming, but time is not one of them. Instead of idly debating the precise extent of global warming, or the precise timeline of global warming, we need to deal with the central facts of rising temperatures, rising waters, and all the endless troubles that global warming will bring. We stand warned by serious and credible scientists across the world that time is short and the dangers are great. The most relevant question now is whether our own government is equal to the challenge." On Oct. 29, 2003 Charles River Associates reports that the impact on the U.S. economy of the McCain-Liberman Act would incl. 20% higher electricity bills, a 25-cent/gal. increase in the price of gasoline, and a cost of $300+/year/household in reduced consumption, with spokesman James K. Glassman of the Am. Enterprise Inst. (AEI) issuing the soundbyte: "The cost analysis of McCain-Lieberman reinforces what we've come to learn about global warming policy measures since Kyoto. We do know that they'll be very costly and damaging to the U.S. economy, and we don't know if they'll have any measurable effect on the earth's climate."

On Nov. 26, 2003 Hisashi Ozawa, Atsumu Ohmura, Ralph D. Lorenz, and Toni Pujol pub. the paper The second law of thermodynamics and the global climate system: A review of the maximum entropy production principle in Reviews of Geophysics, using the principle of maximum entropy production to accurately determine the meridional and vertical temperature profiles of the Earth's surface and atmosphere without needing to use GHGs or radiative forcing, bringing back Carnot's concept of the atmosphere as a heat engine.

Berkeley Earth Richard A. Muller (1944-) Rebekah Mercer (1973-)

On Dec. 17, 2003 UCB physicist Richard A. Muller (1944-) pub. the article Medieval Global Warming: A controversy over 14th century climate shows the peril of letting politics shape the debate, which contains the soundbyte: "Let me be clear. My own reading of the literature and study of paleoclimate suggests strongly that carbon dioxide from burning of fossil fuels will prove to be the greatest pollutant of human history. It is likely to have severe and detrimental effects on global climate. I would love to believe that the results of Mann et al. are correct, and that the last few years have been the warmest in a millennium." In 2010 after claiming to be a global warming skeptic to get the wealthy conservative Rebekah "Bekah" Mercer (1973-) to back him financially, he and his daughter Elizabeth Muller found Berkeley Earth to perform the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Project to reanalyze the Earth's surface temperature record in the light of concerns by skeptics, going on to pub. their findings in 2012 and go non-profit in Feb. 2013; they conclude that potential biases from data selection, data adjustment, poor station quality, and the urban heat island (UHI) effect did not unduly bias the record, and that the overreliance on large and complex global climate models by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in the attribution of the recent temperature increase to anthropogenic forcings could be replaced by a simple model that included a volcanic term and, as an anthropogenic proxy, CO2 concentration, concluding that the record could be reproduced by just these two contributions, and that inclusion of direct variations in solar intensity did not contribute to the fit, causing Richard Muller to supposedly convert to an AGW believer, as if he never published that article in 2003; Berkeley Earth members incl. Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist Saul Perlmutter (1959-), UCB physicist Jonathan Wurtele (1957-), UCB physicist Arthur Hinton "Art" Rosenfeld (1926-2017), physicist Don Groom, Steven Mosher, Zeke Hausfather, Pamela Hyde, and UCB physicist Robert Andrew Rhode, who writes the software to search databases for global temp records and merge them into a unified record, which he compares to "Hercules' enormous task of cleaning the Augean stables", extending the temp record back to 1753; On Jan. 5, 2012 Muller is quoted in a Nov. 3, 2011 article in The Huffington Post by Tom Zeller Jr. titled Richard Muller, Climate Researchers, Navigates the Volatile Line Between Science and Skepticism: "It is ironic if some people treat me as a traitor, since I was never a skeptic - only a scientific skeptic. Some people called me a skeptic because in my best-seller 'Physics for Future Presidents' I had drawn attention to the numerous scientific errors in the movie 'An Inconvenient Truth'. But I never felt that pointing out mistakes qualified me to be called a climate skeptic." On Oct. 21, 2011 Richard Muller pub. op-ed The Case Against Global Warming Skepticism in The Wall Street Journal, containing the soundbyte: "When we began our study, we felt that skeptics had raised legitimate issues, and we didn't know what we'd find. Our results turned out to be close to those published by prior groups. We think that means that those groups had truly been very careful in their work, despite their inability to convince some skeptics of that. They managed to avoid bias in their data selection, homogenization and other corrections. Global warming is real. Perhaps our results will help cool this portion of the climate debate. How much of the warming is due to humans and what will be the likely effects? We made no independent assessment of that." On July 30, 2012 Muller pub. the op-ed The Conversion of a Climate Change Skeptic in the New York Times, which contains the soundbyte: "Our results show that the average temperature of the Earth's land has risen by 2.5F over the past 250 years, including an increase of 1.5 degrees over the most recent 50 years. Moreover, it appears likely that essentially all of this increase results from the human emission of greenhouse gases." Watch video - Richard A. Muller. Watch video - Richard A. Muller. Watch video - Tony Heller.

Steve McIntyre (1947-) Ross McKitrick (1965-)

In late 2003 after getting pissed-off at the Canadian govt.'s promotion of the Kyoto Protocol, math-trained Canadian mining consultant Stephen "Steve" McIntyre (1947-) (owner of the blog Climate Audit) and Canadian economist Ross McKitrick (1965-) pub. the paper Corrections to the Mann et al. (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemispheric Average Temperature Series in Energy and Environment, alleging errors in principal component analysis in Mann's 1998 hockey stick graph that underrepresent the Medieval Warm Period, turning the hockey stick into er, moose hockey and launching the Hockey Stick Debate (Controversy); on Oct. 15, 2004 Richard A. Muller pub. the paper Global Warming Bombshell in MIT Technology Review (subtitle: A prime piece of evidence linking human activity to climate change turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics), containing the soundbyte: "McIntyre and McKitrick obtained part of the program that Mann used, and they found serious problems. Not only does the program not do conventional PCA, but it handles data normalization in a way that can only be described as mistaken. Now comes the real shocker. This improper normalization procedure tends to emphasize any data that do have the hockey stick shape, and to suppress all data that do not. To demonstrate this effect, McIntyre and McKitrick created some meaningless test data that had, on average, no trends. This method of generating random data is called 'Monte Carlo' analysis, after the famous casino, and it is widely used in statistical analysis to test procedures. When McIntyre and McKitrick fed these random data into the Mann procedure, out popped a hockey stick shape!... That discovery hit me like a bombshell, and I suspect it is having the same effect on many others. Suddenly the hockey stick, the poster-child of the global warming community, turns out to be an artifact of poor mathematics. How could it happen?" - now that ain't my radio it's my weather gauge? McIntyre later utters the soundbyte: "The data set of proxies of past climate used in Mann... for the estimation of temperature from 1400 to 1980 contains collation errors, unjustifiable truncation or extrapolation of source data, obsolete data, geographical location errors, incorrect calculation of principal componenets and other quality control defects." McKitrick later utters the soundbytes: "I have been probing the arguments for global warming for well over a decade. In collaboration with a lot of excellent coauthors I have consistently found that when the layers get peeled back, what lies at the core is either flawed, misleading or simply non-existent", and "The world still awaits a proper inquiry into climategate: one that is not stacked with global warming advocates and one that is prepared to cross-examine evidence, interview critics as well as supporters of the CRU and other IPCC players, and follow the evidence where it clearly leads." In 2002 McKitrick and Christopher Essex pub. Taken By Storm: The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming, accusing politicians of claiming more certainty that is justified by the science. On Dec. 5, 2019 McKitrick and McIntyre pub. the paper Climategate: Untangling Myth and Reality Ten Years Later.

In 2003 the NIPCC (Nongovernmental Internat. Panel on Climate Change is founded by the Science & Environmental Policy Project to counter the lies of the U.N. IPCC., going on to partner with the Heartland Inst.

In 2003 Ken Caldiera of Stanford U. coins the term "ocean acidification" for its shock value to aid CO2 climate alarmist agitprop; seawater is safely alkaline, with a pH of 7.8 to 8.5

George Marshall (1964-)

In 2003 English environmental activist George Marshall (1964-) founds Climate Outreach to engage the public on climate change; in 2007 he pub. Carbon Detox, a how-to manual for personal emissions reduction; in 2014 he pub. Don't Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change, about stepping away from Green Guilt, becoming a hit. Watch video - George Marshall.

Andrew Revkin (1956-)

In 2003 New York Times climate journalist Andrew Revkin (1956-) reports from a research camp located on drifting sea ice near the North Pole, advertising a sign that reads "The North Pole Was Here", going on to pub. The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World on Apr. 22, 2006. In 2010 he becomes a member of the new Anthropocene Working Group of the Internat. Commission on Stratigraphy, which was founded to develop the idea that human impact on Earth's climate is creating the new Anthropocene geological epoch, presenting its official recommendation on Aug. 29, 2016, which isn't officially approved until ?.

Nir Shaviv (1972-) Jan Veizer (1941-)

In 2003 Ithaca, N.Y.-born Hebrew U. of Jerusalem physicist-climatologist Nir Joseph Shaviv (1972-) and Slovakian-born U. of Ottawa geochemist Jan Veizer (1941-) pub. the article Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? in GSA Today, proposing that Earth's passes through the spiral arms of the Milky Way along with cosmic rays may have caused Earth's major ice ages over the past billion years, containing the soundbyte: "Pending further confirmation, one interpretation of the above result could be that the global climate possesses a stabilizing negative feedback. A likely candidate for such a feedback is cloud cover. If so, it would imply that the water cycle is the thermostat of climate dynamics, acting both as a positive (water vapor) and negative(clouds) feedback, with the carbon cycle 'piggybacking' on, and being modified by, the water cycle." On Apr. 19, 2007 Shavov and Veizer pub. the paper Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate in the Journal of the Geological Society of Am., demonstrating that a temperature reconstruction of the Phanerozoic Eon (began -541M) correlates with cosmic ray flux but not with CO2, placing a low upper limit on the climatic effect of CO2, causing climate scientists Stefan Rahmstorf at al. to criticize them in the June 3, 2011 article Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate in Eos (Am. Geophysical Union), with the conclusion: "The correlation of CRF [cosmic ray flux] and climate over the past 520 m.y. appear to not hold up under scrutiny." On June 16, 2015 Shaviv pub. the article The IPCC and others blame CO2 for increases in sea levels, ignoring evidence that shows the sun to be the cause. On Dec. 19, 2017 Shaviv et al. pub. the article Increased ionization supports growth of aerosols into cloud condensation nuclei in Nature Communications, starting out: "Ions produced by cosmic rays have been thought to influence aerosols and clouds", showing that "the mass-flux of small ions can constitute an important addition to the growth caused by condensation of neutral molecules. Under atmospheric conditions the growth from ions can constitute severl percent of the natural growth." Watch video - Nir Shaviv.


In 2004 the Antarctic Polar Night begins (ends 2016), with 100 different locations on the East Antarctic Plateau reaching temps of -98C (-144F), beating the record low air temp of -89.2C (-129F) of July 23, 1983.

In 2004 the 2004 African Locust Infestation ravages crops across the N third of Africa, leaving millions at risk of starvation; in 2006 another swarm reaches 3 sq. mi. in area as it moves across Mauritania; meanwhile a drought in Niger combined with desert locust damage destroys the fall crop, leaving 3.6M short of food, causing a food crisis in 2005-6.

On Feb. 21, 2004 The Guardian pub. the article Now the Pentagon tells Bush: climate change will destroy us, describing a secret report written by CIA consultant Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall of the Calif.-based Global Business Network, commissioned by Pentagon defense adviser Andrew Marshall, which warns of rioting and nuclear war due to climate change and overpop. during the next 20 years that "could result in a global catastrophe costing millions of lives in wars and natural disaster, claiming that "major European cities will be sunk beneath rising seas as Britain is plunged into a 'Siberian' climate by 2020"; "The document predicts that abrupt climate change could bring the planet to the edge of anarchy as countries develop a nuclear threat to defend and secure dwindling food, water and energy supplies. The threat to global stability vastly eclipses that of terrorism, say the few experts privy to its contents"; former chmn. of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Bob Watson utters the soundbyte: "Can Bush ignore the Pentagon? It's going be hard to blow off this sort of document. It's hugely embarrassing. After all, Bush's single highest priority is national defence. The Pentagon is no wacko, liberal group, generally speaking it is conservative. If climate change is a threat to national security and the economy, then he has to act. There are two groups the Bush Administration tend to listen to, the oil lobby and the Pentagon"; Rob Gueterbock of Greenpeace adds the soundbyte: "You've got a President who says global warming is a hoax, and across the Potomac river you've got a Pentagon preparing for climate wars. It's pretty scary when Bush starts to ignore his own government on this issue."

Tim Phillips (1964-)

On Mar. 10, 2004 the conservative-libertarian political advocacy group Americans for Prosperity is founded in Arlington, Va., funded by the billionaire Koch Brothers, going on to turn the Obama-era Tea Party into a political force, organizing opposition to Obama admin. initiatives on global warming, Medicaid expansion, economic stimulus, Obamacare, cap and trade, federal min. wage et al., helping achieve a Repub. majority in the House in 2010 and the Senate in 2014; in 2008 it launches the No Climate Tax Pledge, which is signed by 411 politicians incl. 35% of U.S. senators and 33% of U.S. reps by July 213 incl. 9 of 12 Repubs. on the House Energy and Commerce Committee; in 2005 Spartanburg, S.C.-born Repub. political strategist Tim Phillips (1964-) becomes pres. (until ?).

Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927-2011)

On Mar. 19, 2004 Polish climate science pioneer Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927-2011) testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, dissing the use of ice core samples to determine ancient CO2 levels, with the soundbyte: "Particular gases, CO2, O2 and N2 trapped in the deep cold ice start to form clathrates, and leave the air bubbles, at different pressures and depth. At the ice temperature of –15oC dissociation pressure for N2 is about 100 bars, for O2 75 bars, and for CO2 5 bars. Formation of CO2 clathrates starts in the ice sheets at about 200 meter depth, and that of O2 and N2 at 600 to 1000 meters. This leads to depletion of CO2 in the gas trapped in the ice sheets. This is why the records of CO2 concentration in the gas inclusions from deep polar ice show the values lower than in the contemporary atmosphere, even for the epochs when the global surface temperature was higher than now"; on Mar. 16, 2007 Jaworowski pub. the article Look, Feel, & Smell Your Best (CO2 – The Greatest Scientific Scandal Of Our Time) in ERI Science, bemoaning the loss of scientific integrity in the field of global warming research after the intervention of the politician-controlled U.N. IPCC.

'The Day After Tomorrow', 2004

On May 17, 2004 Roland Emmerich's The Day After Tomorrow (20th Cent. Fox) debuts, starring Dennis Quaid as climatologist Jack Hall, who must save the world from super-fast global warming er, cooling, which incl. New York being taken over by a new ice age; Jake Gyllenhaal plays his stranded son Sam; #7 movie of 2004 ($187M in the U.S. and $544.3M worldwide on a $125M budget); watch trailer; view clip.

Alister McFarquhar

On Oct. 18, 2004 Cambridge-educated Scottish agricultural economist Alister McFarquhar of the Adam Smith Inst. pub. a letter to the ed. in The Telegraph, complaining about biased coverage of the 2005 Kyoto Protocol, which he calls "too costly", with the soundbyte: "There is no clear evidence of warming in weather satellites and balloons in the 20th century. Predictions of warming depend on models involving arbitrary assumptions and science hypotheses. The relation between CO2, water vapour and putative warming seems very obscure."

Ferenc Miskolczi

In Oct. 2004 after studying radiosonde observations from around the world, NASA scientist Ferenc Miskolczi pub. the paper The greenhouse effect and the spectral decomposition of the clear-sky terrestrial radiation in the Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, describing a "greenhouse constant" that keeps the greenhouse effect in equilibrium with rising CO2 levels, maintaining a constant value of 1.87 total infrared optical thickness of the atmosphere, making warming by back-radiation along with runaway greenhouse theories moose hockey that contradict energy balance equations; too bad, his supervisors at NASA begin to shun him and refuse to pub. his results, causing him to resign on Oct. 28, 2005.

David E. Parker

On Nov. 18, 2004 David E. Parker of Hadley Center in Exeter, England pub. the article Climate: Large-scale warming is not urban in Nature, showing that the urban heat island effect doesn't affect the historical temperature record, with the soundbyte: "The reality and magnitude of global-scale warming is supported by the near-equality of temperature trends on windy nights with trends based on all data"; too bad, other studies show the opposite.

Nick Mabey Tom Burke John Ashton (1956-)

In 2004 the climate change think tank E3G (Third Generation Environmentalism is founded by Nick Mabey, Tom Burke, and British diplomat John Ashton (1956-), with offices in London, Brussels, Berlin, and Washington, D.C., going on to play a pivotal role in getting Russia to ratify the Kyoto Protocol; in 2009 it creates the Transform UK Coalition, leading to the founding of the Green Investment Bank (Group) in London in 2012.

Willis Eschenbach

In 2004 amateur scientist (climate skeptic) Willis Eschenbach pub. the paper Tuvalu not experiencing increased sea level rise in Energy & Environment; in 2010 he pub. the paper The Thunderstorm Thermostat Hypothesis: How clouds and thunderstorms control the Earth's temperature in Energy & Environment, exposing a big blind spot of the CO2-does-everything IPCC octopus; too bad, his credentials are limited to a bachelor's in psychology from a podunk state univ., and a Calif. massage certificate, giving the IPCC establishment an excuse to ignore all his self-education. Watch video - Willis Eschenbach.

Phil Klotzbach (1977-) William M. Gray (1929-2016)

In 2004 Colo. State U. atmospheric scientist Phil Klotzbach (1977-) begins creating Atlantic basin hurricane forecasts with Colo. State U. atmospheric scientist William Mason "Bill" Gray (1929-2016); in 2006 Klotzbach becomes the first author of the seasonal hurricane forecasts, developing the 2-week forecasts used in Aug.-Oct. in the peak months of the hurricane season, later developing the Landfalling Hurricane Probability Webpage along with the GeoGraphics Lab of his alma mater Bridgewater State College, providing hurricane landfall probabilities for the entire U.S. coastline from Brownsville, Tex. to Eastport, Maine incl. the Caribbean Sea. On Oct. 11, 2011 Gray pub. the paper Gross Errors in the IPCC-AR4 Report regarding Past & Future Changes in Global Tropical Cyclone Activity – (a Nobel Disgrace), slamming them for lying that hurricane frequency and intensity have been increasing to get their Nobel Peace Prize. On May 21-3, 2012 at the 7th Internat. Conference on Climate Change (ICCC-7) in Chicago, Ill., Gray presents his paper The Physical Flaws of the Global Warming theory and Deep Ocean Circulation Changes as the Primary Climate Driver, which starts out: "The main misconception of the global warmers is to assume that all the many large energy terms of the climate system remain constant over long periods and that the only changes that matter for climate alteration are the very small magnitude variations of human-induced CO2. How could the warmers be so naive as to believe that changes in CO2 are the dominate climate forcing mechanism?"; "Increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases will not be able to bring about significant climate disruption in the next 75-100 years. The main problem with the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theory is the false treatment of the global hydrologic cycle which is not adequately understood by any of the AGW advocates. The water vapor, cloud, and condensation-evaporation assumptions within the conventional AGW theory and the (GCM) simulations are incorrectly designed to block too much infrared (IR) radiation to space. They also do not reflect-scatter enough short wave (albedo) energy to space. These two misrepresentations result in a large artificial warming that is not realistic. A realistic treatment of the hydrologic cycle would show that the influence of a doubling of CO2 should lead to a global surface warming of only about 0.3°C - not the 3°C warming as indicated by the climate simulations"; "The global surface warming of about 0.7°C that has been experienced over the last 150 years and the multi-decadal up-and-down global temperature changes of 0.3-0.4°C that have been observed over this period are hypothesized to be driven by a combination of multi-century and multi-decadal ocean circulation changes. These ocean changes are due to naturally occurring upper ocean salinity variations. Changes in CO2 play little role in these salinity driven ocean climate forcings." Gray also utters the soundbyte: "Human-induced global warming is supported by scientists afraid of losing grant funding." On Sept. 9, 2018 after Hurricane Florence is born, Klotzbach utters the soundbyte that storms in the NE Pacific have generated the most "accumulated cyclone energy" on record through the first week of Sept., with nine named storms in the Atlantic and 15 in the Pacific since their hurricane seasons began on June 1 and May 15, respectively; the last time this happened was in 2016, and before that in 1998. Dr. William Gray – The Man who Declared War on Global Warming Extremists Watch video - Bill Gray

Michael Shellenberger (1971-)

In 2004 after co-founding the Breakthrough Inst. in Oakland, Calif., San Francisco, Calif.-based leftist environmentalist Michael Shellenberger (1971-) and Am. environmental policy expert Ted Nordhaus pub. the essay The Death of Environmentalism: Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World, claiming that environmentalism is incapable of dealing with climate change and should "die" to make way for a new politics. In Oct. 2007 they pub. the book Break Through: From the Death of Environmentalism to the Politics of Possibility, fleshing out the essay, splitting the left and causing them to become called "ecomodernists" and "eco-pragmatists" by Slate Mag., and winning praise from Wired mag., which says that it "could turn out to be the best thing to happen to environmentalism since Rachel Carson's Silent Spring." In 2008 Shellenberger wins the Hero of the Environment and Green Book Awards. In 2011 they launch The Breakthrough Journal, which The Nat. Review calls "The most promising effort at self-criticism by our liberal cousins in a long time." In Apr. 2015 Shellenberger et al. pub. An Ecomodernist Manifesto, with the soundbyte: "We offer this statement to affirm and to clarify our views and to describe our vision for putting humankind's extraordinary powers in the service of creating a good Anthropocene." In 2017 Shellenberger tells The Australian: "Like most people, I started out pretty anti-nuclear. I changed my mind as I realised you can't power a modern economy on solar and wind... All they do is make the electricity system chaotic and provide greenwash for fossil fuels." In 2018 Shellenberger runs unsuccessfully for Calif. Dem. gov. On May 22, 2019 Zach Weissmueller pub. the article Environmentalist Says Only Power Can Save Us Now in Reason mag. On June 30, 2020 Shellenberger pub. Apocalypse Never: Why Environmental Alarmism Hurts Us All, with the ad blurb: "Climate change is real but it's not the end of the world. It is not even our most serious environmental problem." Watch video - Michael Shellenberger. Watch video - Michael Shellenberger. Watch video - Michael Shellenberger.

H. Jay Zwally

In 2004 leading climate alarmist scientists D.T. Shindell and G.A. Schmidt of NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies pub. the paper Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases in Geophysical Research Letters, with the abstract: "While most of the Earth warmed rapidly during recent decades, surface temperatures decreased significantly over most of Antarctica", going on to try to link it to increased greenhouse gases and Antarctic ozone depletion; in 2004 NASA pub. a map of Antartica showing the cooling, only to change the data in a 2009 map to portray an Antarctic ice sheet collapse? On Oct. 30, 2015 NASA scientist H. Jay Zwally et al. pub. the paper Mass Gains of Antarctic Ice Sheet Greater than Losses in Journal of Glaciology, using a LIDAR altimeter to discover that the Antarctic ice sheet is growing, with the soundbytes: "An increase in Antarctic snow accumulation that began 10,000 years ago is currently adding enough ice to the continent to outweigh the increased losses from its thinning glaciers"; "The research challenges the conclusions of other studies, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) 2013 report, which says that Antarctica is overall losing land ice. According to the new analysis of satellite data, the Antarctic ice sheet showed a net gain of 112 billion tons of ice a year from 1992 to 2001. That net gain slowed to 82 billion tons of ice per year between 2003 and 2008", revealing that ice sheet growth in E Antarctica of 147B tons/year outweighs the losses in W Antarctica, pissing-off warmist scientists; on Feb. 8, 2016 Harvard chem. student Jordan Wilkerson pub. the article Why is Antarctica's Ice Sheet Growing in a Warming World?, containing the soundbyte: "An important clarification to make: this trend in ice loss in the West Antarctic is one conclusion of the NASA study not being debated. 'We're essentially in agreement with other studies that show an increase in ice discharge in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Thwaites and Pine Island region of West Antarctica,; Jay Zwally, lead author of the study said. Therefore, if the increasing rates of ice loss in the West Antarctic continue, it'll be only a few decades before they outweigh the ice gain in the East. In this respect, there is no dispute. Antarctic ice is soon going to behave how we'd expect it to on a warming Earth – if it isn't already. And when you're considering how this study fits in with climate change, that is the important conclusion to keep in mind." A rebuttal is pub. on June 13, 2018 in Nature claiming that Antarctica is losing a net of 200B tons of ice/year, adding 0.02" (0.5mm) a year to the sea level, which Zwally claims is moose hockey. Watch video. Watch video. Watch video - H. Jay Zwally. Watch video - H. Jay Zwally. Watch video - Tony Heller.


In Jan. 2005 NOAA begins recording temperatures with its new Climate Reference Network (USCRN), 114 stations uniformly spaced across the lower 48 states; too bad, they go on to show no warming by 2019?

On Feb. 1-3, 2005 after an invitation by British PM Tony Blair, Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases is held at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in Exeter, Devon, England, chaired by Dennis Tirpak to take action on the 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report and achieve the objectives of the 1991 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, concluding that the runaway level of 2C of global warming would likely happen after the atmospheric CO2 level reaches 550ppm, and that action must be taken when it is still below 400ppm because if it reaches 450 ppm then there is only a 50% likelihood of stopping the global warming from reaching 2C, also that if no action is taken for 20 years, emission reduction rates will have to be 3x-7x greater to achieve the same temperature target, causing the U.K. to change its target in its Climate Change Act from 60% to 80% by 2050.

On Feb. 16, 2005 the Kyoto Protocol (signed Dec. 11, 1997) becomes effective for all 84 signatories and 192 parties, incl. all U.N. member states except Andorra, South Sudan, and later Canada and the U.S.

On June 8, 2005 the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season begins (ends Jan. 6, 2006), becoming the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, causing a total of 3,913 deaths and $180.7B damage (vs. $282.1B for the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season).

On Aug. 8, 2005 the U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 is signed by Pres. George W. Bush, creating the Renewable Fuel Standard, a requirement to put a min. vol. of renewable fuels in all transportation fuel sold in the U.S.; it is expanded and extended by the U.S. Energy Independence and Security (Clean Energy) Act of 2007, signed by Pres. George W. Bush on Dec. 19, 2007, implementing his "Twenty in Ten" challenge to reduce gasoline consumption by 20% in 10 years.

John Raymond Christy (1951-) Roy W. Spencer (1955-) Scott Denning

On Aug. 11, 2005 the online ed. of Science pub. three reports by Carl Mears and Frank Wentz of Remote Sensing Systems, reporting that old temp. records used to feed calculations indicating that there is no global warming contained errors, and that the troposphere has warmed during the last two decades; U. of Ala. atmospheric scientists John Raymond Christy (1951-) and Roy Warren Spencer (1955-), who developed the original records (first successful satellite temperature record) concede the error, but say that the warming rate calculated is too small to be a concern. In 2006 Spencer criticizes Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth", with the soundbyte: "Mr. Gore claims that the Earth is now warmer than it has been in thousands of years. Yet the latest National Academies of Science (NAS) report on the subject has now admitted that all we really know is that we are warmer now than we were during the last 400 years, which is mostly made up of the 'Little Ice Age'", adding the soundbyte in a New York Post op-ed of Feb. 26, 2007: "Contrary to popular accounts, very few scientists in the world - possibly none - have a sufficiently thorough, 'big picture' understanding of the climate system to be relied upon for a prediction of the magnitude of global warming. To the public, we all might seem like experts, but the vast majority of us work on only a small portion of the problem"; on Feb. 28, 2007 he gives an interview to Rush Limbaugh, with the soundbyte the he doesn't believe that "catastrophic manmade global warming" is occurring, criticizing climate models with the soundbyte: "The people that have built the climate models that predict global warming believe they have sufficient physics in those models to predict the future. I believe they don't. I believe the climate system, the weather as it is today in the real world shows a stability that they do not yet have in those climate models", later billing himself as "official climatologist of the Rush Limbaugh Show". In 2008 Spencer and William Braswell pub. a paper in Journal of Climate suggesting that natural variations in cloud formation could be causing temperature changes, rather than vice-versa, leading to overestimates of the sensitivity of Earth's climate to greenhouse gas emissions, with the soundbyte: "Our paper is an important step toward validating a gut instinct that many meteorologists like myself have had over the years... that the climate system is dominated by stabilizing processes, rather than destabilizing processes – that is, negative feedback rather than positive feedback." In 2011 Spencer and Braswell pub. a paper in Remote Sensing concluding that more energy is radiated back to space and released earlier than previously thought, with the soundbyte: "The satellite observations suggest there is much more energy lost to space during and after warming than the climate models show. There is a huge discrepancy between the data and the forecasts that is especially big over the oceans", causing a firestorm of controversy resulting in ed.-in-chief Wolfgang Wagner to resign. In 2011 Spencer debates Colo. State U. pro-global warming climate scientist Scott Denning at the Heartland Inst. Internat. Conference on Climate Change, their only non-climate skeptic. On Feb. 14, 2012 Christy pub. a study that found that snowfall in the Sierra Nevada Mts. has not changed in 130 years, pissing-off climate change advocates. On Aug. 28, 2012 Spencer pub. The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World's Top Climate Scientists, showing how recent global warming is the result of chaotic internal natural cycles, and that the climate models fail to account for the complexities of clouds. In Feb. 2014 Spencer posts the soundbyte on his blog that those who use the derogatory term climate change deniers should be called global warming Nazis, with the soundbyte: "These people are supporting policies that will kill far more people than the Nazis ever did", pissing-off the Anti-Defamation League, who calls it "just the latest example of a troubling epidemic of comparisons to Hitler and the Holocaust", to which Spencer responds that they didn't criticize syndicated columnist Ellen Goodman's assertion that "global warming deniers are now on a par with Holocaust deniers". On Mar. 13, 2015 Stephen Po-Chedley, Tyler J. Thorsen, and Qiang Fu of the U. of Wash. pub. the article Removing Diurnal Cycle Contamination in Satellite-Derived Tropospheric Temperatures: Understanding Tropical Tropospheric Trend Discrepancies is pub. in the Journal of Climate of the Am. Meteorological Society, claiming that Christy and Spencer are wrong to claim that there is no "tropospheric amplification" (tropospheric temps higher than surface temps) in the tropics, because their trend measurements are not in agreement with those of NOAA and Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) - and this is their best chance to claim a Dragon in the Sky? In Apr. 2015 Spencer and Christy give an interview to, containing the soundbyte by Christy: "The American Meteorological Society did their survey and they specifically asked the question, Is man the dominate controller of climate over the last 50 years? Only 52 percent said yes. That is not a consensus at all in science... Roy and I have both made the statement that we are in the 97 percent because we believe in some (man-made) effect." On Aug. 19, 2017 Spencer pub. An Inconvenient Deception: How Al Gore Distorts Climate Science and Energy Policy, an attempt to drive the last nail in Gore's coffin, outselling Gore's book. Too bad, Spencer associates himself with the Intelligent Design crowd, and the libertarians, drawing derision for comments incl. "I view my job a little like a legislator, supported by the taxpayer, to protect the interests of the taxpayer and to minimize the role of government." Watch video - John Christy. Watch video - John Christy. Watch video - John Christy. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Roy W. Spencer. Watch video - Scott Denning.

On Sept. 28, 2005 the Nat. Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colo. releases data that the Arctic ice cap is shrinking, reaching its smallest-ever size this summer, and that the cause is probably global warming from human-generated greenhouse gases; they also speculate that the change is becoming self-sustaining as the holes in the ice allow the sea to absorb solar energy; they also claim that the permafrost is disappearing, coastal areas are being inundated, and polar bears are losing hunting grounds.

Nicola Scafetta

On Sept. 28, 2005 Italian-born scientist Nicola Scafetta and physics prof. Bruce West of Duke U. pub. a paper in Geophysical Research Letters, which claims that "The sun may have minimally contributed about 10 to 30 percent of the 1980-2002 global surface warming", with Scafetta's Wikipedia bio stating: "At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system, claiming that the only reasonable explanation is that the climate system is modulated by astronomical oscillations. Natural cycles known with certainty are the 11 (Schwabe) and 22 (Hale) year solar cycles, the cycles of the planets and luni-solar nodal cycles. Jupiter has an orbital period of 11.9 years while Saturn has an orbital period of 29.4 years. These periods predict three other major cycles which are associated with Jupiter and Saturn: about 10 years, the opposition of two planets; about 20 years, their synodic cycle; and about 60 years, the repetition of the combined orbits of the two planets. The major lunar cycles are about 18.6 and 8.85 years. Scafetta's climate model is based primarily on a numerological comparison of secular periodic changes of global surface temperature and the Sun's periodic movement around barycenter of the Solar System caused by the revolving planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Periodic modulation of Moon´s orbital parameters by these planets and subsequent modulation of lunar tides is also discussed. According to Scafetta, who provides no physical explanation of that process, "external forcing of celestial origin simply drives the adjustment of the natural rhythms by letting their own energy flow with the same frequency of the forcing. It just passes to the climatic system the information of how it has to oscillate, not the entire energy to make it oscillate. The effect of a periodic external forcing, even if weak, may become macroscopic and all components of the system gradually synchronize with it." In Dec. 2009 Scafetta pub. the paper Empirical analysis of the solar contribution to global mean air surface temperature change in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, reconstructing major temperature patterns covering 400 years of solar-induced temperature changes. In 2011 Scafetta and Am. ecologist Craig Lohle pub. the paper Climate Change Attribution Using Empirical Decomposition of Climatic Data in the Open Atmospheric Science Journal, forecasting that the world climate "may remain approximately steady until 2030-20040, and may at most warm 0.5-1.0°C by 2100 at the estimated 0.66°C/century anthropogenic warming rate." Scafetta goes on to pub. four more major papers starting in Jan. 2012, only to see the PC global warming scientist community respond with yawns, uttering the soundbyte: "The fact is that I can hindcast major properties observed in climate and solar records for decades, centuries and millennia, as my papers demonstrate while the mainstream climate community cannot do it. My models overcome any IPCC GCM for accuracy that is also demonstrated in one of my recent peer review publications just published." In May 2012 Scafetta pub. the article Testing an astronomically based decadal-scale empirical harmonic climate model versus the IPCC (2007) general circulation climate models in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, claiming to have found a 60-year cycle that explains climate change sans need for greenhouse effect; no surprise, it gets pooh-poohed as a mere curve-fitting exercise. On Mar. 10, 2019 Scafetta and Richard C. Willson of the U. of Naples pub. the article Comparison of Decadal Trends among Total Solar Irradiance Composites of Satellite Observations in Advances in Astronomy that links observed climate changes since 1850 to cyclical, predictable, naturally-occurring events in the Solar System, minimizing human influence.

On Oct. 15, 2005 Category 5 (185 mph) Hurricane Wilma starts as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea near Jamaica, going W and turning into a tropical storm on Oct. 17, then turning S and becoming a hurricane on Oct. 18, growing to Category 5 on Oct. 19, becoming the strongest storm in the Atlantic in recorded history as it wobbles its way through the Caribbean, hitting the Yucatan Peninsula on Oct. 21-22 then entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane, sideswiping Cuba on Oct. 23 and accelerating to Category 3 on Oct. 24 before hitting Cape Romano, Fla. with 120 mph winds, crossing Fla. while weakening to Category 2 and reintensifying to Category 3 as it reaches the Atlantic Ocean and dissipating on Oct. 27, killing 87 incl. 13 in Haiti and Jamaica by the time it dis, causing $27B damage, becoming the 3rd most costly hurricane in history after Katrina and Andrew, and the 8th hurricane to hit Fla. in 15 mo., after which no major hurricane hits the continental U.S. until Hurricane Harvey on Aug. 26, 2017 after 11 years 10 mo.; no hurricane hits Fla. until Hurricane Hermine in 2016, and no major hurricane until Hurricane Irma in Sept. 2017.

In Nov. 2005 Goldman Sachs establishes their Environmental Policy Framework, going green and biting the CO2-driven AGW narrative bigtime.

Johannes J. Feddema

On Dec. 9, 2005 U. of Kan. researcher Johannes J. Feddema et al. pub. the article The Importance of Land-Cover Change in Simulating Future Climates in Science predicting that the deforestation of Amazon jungles could strengthen the summer monsoon in the SW U.S., adding 2 in. to the precipitation and offsetting some of global warming's effects; global deforestation is going at a rate of 50K sq. mi. a year.

In 2005 the Climate Inst. of Australia is founded in Sydney to encourage progressive policies for managing climate change in Australia.

Bud Ward Anthony Leiserowitz (1968-) Ed Maibach (1958-) Connie Roser-Renouf (1953-)

In 2005 the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication (YPCCC) is founded at Yale U.'s School of Forestry after the Yale Forestry and Environmental Sciences Conference in Aspen, Colo. attended by 100 evironmental, business, and other groups agree on the battle plan Americans and Climate Change: Closing the Gap between Science and Action, resulting in funding by the NSF, NOAA, and eight private philanthropies incl. the Global Climate Action Summit, composed of the Grantham Foundation, Heising-Simons Foundation, and MacArthur Foundation; they go on to found the "flow-through" Energy Foundation, which pools funds from 23 philanthropies; the purpose of the YPCCC is as follows: "We conduct scientific research on public climate change knowledge, attitudes, policy preferences and behaviours and the underlying psychological, cultural and political factors that influence them"; the YPCCC subsidiary Yale Climate Connections feeds the media with pro-AGW stories with three full-time staff and 17 regular contributors, dir. by journalist Bud Ward; in 2007 human geography prof. Anthony Leiserowitz (1968-) becomes dir. of YPCC (until ?); his 2003 U. of Ore. dissertation is Global warming in the American mind : the roles of affect, imagery, and worldviews in risk perception, policy preferences and behavior; in 2007 YPCCC and the Environmental Defense found the Center for Climate Change Communication (GMU4C) at George Mason U., which helps produce the annual Climate Change and the American Mind; lead investigators at GMU4C are Edward Wile "Ed" Maibach (1958-) and Connie Roser-Renouf (1953-); in 2009 the GMU4C launches initiative to fuse AGW with public health in order to reveal the "health harms of climate change"; in 2016 they launch the Medical Society Consortium on Climate and Health, with five nat. medical assocs. partnering; in 2009 GMU4C obtains funding from NSF to launch Climate Matters, a program to convert media weathercasters into AGW educators in partnership with the AMS, NOAA, and NASA, supplying weekly AGW packages to 600 weathercasters that reach 75% of Americans with pro-AGW agitprop, esp. the idea that local weather is getting "weird"; in 2014 they send a rep to interview Pres. Obama and convince him to speak more about AGW. Watch video - Anthony Leiserowitz. On Nov. 1, 2016 YPCCC pub. the article Global Warming's Six Americas by Michael Sloan, identifying six unique U.S. public audiences that AGW public engagement efforts need to be aware of, viz., Alarmed, Concerned, Cautious, Disengaged, Doubtful, and Dismissive.

Tim Flannery (1956-)

In 2005 Australian environmentalist Timothy Fridtjof "Tim" Flannery (1956-) pub. The Weather Makers: The History and Future Impact of Climate Change, which claims that high enough CO2 levels can cause mass species extinctions, and has already contributed to the conflict in Darfur, dissing the coal industry and the U.S. Repub. Party, making fans of Sir Richard Branson, Arnold Schwarzenegger, British Columbia PM Gordon Campbell, and Zhou Ji, pres. of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. In Aug. 2018 he pub. the book The Big Melt.


In 2006 the U.S. Hurricane Drought begins, with no Category 3 or higher hurricane making landfall until 2017; the mean frequency of W North Pacific tropical cyclones is 18% lower in 1997-2014 than in 1980-96; the avg. value of total annual accumulated cyclone energy between 2006-16 is less than 60% of the 1900-2017 avg.; no increase in hurricane landfall frequency from 1900-2017; no correlation between tropical cyclone frequency and sea surface temperature over the W North Pacific basin.

On Jan. 26, 2006 the 2006 BBC Climate Seminar bans climate deniers, with the soundbyte: "The BBC has held a high-level seminar with some of the best scientific experts, and has come to the view that the weight of evidence no longer justifies equal space being given to the opponents of the consensus".

James Lovelock (1919-)

In Jan. 2006 English environmentalist scientist James Ephraim Lovelock (1919-) of Dorset, known for proposing the Gaia Hypothesis that Earth functions as a self-regulating system pub. an op-ed. in the British newspaper The Independent, claiming that as a result of global warming "billions of us will die and the few breeding pairs of people that survive will be in the Arctic where the climate remains tolerable" by the end of the 21st cent., going on to predict that by 2040 the 6B world pop. will be culled by famine, flood, and droughts, with "the people of Southern Europe, as well as South-East Asia,... fighting their way into countries such as Canada, Australia and Britain", adding that "By 2040, parts of the Sahara desert will have moved into middle Ruope. We are talking about Paris - as far north as Berlin. In Britain we will escape because of our oceanic position", and "If you take the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predictions, then by 2040 every summer in Europe will be as hot as it was in 2003 - between 110F and 120F. It is not the death of people that is the main problem, it is the fact that the plants can't grow - there will be almost no food grown in Europe"; he finally predicts that 80% of humanity will perish by 2100 C.E., and that this global warming will last 100K years, adding in 2010 that "democracy must be put on hold for the time being"; too bad, in Apr. 2012 he gives an interview to MSNBC-TV, flopping on the issue, saying that he is no longer an "alarmist", with the soundbytes: "All right, I made a mistake", and had been "extrapolating too far"; when it comes to the claim that the science is settled, he utters the soundbytes: "One thing that being a scientist has taught me is that you can never be certain about anything. You never know the truth. You can only approach it and hope to get a bit nearer to it each time. You iterate towards the truth. You don't know it"; "It just so happens that the green religion is now taking over from the Christian religion"; "I don't think people have noticed that, but it's got all the sort of terms that religions use... The greens use guilt. That just shows how religious greens are. You can't win people round by saying they are guilty for putting (carbon dioxide) in the air"; "The problem is we don't know what the climate is doing. We thought we knew 20 years ago. That led to some alarmist books – mine included – because it looked clear-cut, but it hasn't happened"; "The climate is doing its usual tricks. There's nothing much really happening yet. We were supposed to be halfway toward a frying world now. The world has not warmed up very much since the millennium. Twelve years is a reasonable time... it (the temperature) has stayed almost constant, whereas it should have been rising - carbon dioxide is rising, no question about that." He goes on to back nuclear energy, natural gas, and fracking. Watch video - James Lovelock. Watch video - James Lovelock.

James Hoggan (1946-)

In Jan. 2006 the DeSmog Blog is founded by public relations exec James "Jim" Hoggan (1946-) of Vancouver, B.C., Canada to push the global warming theory and oppose "a well-funded and highly organized public relations campaign" that is "poisoning" the climate change debate. On Sept. 29, 2009 he and Richard Littlemore pub. Climate Cover-Up: The Crusade to Deny Global Warming, which "Explains how the propaganda generated by self interest groups has purposely created confusion about climate change. It's an imperative read for a successful future." - Leonardo DiCaprio; on Jan. 18, 2019 Graham Readfearn pub. the article Climate Advocates Underestimate Power of Fossil Fueled Misinformation Campaigns, Say Top Researchers in DeSmog Blog, calling a "myth" the assertion that the "Greenhouse effect violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics", with the soundbyte: "2nd law talks about net flow of energy, and doesn't forbid some flow from cool to hot", adding the "fact": "Greenhouse gases are like a blanket. They trap heat, sending it back down to Earth where we measure it"; no surprise, a post to the blog setting them straight was suppressed.

Steven J. Milloy

On Feb. 1, 2006 Am. health science specialist Steven J. "Steve the Junkman" Milloy, founder of the Web site Junk Science (1996), known for funding by Am. tobacco cos. before becoming a vocal climate skeptic utters the soundbyte: "Our opposition to global warming alarmism is based on three points. First, we don't believe the available scientific data indicate that human activity is measurably changing global climate - history shows that natural climate change can be far more significant than any slight change in climate that may have occurred over the last 200 years. Second, even if human activity is altering global climate to some extent, such climate change might actually be beneficial - historically, civilization has fared better in warmer climatic conditions as opposed to cooler climatic conditions. Third, even if humans are undesirably affecting global climate, the best path forward may be adaptation to that climate change rather than harming the global economy through the expenditure of hundreds of billion dollars under the questionable rationale that greenhouse gas regulation can act as some sort of global thermostat. When the Clean Air Act was enacted in 1970, air pollution in the U.S. was more of an aesthetic than a public health problem. That is even more the case today. Few people realize this after 30 years of non-stop junk science-fueled alarmism from environmental activists"; on Apr. 20, 2006 he pub. the article The Greenhouse Myth on Fox News, containing the soundbytes: "[The] doubling of atmospheric CO2 from pre-Industrial Revolution days might increase global temperature from between 0.5 degrees Centigrade to 1.5 degrees Centigrade - that is, not much"; "[Anthropogenic climate change is not based on] actual temperature measurements and greenhouse physics - rather it comes from manmade computer models relying on myriad assumptions and guesswork." On Apr. 22, 2014 he speaks at the Heritage Foundation's Happy Earth Day: Dispelling Environmental Myths and Celebrating Human Achievement, with the soundbyte: "Of the many guises of the 'War on Coal,' global warming is perhaps the most used excuse... Simple math shows that the Obama war on coal, for purposes of climate control, is futile. Even if U.S.' CO2 emissions stopped today and were to be zero for the remainder of this century, atmospheric CO2 levels would only decrease by about 3%. There would be no measurable impact on global climate, at a cost of 35% of global GDP. We can debate the science of global warming to our heart's content, and we should, but the reality is worldwide hydrocarbon use is increasing. By itself, China is adding the equivalent of the entire U.S. coal fleet between now and 2020, India is adding 71 gigawatts of coal power between now and 2018 - almost as much as the Obama EPA has already shuttered. Obama's unilateral actions are all based on 'junk science' that will accomplish nothing except hurt our standard of living, devastate coal communities, raise electricity prices for all, and cause power outages." Watch video - Steven J. Milloy. Watch video - Steven J. Milloy.

Ray Evans (1939-2014) David Jensen of Australia (1962-) Ian D. Clark Malcolm Turnbull of Australia (1954-)

In Feb. 2006 conservative Australian electrical engineer and Western Mining Corp. exec Ray Evans (1939-2014) (known for the soundbyte that he is a Genesis 1:20 man, meaning "Man is top of the heap", and for calling Al Gore's film "An Inconvenient Truth" "bullshit from beginning to end"), founder of the Australian climate skeptic Lavoisier Group pub. the pamphlet Nine Lies About Global Warming, followed in Feb. 2007 by Nine Facts About Climate Change, which is released during a sitting of the Australian Parliament by Johannesburg, South Africa-born climate skeptic Liberal MP (2004-16) David Geoffrey Jensen (1962-); Evans goes on to utter the soundbytes: "The global warming scam has been, arguably, the most extraordinary example of scientific fraud in the post-War period. So many people, and institutions, have been caught up in the web of deceit, master-minded by environmental activists working through NGOs and their manipulation of the IPCC processes, that the integrity of Western science is seriously at risk"; "Environmentalism has largely superseded Christianity as the religion of the upper classes in Europe and to a lesser extent in the United States", and "If Kyoto is brought into effect the economic dislocation which must follow its implementation will be unprecedented in modern times. It will be equivalent to the famines of the early 19th Century in its disruptive power (except that the famines were followed by good seasons)." On Mar. 8, 2007 Evans appears on the panel discussing the BBC Channel 4 documentary The Great Global Warming Swindle, along with Canadian geoscientist Ian D. Clark, who utters the soundbyte: "Solar activity of the last hundred years, over the last several hundred years correlates very nicely on a decadal basis, with sea ice and Arctic temperatures." In Sept. 2008 Evans pub. the article Satanic Gas: The Politics of Carbon Dioxide, claiming that "carbon dioxide has been wrongfully demonised", and "Since 1998... global temperatures have either been stationary or, since 2002, in decline, but despite that, CO2 concentrations have continued to increase." In Nov. 2008 Evans pub. the article Thank God for Carbon, which contains the soundbytes: "The belief that anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide are responsible for raising the world's temperature during the last 30 years or so is shown here to be without any solid foundation"; and "The Emissions Trading Scheme is a much greater threat to our lives and to our nation than any increase in carbon dioxide that man can produce." The Lavoisier Group goes on to help oust Liberal Party leader and PM #29 (since Sept. 15, 2015) Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (1954-) on Aug. 24, 2018 for supporting an emissions trading scheme. Watch video - Ray Evans. Watch video - Ian D. Clark. Watch video - Ian D. Clark. Watch video - Ian D. Clark. Watch video - Ian D. Clark.

On Mar. 26, 2006 Time mag. pub. the article Earth at the Tipping Point: Global Warming Heats Up, with the subtitle "Polar Ice Caps Are Melting Faster Than Ever... More and More Land is Being Devastated by Drought... Rising Waters Are Drowning Low-Lying Communities... The climate is crashing, and global warming is to blame. Why the crisis hit so soon - and what we can do about it", starting out: "No one can say exactly what it looks like when a planet takes ill, but it probably looks a lot like Earth. Never mind what you've heard about global warming as a slow-motion emergency that would take decades to play out. Suddenly and unexpectedly, the crisis is upon us."

David C. Archibald (1955-)

In Mar. 2006 Australian geologist David C. Archibald (1955-), dir. of the Australian climate skeptic Lavoisier Group pub. the paper Solar Cycles 24 [Dec. 2008] and 25 [2019] and Predicted Climate Response in Energy & Environment, with the abstract: "Based on solar maxima of approximately 50 for solar cycles 24 and 25, a global temperature decline of 1.5°C is predicted to 2020, equating to the experience of the Dalton Minimum. To provide a baseline for projecting temperature to the projected maximum of solar cycle 25, data from five rural, continental US stations with data from 1905 to 2003 was averaged and smoothed. The profile indicates that temperatures remain below the average over the first half of the twentieth century", launching a scientific movement connecting sunspots with Earth's climate; in Mar. 2008 Archibald pub. the paper Solar Cycle 24: Implications for the United States, which starts out: "Do we live in a special time in which the laws of physics and nature are suspended? No, we do not. Can we expect relationships between the Sun's activity and climate, that we can see in data going back several hundred years, to continue for at least another 20 years? With absolute certainy"; in Sept. 2008 he pub. the article Warming or cooling? in Oil & Gas Journal, arguing that the IPCC's claimed water vapor feedback effect is negative not positive, and there is no need to worry about runaway global warming; in Mar. 2009 he pub. the article Solar Cycle 24: Expectations and Implications, predicting global cooling during the upcoming Solar Cycles 24 and 25; on July 20, 2009 he pub. the article The Future of Energy in Australia, claiming the global warming issue is blocking consideration of the real problem of declining oil self-sufficiency; on Oct. 5, 2011 he gives the talk Peak Oil and Climate Change: The Threat to Agriculture and Food Security, advocating a switch to nuclear power; on Mar. 24, 2014 he pub. the book The Twilight of Abundance: Why Life in the 21st Century Will Be Nasty, Brutiish, and Short, warning of a future prolonged global cooling period, and how nuclear power and transformation of coal into liquid fuels can help survive it, going on a book tour that pisses-off global warming advocates, who call him a fringe scientist. In 2012 Jan-Erik Solheim, Kjell Stordahl, and Ole Humlum take up where Archibald left off, with the paper The long sunspot cycle 23 predicts a significant temperature decrease in cycle 24 in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, with the abstract: "Relations between the length of a sunspot cycle and the average temperature in the same and the next cycle are calculated for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. No significant trend is found between the length of a cycle and the average temperature in the same cycle, but a significant negative trend is found between the length of a cycle and the temperature in the next cycle. This provides a tool to predict an average temperature decrease of at least 1.0°C from solar cycle 23 to solar cycle 24 for the stations and areas analyzed." Watch video - David C. Archibald. Watch video - David C. Archibald.

Stephen Harper of Canada (1959-) Gordon McBean Andrew John Weaver (1961-) Kenneth Denman

On Apr. 6, 2006 60 scientists (incl. 19 Canadians) send an open letter titled 61 Scientists Request a Review of Climate Science to new Canadian PM #23 (since Feb. 6) (until Nov. 4, 2015) Stephen Joseph Harper (1959-), arguing against the Dec. 11, 1997 Kyoto Protocol (which became effective on Feb. 16, 2005) and questioning its scientific basis, causing 90 climate scientists led by Canadian climatologist Gordon McBean, Canadian climate modeling scientist Andrew John Weaver (1961-) (lead author for "Chapter 12: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility" of Working Group I's contribution to IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report), and U. of Victoria ocean scientist Kenneth "Ken" Denman to send him an open letter calling for an effective nat. climate change strategy, resulting in the introduction of the Clean Air and Climate Change Act, which never becomes law, although the Clean Air Regulatory Agenda (CARA) is established to support govt. efforts to reduce greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, resulting in Canadian greenhouse emissions dropping from 749M tons to 726M tons during Harper's time in office, compared to an increase of 600M-749M tons in 1993-2006 during the previous Liberal govt., although this is due to the decreased economic output during the Great Recession of Dec. 2007-June 2009, and emissions began increasing in 2010 after the economy began recovering. On Aug. 26, 2008 Weaver pub. Keeping Our Cool: Canada in a Warming World, followed on May 1, 2011 by Generation Us: The Challenge of Global Warming. In Oct. 2012 Weaver joins the Green Party of British Columbia, becoming its leader on Dec. 9, 2015. In Dec. 2012 after announcing it in Dec. 2011, Harper withdraws Canada from the Kyoto Protocol, becoming the first country. On Mar. 21, 2018 never-say-die Weaver gives a speech to the British Columbia legislature, warning of climate change and saying that society needs to "rise to the challenge and not shy away from it".

Bob Carter (1942-2016) Stewart Franks

In Apr. 2006 English-born Australian marine geologist and environmental scientist Robert Merlin "Bob" Carter (1942-2016) pub. the soundbyte: "There IS a problem with global warming... It stopped in 1998... That industrial carbon dioxide is not the primary cause of earth's recent decadal-scale temperature changes doesn't seem at all odd to many thousands of independent scientists. They have long appreciated - ever since the early 1990s, when the global warming bandwagon first started to roll behind the gravy train of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - that such short-term climate fluctuations are chiefly of natural origin"; on Nov. 3, 2006 he pub. the soundbyte in The Australian: "The empirical data stressed by climate rationalists will ultimately prevail over the predictions of the unvalidated computer models. Perhaps then we will be able to attend to the real climate policy problem, which is to prepare response plans for extreme weather events, and for climate warmings as well as coolings, in the same way we prepare to cope with all other natural hazards"; in Sept. 2014 he and Tom Harris pub. an op-ed in The New York Post, with the soundbyte: "Science is never settled, but the current state of 'climate change' science is quite clear: There is essentially zero evidence that carbon dioxide from human activities is causing catastrophic climate change." On Apr. 15, 2009 the Australian Parliament's Select Committee on Climate Policy takes testimony from climate skeptics incl. English-born Australian marine geologist and environmental scientist Robert Merlin "Bob" Carter (1942-2016) and English "hydro-climatologist" Stewart "Stewie" Franks of the U. of Tasmania, who utters the soundbyte: "Our climate policies here in the west are already killing people and climate change has never been shown to have killed a single person"; Franks goes on to utter the soundbytes: "I don't think anybody knows the real role of carbon dioxide in climate change. To say it will be catastrophic is wrong. There is no evidence that CO2 drives climate change, but it continues to be used to scare people into action"; "A key concern is that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which advises governments around the world, has used the Murray-Darling Basin and incorrect science as an example of CO2-induced climate change"; "It is worth pointing out that the CO2 forcing in the IPCC models is only the start of their chain of disaster. It is actually the qualitative feedback with the clouds that generates the extreme disasters of runaway climate. It is not CO2 at all; it is a knock-on consequence. That has no empirical or scientific justification whatsoever. They could very much easily have built in negative feedback and found that the warming was actually reduced... We do not actually monitor what is the most important parameter for this planet; this is, its reflectivity—its albedo. We do not even measure that. A very small changed in the planetary albeit it would completely swamp any additional forcing by CO2 and we do not even measure it. How can we say CO2 is a scientifically proven theory of disastrous climate change? We cannot. We can be concerned about the future, but until it shows itself demonstrably there is no empirical evidence of CO2 leading to this runaway climate change." Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Bob Carter. Watch video - Stewart Franks. Watch video - Stewart Franks.

Steve Goreham

In Apr. 2006 the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition (NZCSC) is founded "To represent accurately, and without prejudice, facts regarding climate change; to provide considered opinion on matters related to both natural and human-caused climate effects; and to comment on the economic and socio-political consequences of climate change"; in 2007 the Internat. Climate Science Coalition (ICSC) is founded by the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition, with the goal of "moving the debate away from implementation of costly and ineffectual 'climate control' measures", providing an "international response to what has become a very international, heavily funded climate alarmist effort around the world"; "ICSC also focuses on publicizing the repercussions of misguided plans to solve the 'climate crisis'. This includes, but is not be limited to, the dangerous impacts of attempts to replace conventional energy sources with wind turbines, solar power, biofuels and other ineffective and expensive energy sources"; it goes on to create the Australian Climate Coalition and the Climate Science Coalition of Am., headed by Am. electrical engineer Steve Goreham; on Apr. 7, 2008 Canadian mechanical engineer Tom Harris (1953-) becomes exec. dir. of the Internat. Climate Science Coalition (ICSC), going on to engage in a media campaign and pub. articles giving the climate skeptic side; too bad, U.S. Dem. Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse claims they're funded by the "Web of Deceit", "a web of deceit conceived and bankrolled by the Koch brothers and other self-interested billionaires to advocate for very selfish and unpatriotic politics. This web of deceit has infiltrated and populated the Trump administratin, and it is swamping the interests of everyday Americans." On Apr. 1, 2010 Goreham pub. the book Climatism! Science, Common Sense, and the 21st Century's Hottest Topic, "an overview of the science, politics, and energy policy implications of the world's misguided efforts to stop warming", defining Climatism as the belief that humans cause global warming, with the soundbytes: "The science clearly shows that global warming is due to natural causes, despite the tidal wave of world belief in man-made climate change"; "The global wind industry is built on a foundation of sand - the hypothesis that man-made global warming is destroying Earth's climate"; On Aug. 31, 2012 Goreham pub. the book The Mad, Mad, Mad World of Climatism: Mankind and Climate Change Mania (2nd ed. Aug. 31, 2012), with the ad blurb: "Is it true that... by driving electric cars, we can stop the seas from rising?... The good news is that, contrary to what our newspaper, our professor, or our political leader tells us, global warming is natural and cars are innocent." On May 1, 2017 Goreham pub. the book Outside the Green Box: Rethinking Sustainable Development, with the ad blurb: "Today, businesses are trapped in the green box of sustainable development. Academics, government leaders, public opinion, and thousands of laws and regulations demand the adoption of sustainability. In response, companies spend billions on renewable energy, carbon credits, biofuels, and other green policies in an effort to counter the coming environmental apocalypse. But a look at data and trends shows that the ideology of environmental sustainable development is based on false concepts. Population growth is slowing, nations continue to reduce air and water pollution, climate change is dominated by natural factors, with the effects from human greenhouse emissions negligible, and societal access to resources continues to grow. Society and business should adopt a policy that is sensibly green, continuing to reduce air and water pollution, but avoid other policies aimed at stopping global warming and halting hydrocarbon use. These policies do little for Earth's environment." Watch video - Steve Goreham.

On May 11, 2006 the May (Mother's Day) 2006 New England Flood begins, becoming the worse since the 1938 New England Hurricane, bringing more than 10 in. of rain.

Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) Al Gore of the U.S. (1948-) 'An Inconvenient Truth' by Al Gore (1948-), 2006

On May 24, 2006 after The Washington Post writes on Jan. 26 that he "believes humanity may have only 10 years left to save the planet from turning into a total frying pan", calling him "the world's most renowned crusader on climate change", Washington, D.C.-born former U.S. Sen. (D-Tenn.) (1985-93) and Dem. U.S. vice-pres. #45 (1993-2001) Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) pub. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It; pub. by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Penn.; the cover photo shows huge smokestacks belching a complete tornado while clouds are whitewashed out; "I am Al Gore, and I used to be the next president of the United States of America"; "You see that pale, blue dot? That's us. Everything that has ever happened in all of human history, has happened on that pixel. All the triumphs and all the tragedies, all the wars all the famines, all the major advances... it's our only home. And that is what is at stake, our ability to live on planet Earth, to have a future as a civilization. I believe this is a moral issue, it is your time to seize this issue, it is our time to rise again to secure our future"; "As for why so many people still resist what the facts clearly show, I think, in part, the reason is that the truth about the climate crisis is an inconvenient one that means we are going to have to change the way we live our lives"; "Global warming, along with the cutting and burning of forests and other critical habitats, is causing the loss of living species at a level comparable to the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. That event was believed to have been caused by a giant asteroid. This time it is not an asteroid colliding with the Earth and wreaking havoc: it is us"; "Future generations may well have occasion to ask themselves, 'What were our parents thinking? Why didn't they wake up when they had a chance?' We have to hear that question from them, now"; "The scientists are virtually screaming from the rooftops now. The debate is over! There's no longer any debate in the scientific community about this. But the political systems around the world have held this at arm's length because it's an inconvenient truth, because they don't want to accept that it's a moral imperative"; "It is appropriate to have an over representation of factual presentations on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience to listen to what the solutions are, and how hopeful it is that we are going to solve this crisis"; "An Inconvenient Truth is so convincing that it makes opposers of the argument as credible as Holocaust deniers" (Jon Niccum); released along with a film (May 24), which does $24M U.S. and $26M worldwide box office, which is followed by An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power (July 28, 2017), which only grosses $5M worldwide; "I don't think anybody can prepare on a physical level. It isn't possible to prepare for what is about to happen. The Pentagon gives us one to three years left of normal life on this planet. Now you have Al Gore's movie 'An Inconvenient Truth', whom I find very optimistic, as he gives us ten years. But I don't know a single scientist on the planet who gives us ten years or anybody else who gives us that long. What the Pentagon talks about is the rapid changes in climate, making it impossible to live in certain areas. Exactly where those areas are, they don't know" (Drunvalo Melchizedek); the book is followed by the sequel Our Choice (original title: The Path to Survival) (Nov. 2009) - or, drowning polar bears, submerged mainly Dem. Manhattan and San Fran, and why I shoulda been president then grew a beard to save electricity? On May 31, 2006 Jonathan Freeland pub. the article Born again in The Guardian, containing the soundbyte: "Patiently, and surely for the 10,000th time, he [Gore] explains what's going wrong. The atmosphere is like a coat of varnish around the globe, he says. When it's thin, as it should be, heat naturally escapes. But when it gets thicker, thanks to carbon dioxide emitted by us, it traps in the heat and the world gets warmer. 'It's cooking and wilting the most vulnerable parts of the eco-system, melting all the mountain glaciers, the north polar ice cap, parts of Antarctica, parts of Greenland.' That molten ice-water will raise sea-levels, flooding food-producing areas that all of us rely on. Eventually it will submerge whole cities, from San Francisco to Shanghai. The site of the Twin Towers will not be a memorial garden: it will be underwater. 'This could literally end civilisation.' He smiles. 'I know it sounds alarmist, as if this is hyperbole, like a man with a white beard holding a placard, saying the end of the world is near... but this really is a planetary emergency'." In Nov. 2006 Gore founds the Climate Reality Project to collect donations, with the motto: "Together, we are stronger fighting against climate denial"; Gore becomes a millionaire from hawking climate change, going from a net worth of $1.7M in 2000 to $200M in 2017, buying an $8.8M 6.5K sq. ft. seafront ho